Second Battle of Caloocan
The Second Battle of Caloocan, alternately called the Second Battle of Manila, was fought from February 22 to 24, 1899, in Caloocan during the Philippine–American War. The battle featured a Filipino counterattack aimed at gaining Manila from the Americans; this counterattack failed to regain Manila because of lack of coordination among Filipino units and lack of artillery support. The Philippine–American War began on February 4, 1899, with the culmination of the Battle of Manila. On February 10, Filipino forces regrouped in Caloocan and fought again with the American forces at the first Battle of Caloocan; the Americans won both engagements, but Elwell S. Otis had Arthur MacArthur, Jr. wait before attacking Malolos. Noticing that the Americans had halted their offensive to reorganize, the Filipino forces, now under the command of General Antonio Luna, began finalizing their plans to counterattack. Apolinario Mabini, the political philosopher, highlighted the need to prepare to ensure the success of the operation, stating that the battle's outcome would determine the fate of the Philippine Republic.
Luna's headquarters was established in Polo, operations for the counterattack were prepared there. The troops directly under his command were organized into three brigades; the West Brigade was under General Pantaleon Garcia, the Center Brigade was under General Mariano Llanera, the East Brigade was under Colonel Maximino Hizon. The plan envisioned by Luna and his army staff was to effect a union of forces from the north and south of Manila with the sandatahanes or bolomen inside the city; the other forces that were to attack with Luna's troops were the men of General Licerio Gerónimo from the east, the men of Generals Pío del Pilar and Miguel Malvar from the south. Luna requested the battle-hardened Tinio Brigade in Northern Luzon, under the command of Manuel Tinio, it had more than 1,900 soldiers. However, Aguinaldo gave only ambiguous answers; the total Filipino force amounted between 5,000 men. The defending American force had 15,000 to 20,000 men in its suburbs. At 9 pm on February 22, fire broke out at the brothel in Santa Cruz, followed by another in Tondo, Manila.
The fires signaled the beginning of the Filipino counterattack. Around 9 pm, Aguinaldo received a telegram concerning the fire; the local firefighters refused to act, so the Americans used European volunteers, supported by the Provost Guard and the 13th Minnesota, 2nd Oregon, the 23rd Infantry in Tondo, when 500 Filipinos troops occupied the northern part of the city. Panicked refugees fled from the flames in Tondo and as the market in Binondo caught fire after midnight; as a result, it took three hours for the fires to be brought under control. At around 10 pm, armed Filipinos under Colonel Francisco Roman entered Tondo and confronted the surprised American troops. Confusion, did not rest on the American side alone; the Filipinos succumbed to indecision. Colonel Lucio Lucas, under Luna's direct command, had responded after hearing the signal for attack, his objective was to march into the Meisic police station, which the Americans had turned into a barracks. However, en route Lucas' troops were met by a large American contingent at Azcarraga Street.
Thinking of retreat, Lucas had reconsidered the belief that it was better to die fighting than die burning. The houses at their rear were on fire, so he ordered his men to attack the Americans with only daggers in their hands. In the ensuing fight three Filipinos and eight Americans were killed. During the course of the battle, Luna did his best to keep personal participation in the field. At dawn of February 23, the Filipinos opened their attack by firing their cannons against the Americans. Luna managed to secure a Krupp Rifled breech loader to provide artillery support for his men. However, while the advancing Filipinos attempted to break the American line in Caloocan, the Americans were able to coordinate their positions with the USS Monadnock; the ship's twin turrets fired 10-inch shells that set fire to a number of Filipino houses that broke up the Filipino attack, forcing them to fall back to take cover. This setback was made worse by the poor coordination between the regular Filipino army and the sandatahanes.
A lack of ammunition had affected some units, including the troops under Colonel Roman. Garcia's troops had reached the planned points of occupation in Manila, at that point he believed that Manila would soon fly the Filipino flag. At that point, Filipino fortunes wavered. Two companies, totaling about 400 men, of the Pampanga troops under Major Canlas made a rapid advance and placed La Loma under siege; when the Pampanga troops ran out of ammunition, four companies of Kawit troops were ordered to link up with the Pamapanga troops and launch a joint attack on the Americans entrenched in La Loma. The Kawit commander, Captain Janolino, did not obey the order stating that he would only obey orders from President Aguinaldo; as a result, the battle in that sector was lost, this incident was singled out by both Luna and General Ambrosio Flores, Luna's assistant as Director of War, as being the main factor in denying the Filipinos victory that day. By the end of February 23, the Filipinos had managed to secure Sampaloc and Tondo.
The Kawit Battalion under Captain Pedro Janolino had secured Meisic and American troops in Caloocan, numbering around 6,000, were under siege by Filipino troops under Llanera and Garcia. The next day, the Filipinos fought more fiercely than they had the day before; the continued fighting aroused concern amon
Artillery is a class of heavy military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach defensive walls, fortifications during sieges, led to heavy immobile siege engines; as technology improved, more mobile field artillery cannons developed for battlefield use. This development continues today. In its earliest sense, the word artillery referred to any group of soldiers armed with some form of manufactured weapon or armour. Since the introduction of gunpowder and cannon, the word "artillery" has meant cannon, in contemporary usage, it refers to shell-firing guns, howitzers and rocket artillery. In common speech, the word artillery is used to refer to individual devices, along with their accessories and fittings, although these assemblages are more properly called "equipments". However, there is no recognised generic term for a gun, mortar, so forth: the United States uses "artillery piece", but most English-speaking armies use "gun" and "mortar".
The projectiles fired are either "shot" or "shell". "Shell" is a used generic term for a projectile, a component of munitions. By association, artillery may refer to the arm of service that customarily operates such engines. In some armies one arm has operated field, anti-aircraft artillery and anti-tank artillery, in others these have been separate arms and in some nations coastal has been a naval or marine responsibility. In the 20th century technology based target acquisition devices, such as radar, systems, such as sound ranging and flash spotting, emerged to acquire targets for artillery; these are operated by one or more of the artillery arms. The widespread adoption of indirect fire in the early 20th century introduced the need for specialist data for field artillery, notably survey and meteorological, in some armies provision of these are the responsibility of the artillery arm. Artillery originated for use against ground targets—against infantry and other artillery. An early specialist development was coastal artillery for use against enemy ships.
The early 20th century saw the development of a new class of artillery for use against aircraft: anti-aircraft guns. Artillery is arguably the most lethal form of land-based armament employed, has been since at least the early Industrial Revolution; the majority of combat deaths in the Napoleonic Wars, World War I, World War II were caused by artillery. In 1944, Joseph Stalin said in a speech that artillery was "the God of War". Although not called as such, machines performing the role recognizable as artillery have been employed in warfare since antiquity. Historical references show artillery was first employed by the Roman legions at Syracuse in 399 BC; until the introduction of gunpowder into western warfare, artillery was dependent upon mechanical energy which not only limited the kinetic energy of the projectiles, it required the construction of large engines to store sufficient energy. A 1st-century BC Roman catapult launching 6.55 kg stones achieved a kinetic energy of 16,000 joules, compared to a mid-19th-century 12-pounder gun, which fired a 4.1 kg round, with a kinetic energy of 240,000 joules, or a late 20th century US battleship that fired a 1,225 kg projectile from its main battery with an energy level surpassing 350,000,000 joules.
From the Middle Ages through most of the modern era, artillery pieces on land were moved by horse-drawn gun carriages. In the contemporary era, artillery pieces and their crew relied on wheeled or tracked vehicles as transportation; these land versions of artillery were dwarfed by railway guns, which includes the largest super-gun conceived, theoretically capable of putting a satellite into orbit. Artillery used by naval forces has changed with missiles replacing guns in surface warfare. Over the course of military history, projectiles were manufactured from a wide variety of materials, into a wide variety of shapes, using many different methods in which to target structural/defensive works and inflict enemy casualties; the engineering applications for ordnance delivery have changed over time, encompassing some of the most complex and advanced technologies in use today. In some armies, the weapon of artillery is the projectile, not the equipment; the process of delivering fire onto the target is called gunnery.
The actions involved in operating an artillery piece are collectively called "serving the gun" by the "detachment" or gun crew, constituting either direct or indirect artillery fire. The manner in which gunnery crews are employed is called artillery support. At different periods in history this may refer to weapons designed to be fired from ground-, sea-, air-based weapons platforms; the term "gunner" is used in some armed forces for the soldiers and sailors with the primary function of using artillery. The gunners and their guns are grouped in teams called either "crews" or "detachments". Several such crews and teams with other functions are combined into a unit of artillery called a battery, although sometimes called a company. In gun detachments, each role is numbered, starting with "1" the Detachment Commander, the highest number being the Coverer, the second-in-command. "Gunner" is the lowest rank and junior non-commissioned officers are "Bombardiers" in some artillery arms. Batteries are equivalent to a company in the infantry
Henry Ware Lawton
Henry Ware Lawton was a respected U. S. Army officer who served with distinction in the Civil War, the Apache Wars, the Spanish–American War and was the only U. S. general officer to be killed during the Philippine–American War. The city of Lawton, takes its name from General Lawton, as does a borough in the city of Havana, Cuba. Liwasang Bonifacio in downtown Manila was named Plaza Lawton in his honor. Lawton was born on March 1843, in Maumee, Ohio, he was the son of George W. Lawton, a millwright, Catherine, married in December 1836. Henry had George S. and Manley Chapin. In 1843, Lawton's father moved to Indiana, to work on a mill; the family followed him the same year. George went to California in 1850 to build shakers for the gold miners, he returned to Ft. Wayne in 1853 and shortly after, on January 21, 1854, his wife Catherine died, she had been living with family members in or near Birmingham and Sandusky, Ohio during George's absence. According to accounts given by Andrew J. Barney, a resident of the area and family friend, given years Henry attended public school in Florence Twp.
Ohio 1850 to 1854. Mr. Barney married the sister of Henry's mother in 1856 and for a time, Henry lived with the Barney family, with his aunt, Marie Lawton, of Sandusky, he traveled with his father to Iowa and Missouri in 1857, returning to Ft. Wayne in 1858, he enrolled at the Methodist Episcopal College in 1858 and was studying there when the Civil War began. Lawton was among the first to respond to President Lincoln's call for three-month volunteers, he enlisted in Company E of the 9th Indiana Volunteers, was mustered into service on 24 April 1861 as one of the four company sergeants. He saw action at Philippi, Laurel Hill, Corrick's Ford, in what is now West Virginia, he was returned home. Colonel Sion S. Bass was organizing the 30th Indiana Infantry, Lawton re-enlisted; the 30th Indiana Infantry mustered into service on August 20, 1861. Lawton was his company's first sergeant but was promoted to 1st lieutenant on August 20; the 30th joined the Army of the Ohio, under General Don Carlos Buell in Kentucky and remained there for a brief period.
The army moved on to Tennessee early in 1862. Its first major engagement would be at the Battle of Shiloh where Lawton's regiment suffered heavy losses. Lawton had experienced one of the bloodiest battles of the Civil War, his unit fought at Corinth, Mississippi. Lawton's unit fought at Iuka while attached to Buell's forces. At the age of nineteen, on May 7, 1862, outside of Corinth, he was promoted to the rank of captain, he fought at the battles of Stones River and Chickamauga, in all, at over twenty-two major engagements. He received the Medal of Honor years for his bravery at the Atlanta campaign, he was a brevet colonel at the end of the war. After the war, Lawton became a companion of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. After the Civil War he studied at Harvard Law School, graduating in 1866, before returning to the army. Lawton wished for a Captain's commission in the Army, not forthcoming. Generals William Tecumseh Sherman and Philip Sheridan wrote recommendations supporting Lawton's efforts to rejoin the Army.
Sheridan urged Lawton to accept a 2nd lieutenant's commission, which he did and he joined the 41st Infantry Regiment under the command of Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie July 28, 1866. Lawton served for many years under Mackenzie as quartermaster, as close confidant, he developed a reputation as a fierce and determined fighter as well as one of the most organized quartermasters in the service. Lawton served with Mackenzie in most of the major Indian campaigns in the southwest, including the Fourth Cavalry's victory at the Battle of Palo Duro Canyon. While earning a reputation as a fierce and tenacious fighter, Lawton was regarded as having compassion for the Indians. Among those who respected Lawton was Wooden Leg, a Northern Cheyenne, in a group of Cheyenne escorted by Lieutenant Lawton to a southern reservation. Lawton served as an advocate for the Indians on the reservation when he learned that the local Indian agency was short-changing the Indians on their food allotments. On March 20, 1879, Lawton was promoted to the rank of captain in the regular army.
In 1886, he was in command of B Troop, 4th Cavalry, at Ft. Huachuca and was selected by Nelson Miles to lead the expedition that captured Geronimo. Stories abound as to who captured Geronimo, or to whom he surrendered. For Lawton's part, he was given orders to lead actions south of the U. S.-Mexico boundary where it was thought Geronimo and a small band of his followers would take refuge from U. S. authorities. Lawton was to pursue and return Geronimo to the U. S. dead or alive. Lawton's official report dated September 9, 1886, sums up the actions of his unit and gives credit to a number of his troopers for their efforts. At the same time, in his typical fashion, Lawton takes no credit for himself. Geronimo himself gave credit to Lawton's tenacity for wearing the Apaches down with constant pursuit. Geronimo and his followers had little or no time to stay in one place. Worn out, the little band of Apaches returned to the U. S. with Lawton and surrendered to General Nelson A. Miles on September 4, 1886.
While the debate over the person to whom Geronimo surrendered goes on, it should be remembered that Native Americans rarely'surrendered' to junior officers. They surrendered to higher. At various times after the campaign, Lawton was questioned by friends about the campaign, he remained tightlipped and stated that his unit simp
Battle of Quingua
The Battle of Quingua was fought on April 23, 1899, in Quingua — now Plaridel, Philippines, during the Philippine–American War. The engagement was a two-part battle that started general Elwell S. Otis' Bulacan and Pampanga offensive a day early; the first phase was a brief victory for the young Filipino general Gregorio del Pilar when he stopped the advance of the American Cavalry led by Major J. Franklin Bell. In the second phase of the battle, Bell was reinforced by the 1st Nebraskan Infantry, who routed the Filipinos, but not before they repelled a cavalry charge that killed Colonel John M. Stotsenburg; the battle began when US Major Bell with the 4th Cavalry, while on a reconnaissance mission, came upon a strong Filipino position led by Colonel Pablo Tecson, a Revolutionary officer from San Miguel, Bulacan, under command of General Gregorio del Pilar. The Filipinos laid down heavy fire. After a short firefight, Bell recognized his position was badly exposed to the opposition, as a result his force risked defeat.
Bell sent for reinforcements, the 1st Nebraskans came to his aid under Colonel John M. Stotsenburg, while Irving Hale sent companies from the 51st Iowa as well as artillery from the Utah Battery. Once he arrived on the field, Stotsenburg led the Nebraskan Infantry, with a dozen or so Cavalrymen— in a charge on the enemy's position; the Filipinos opened fire. Stotsenberg was one of the first to fall, a bullet to the heart. Several of the Cavalrymen's mounts were slain; the Filipino soldiers sustained the heavy fire. The Nebraskans, only 200 in number, continued advancing under fire by the Filipino riflemen. Despite the accuracy and intensity of the riflemen's fire, the Nebraskan line continued to advance; the two forces clashed in close combat, but after an exhaustive battle, the Filipinos retreated. During the fight, Hale's brigade lost 44 men were wounded. Monument Tourism South Dakota's Participation in the Spanish–American War Eager, Frank D. Lt. Col. History of Operations of the First Nebraska Infantry in the Campaign in the Philippine Islands.
N.p. 1912. Pp-30-32 Pandia, Ralli "Campaigning in the Philippines, Part 1", Overland Monthly, page images at Making of America, University of Michigan Prentiss, A. ed. The History of the Utah Volunteers in the Spanish–American War and in the Philippine Islands. Salt Lake City, UT: W. F. Ford, Publisher. 1900. Pp-299-303 The Abridgment. Message from the President of the United States to the Two Houses of Congress at the Beginning of the First Session of the Fifty-sixth Congress with the Reports of the Heads of Departments and Selections from Accompanying Reports. 2 vols. Washington, D. C.: GPO, 1899-1900. Pp-2:972-73 War Department, Adjutant General’s Office. Correspondence relating to the War with Spain and Conditions Growing Out of the Same, Including the Insurrection in the Philippine Islands and the China relief Expedition, Between the Adjutant-General of the Army and Military Commanders in the United States, Porto Rico and the Philippine Islands, From April 15, 1898, to July 30, 1902, 2 vols. Washington, D.
C.: GPO, 1902. C.: Center of Military History United States Army, 1993. P-972 Memories of Two Wars: Cuban and Philippine Experiences, Frederick Funston. New York: C. Scribner's Publisher. 1911. P-268 Remembering my Lolo, Simon Ocampo Tecson: Leader in the Siege of Baler, Luis Zamora Tecson. Baliwag, Bulacan: MSV Printers & Publishing, Inc. 2011. Pp-105-107, 197
Battle of Manila (1899)
The Battle of Manila, the first and largest battle of the Philippine–American War, was fought on February 4–5, 1899, between 19,000 American soldiers and 15,000 Filipino armed militiamen. Armed conflict broke out when American troops, under orders to turn away insurgents from their encampment, fired upon an encroaching group of Filipinos. Philippine President Emilio Aguinaldo attempted to broker a ceasefire, but American General Elwell Stephen Otis rejected it and fighting escalated the next day, it ended in an American victory. After the surrender of Manila to American forces by the Spanish in 1898, General Aguinaldo demanded occupation of a line of blockhouses on the Zapote Line, the Spanish defensive perimeter. General Otis refused this, but said that he would not object unless overruled by higher authority, it was estimated at the time that there were about 20,000 Filipino troops surrounding Manila, with their distribution and exact composition only known. U. S. Army forces numbered 20,000 enlisted men.
Of these, some 8,000 were deployed in 11,000 in a defensive line inside the Zapote line. The remaining American troops were in transports off Iloilo. Sources agree that the first shots were fired by Private William Walter Grayson, an Englishman who had migrated to America c. 1890, had enlisted as a volunteer soldier in Lincoln, Nebraska, in May 1898, a month after the Spanish–American War erupted, had deployed with his unit to the Philippines in June 1898. Grayson's unit, the First Nebraska Volunteer Infantry under Colonel John M. Stotsenburg, had been encamped in Santa Mesa, since December 5, 1898. During the time of their encampment, there had been incidents on and around the San Juan Bridge, located just to the east of their encampment area. On the morning of February 4, Stotsenburg said, "Your orders are to hold the village. If any armed men come into our lines order them out. If they persist in coming, summon enough men to arrest them. In case an advance in force is made, fall back to the pipeline outpost and resist occupation of the village by all means in your power, calling on these headquarters for assistance."
In a report that day, Lt. Burt D. Wheedon wrote, "On the morning of February 4 the insurgents ordered our men to move out of town, upon their refusal to do so the former said that they would bring a body of men and drive them back when night came." Lt. Wheedon took charge of an outpost on Santol road at seven in the evening and, at 7:30, orders were given saying, "No armed insurgents to enter the town or vicinity... Halt all armed persons who attempted to advance from the direction of the insurgents' lines which lie between blockhouses 6 and 7 and the San Juan Bridge and order them back to their lines. If they refused to go, to arrest them if possible, or if this was impossible, to fire upon them... Patrol each of the roads leading to Blockhouses 6 and 7 for 100 yards every half hour.". At about 8 pm on February 4, 1899, along with Private Orville Miller and one other man advanced from Santol towards Blockhouse 7 encountering four armed men after about five minutes of patrolling. According to Grayson's account, he and Miller called "Halt!" and, when the four men responded by cocking their rifles, they fired at them and retreated to Santol.
Personal accounts by Grayson claim that he "dropped" two and Miller one, but neither American nor Filipino official reports mention anyone being hit. Some sources assert. A marker which had stood on that site was ordered moved to Santa Mesa in 2003 by Ambeth Ocampo chairman of the National Historical Commission of the Philippines, after research by Dr. Benito Legarda concluded that the shot was fired somewhere between Blockhouse 7 and Barrio Santol on the connecting road, now Sociego. Aguinaldo was away in Malolos; that same night, a Filipino captain in Manila wired him in Malolos, stating that the Americans had started the hostilities. Aguinaldo wanted to avoid open conflict with the Americans while maintaining his position of leadership with his nationalist followers; the next day Aguinaldo sent an emissary to General Otis to mediate, saying "the firing on our side the night before had been against my order."Otis, confident that a military campaign against Aguinaldo would be swift, was a veteran of the American Indian Wars and reacted much as he might have to his Sioux opponents decades before: "Fighting having begun, must go on to the grim end."Aguinaldo reassured his followers with a pledge to fight if forced by the Americans, whom he had come to fear as new oppressors come to replace the Spanish.
"It is my duty to maintain the integrity of our national honor, that of the army so unjustly attacked by those, who posing as our friends, attempt to dominate us in place of the Spaniards. "Therefore, for the defense of the nation entrusted to me, I hereby order and command: Peace and friendly relations between the Philippine Republic and the American army of occupation are broken—and the latter will be treated as enemies with the limits prescribed by the laws of War." Caught off guard by the sudden outburst, the Filipinos remained in their trenches and exchanged fire with the Americans. A Filipino battalion mounted a charge against the 3rd U. S. Artillery, routed a company of American soldiers, succeed
The Moro Rebellion was an armed conflict between the Moro people and the United States military during the Philippine-American War. The word "Moro" is a term for Muslim people who lived in the Southern Philippines, an area that includes Mindanao and the neighboring Sulu Archipelago; the Moros have a 400-year history of resisting foreign rule. The violent armed struggle against the Filipinos, Americans and Spanish is considered by current Moro leaders as part of the four centuries-long "national liberation movement" of the Bangsamoro; the 400-year-long resistance against the Japanese and Spanish by the Moros persisted and developed into their current war for independence against the Philippine state. A "culture of jihad" emerged among the Moros due to the centuries-long war against the Spanish invaders; the United States claimed the territories of the Philippines after the Spanish–American War. The ethnic Moro population of the southern Philippines resisted both Spanish and United States colonization.
The Spaniards were restricted to a handful of coastal garrisons or Forts and they made occasional punitive expeditions into the vast interior regions. After a series of unsuccessful attempts during the centuries of Spanish rule in the Philippines, Spanish forces occupied the abandoned city of Jolo, the seat of the Sultan of Sulu, in 1876; the Spaniards and the Sultan of Sulu signed the Spanish Treaty of Peace on July 22, 1878. Control of the Sulu archipelago outside of the Spanish garrisons was handed to the Sultan; the treaty had translation errors: According to the Spanish-language version, Spain had complete sovereignty over the Sulu archipelago, while the Tausug version described a protectorate instead of an outright dependency. Despite the nominal claim to the Moro territories, Spain ceded them to the United States in the Treaty of Paris which signaled the end of the Spanish–American War. Following the American occupation of the Northern Philippines during 1899, Spanish forces in the Southern Philippines were abolished, they retreated to the garrisons at Zamboanga and Jolo.
American forces took control over the Spanish government in Jolo on May 18, 1899, at Zamboanga in December 1899. The Moros resisted the new American colonizers; the Spanish and Philippine governments have all been fought against by the Muslims of Sulu and Mindanao. John Hay, the American Secretary of State, asked the ambassador to Ottoman Empire, Oscar Straus in 1899 to approach Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II to request that the Sultan write a letter to the Moro Sulu Muslims of the Sulu Sultanate in the Philippines telling them to submit to American suzerainty and American military rule. Despite the sultan's "pan-Islamic" ideology, he aided the American forces because he felt no need to cause hostilities between the West and Muslims. Abdul Hamid wrote the letter, sent to Mecca where two Sulu chiefs brought it home to Sulu, it was successful, the "Sulu Mohammedans... refused to join the insurrectionists and had placed themselves under the control of army, thereby recognizing American sovereignty."
John P. Finley wrote that:After due consideration of these facts, the Sultan, as Caliph caused a message to be sent to the Mohammedans of the Philippine Islands forbidding them to enter into any hostilities against the Americans, inasmuch as no interference with their religion would be allowed under American rule; as the Moros have never asked more than that, it is not surprising, that they refused all overtures made, by Aguinaldo's agents, at the time of the Filipino insurrection. President McKinley sent a personal letter of thanks to Mr. Straus for the excellent work he had done, said, its accomplishment had saved the United States at least twenty thousand troops in the field. If the reader will pause to consider what this means in men and the millions in money, he will appreciate this wonderful piece of diplomacy, in averting a holy war. President McKinley did not mention the Ottoman Empire's role in the pacification of the Sulu Moros in his address to the first session of the Fifty-sixth Congress in December 1899 since the agreement with the Sultan of Sulu was not submitted to the Senate until December 18.
After the American government informed the Moros that they would continue the old protectorate relationship that they had with Spain, the Moro Sulu Sultan rejected this and demanded that a new treaty be negotiated. The United States signed the Kiram-Bates Treaty with the Moro Sulu Sultanate which guaranteed the Sultanate's autonomy in its internal affairs and governance, including article X that guaranteed preservation of slavery, while America dealt with its foreign relations, in order to keep the Moros out of the Philippine–American War. Once the Americans subdued the northern Filipinos, the Bates Treaty with the Moros was adjusted by the Americans through removal of article X and they invaded Moroland. After the war in 1915, the Americans imposed the Carpenter Treaty on Sulu. First Republic forces in the southern Philippines were commanded by General Nicolas Capistrano, American forces conducted an expedition against him in the winter of 1900–1901. On March 27, 1901, Capistrano surrendered.
A few days General Emilio Aguinaldo was captured in Luzon. This major victory in the war in the north allowed the Americans to devote more resources to the south, they began to push into the interior of Bangsamoro. On August 31, 1901, Brig. Gen. George Whitefield Davis replaced Kobbe as the commander of the Department of Mindanao-Jolo. Davis adopted a conciliatory policy towards the Moros. American forces under his command had standing orders to buy Moro produce when possible and to have "heralds of amity" precede all scouting exp
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti