Nizam of Hyderabad
The Nizam of Hyderabad was a monarch of the Hyderabad State, now divided into Telangana state, Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka and Marathwada region of Maharashtra. Nizam, shortened from Nizam-ul-Mulk, meaning Administrator of the Realm, the title of the rulers of Hyderabad State, was the premier Prince of India, since 1724, belonging to the Asaf Jahi dynasty; the Asaf Jahi dynasty was founded by Mir Qamar-ud-Din Siddiqi, a viceroy of the Deccan under the Mughal Empire from 1713 to 1721. He intermittently governed the region after Aurangzeb's death in 1707. In 1724, Mughal control weakened, Asaf Jah became independent of them; when the British achieved paramountcy over India, the Nizams were allowed to continue to rule their princely states as client kings. The Nizams retained internal power over Hyderabad State until the 17 September 1948 when Hyderabad was integrated into the new Indian Union; the Asaf Jah dynasty had only seven rulers. They were never recognised as rulers; the seventh and last Nizam was Mir Osman Ali Khan, who fell from power when Hyderabad was annexed by India in 1948.
By the time of its annexation, Hyderabad was the largest and most prosperous one among all the princely states. It covered 82,698 square miles of homogeneous territory and had a population of 16.34 million people, of which a majority was Hindu. Hyderabad State had its own army, telecommunication system, railway network, postal system and radio broadcasting service. Hindus were under-represented in government and the military. Of 1765 officers in the State Army, 1268 were Muslims, 421 were Hindus, 121 others were Christians and Sikhs. Of the upper level government officials, 59 were Muslims, 5 were Hindus and 38 were of other religions; the Nizam and his nobles, who were Muslims, owned 40% of the total land in the state. All kotwals, police commissioners, were Muslims; the name Nizam spelled as Nezam, comes from Urdu /nɪˈzɑːm/, which itself is derived from the ancient Arabic language niẓām which means "order" or "arrangement". Nizām-ul-mulk was a title first used in Urdu around 1600 to mean Governor of the realm or Deputy for the whole Empire.
The word is derived from the Arabic language, as in Abu Ali Hasan ibn Ali Tusi, better known by his honorific title of Nizam al-Mulk. According to Sir Roper Lethbridge in "The Golden Book of India"—, the Nizams are lineally descended from the First Caliph Abu Bakr, the successor of the Prophet Muhammed; the family of Nizams in India is descended from Abid Khan, a Turkoman from Samarkand, whose lineage is traced to Sufi Shihab-ud-Din Suhrawardi of Central Asia. In the early 1650s, on his way to hajj, Abid Khan stopped in Deccan, where the young prince Aurangzeb Governor of Deccan, cultivated him. Abid Khan returned to the service of Aurangzeb to fight in the succession wars of 1657–58. After Aurangzeb's enthronement, Abid Khan was richly rewarded and became Aurangzeb's favourite nobleman, his son Ghazi Uddin Khan received in marriage, Safiya Khanum, the daughter of the former imperial prime minister Sa‘dullah Khan. Mir Qamaruddin Khan, the founder of the line of Nizams, was born of the couple, thus descending from two prominent families of the Mughal court.
Ghazi Uddin Khan rose to become a General of the Emperor Aurangzeb and played a vital role in conquering Bijapur and Golconda Sultanates of Southern India in 1686. He played a key role in thwarting the rebellion by Prince Akbar and alleged rebellion by Prince Mu`azzam.. After Aurangzeb's death and during the war of succession and his father remained neutral thus escaping the risk of being on the losing side, their successor Farrukhsiyar appointed Qamaruddin the governor of Deccan in 1713, awarding him the title Nizam-ul-Mulk. However, the governorship was taken away two years and Qamaruddin withdrew to his estate in Moradabad. Under the next emperor, Muhammad Shah, Qamaruddin accepted the governorship of Deccan for the second time in 1721; the next year, following the death of his uncle Muhammad Amin Khan, a power-broker in the Mughal Court, Qamaruddin returned to the Delhi and was made the wazir. According to historian Faruqui, his tenure as prime minister was undermined by his opponents and a rebellion in Deccan was engineered against him.
In 1724, the Nizam returned to Deccan to reclaim his base, in the process making a transition to a semi-independent ruler. In 1724, Asif Jah I defeated Mubariz Khan to establish autonomy over the Deccan Suba, named the region Hyderabad Deccan, started what came to be known as the Asaf Jahi dynasty. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were referred to as Asif Jahi Nizams, or Nizams of Hyderabad. Nizam I never formally declared independence from the Mughals. In Friday prayers, the sermon would be conducted in the name of Aurangzeb, this tradition would continue until the end of Hyderabad State in 1948; the death of Asif Jah I in 1748 resulted in a period of political unrest as his sons, backed by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces, contended for the throne. The accession of Asif Jah II, who reigned
Pune called Poona, is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai. It is the ninth most populous city in the country with an estimated population of 3.13 million. Along with its Industrial Estate Pimpri Chinchwad and the three cantonment towns of Pune and Dehu Road, Pune forms the urban core of the eponymous Pune Metropolitan Region. According to the 2011 census, the urban area has a combined population of 5.05 million while the population of the metropolitan region is estimated at 7.27 million. Situated 560 metres above sea level on the Deccan plateau on the right bank of the Mutha river, Pune is the administrative headquarters of its namesake district. In the 18th century, the city was the seat of the Peshwas, the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire and so was one of the most important political centres on the Indian subcontinent. Pune is ranked the number one city in India in the ease of living ranking index; the city is considered to be the cultural capital of Maharashtra.
It is known as the "Oxford of the East" due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions. The city has emerged as a major educational hub in recent decades, with nearly half of the total international students in the country studying in Pune. Research institutes of information technology, education and training attract students and professionals from India and overseas. Several colleges in Pune have student-exchange programmes with colleges in Europe. Pune is an important centre for civil services training; the earliest reference to Pune is an inscription on a Rashtrakuta Dynasty copper plate dated 937 CE, which refers to the town as Punya-Vishaya, meaning "sacred news". By the 13th century, it had come to be known as Punawadi. Copper plates dated 858 and 868 CE show that by the 9th century an agricultural settlement known as Punnaka existed at the location of the modern Pune; the plates indicate. The Pataleshwar rock-cut temple complex was built during this era. Pune was part of the territory ruled by the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri from the 9th century to 1327.
Pune was part of the Jagir granted to Maloji Bhosale in 1599 for his services to the Nizamshahi. Pune was ruled by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate. Maloji Bhosale's grandson, the founder of the Maratha Empire, was born at Shivneri, a fort not far from Pune. Pune changed hands several times between the Mughals and the Marathas in the period 1660 to 1705. After the destruction of the town in raids by the Adil Shahi dynasty in 1630 and again between 1636 and 1647, Dadoji Konddeo, the successor to Dhadphale, oversaw the reconstruction of the town, he stabilised the revenue collection and administrative systems of the areas around Pune and the neighbouring Maval region. He developed effective methods to manage disputes and to enforce law and order; the Lal Mahal was commissioned in 1631 and construction was completed in 1640 AD. Shivaji spent his young years at the Lal Mahal, his mother, Jijabai is said to have commissioned the building of the Kasba Ganapati temple. The Ganesha idol consecrated at this temple has been regarded as the presiding deity of the city.
From 1703 to 1705, towards the end of the 27-year-long Mughal–Maratha Wars, the town was occupied by Aurangzeb and its name was changed to Muhiyabad. Two years the Marathas recaptured Sinhagad fort, Pune, from the Mughals. In 1720, Baji Rao I was appointed Peshwa of the Maratha Empire by Chhatrapati Shahu, he moved his base from Saswad to Pune in 1728, marking the beginning of the transformation of what was a kasbah into a large city. He commissioned the construction of the Shaniwar Wada on the right bank of the Mutha River; the construction was completed in 1730. Bajirao's son and successor, Nanasaheb constructed a lake at Katraj on the outskirts of the city and an underground aqueduct to bring water from the lake to Shaniwar Wada and the city; the aqueduct was still in working order in 2004. The patronage of the Maratha Peshwas resulted in a great expansion of Pune, with the construction of around 250 temples and bridges in the city, including the Lakdi Pul and the temples on Parvati Hill and many Maruti, Vishnu, Rama and Ganesh temples.
The building of temples led to religion being responsible for about 15% of the city's economy during this period. Pune prospered as a city during the reign of Nanasaheb Peshwa, he developed Saras Baug, Heera Baug, Parvati Hill and new commercial and residential localities. Sadashiv Peth, Narayan Peth, Rasta Peth and Nana Peth were developed; the Peshwa's influence in India declined after the defeat of Maratha forces at the Battle of Panipat but Pune remained the seat of power. In 1802 Pune was captured by Yashwantrao Holkar in the Battle of Pune, directly precipitating the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803–1805; the Peshwa rule ended with the defeat of Peshwa Bajirao II by the British East India Company in 1818. The Third Anglo-Maratha War broke out between the Marathas and the British East India Company in 1817; the Peshwas were defeated at the Battle of Khadki on 5 November near Pune and the city was seized by the British. It was placed under the administration of the Bombay Presidency and the British built a large military cantonment to the east of the city.
The Southern Command of the Indian Army was established in 1895 and has its headquarters in Pune cantonment. The city was known as Poona during British rule. Poona Municipality was established in 1858. A rai
Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj was the fifth Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire created by his grandfather, Shivaji Maharaj. He was Shivaji's eldest son and successor. Shahu, as a child, was taken prisoner along with his mother in 1689 by Mughal sardar, Zulfikar Khan Nusrat Jang After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, leading Mughal courtiers released Shahu with a force of fifty men, thinking that a friendly Maratha leader would be a useful ally. At that time he fought a brief war with his aunt Tarabai in an internecine conflict to gain the Maratha throne in 1707; the battle is known as Battle of Khed, On 12th of October 1707 Supreme commander of Maratha forces Dhanaji Jadhav joined Shahuji in that battle. Tarabai along with her son Shivaji 2 left for Panhala fort and Finally Shahuji captured Satara and became the emperor of Marathas with the capital at Satara, he crowned himself as the Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire on 12th January 1708. Meanwhile Tarabai set up a new court at Kolhapur with her son Shivaji II as the Emperor.
Under Shahu's reign, Maratha power and influence extended to all corners of the Indian subcontinent. He was a powerful ruler of Maratha Samrajya after his grandfather father Sambhaji; however after his death, power moved from the ruling chhatrapati to his ministers and the generals who had carved out their own fiefdoms such as Bhonsle of Nagpur, Gaekwad of Baroda, Scindia of Gwalior and Holkar of Indore. He remained the most famous ruler expanding the territories of Maratha empire Chhatrapati Shahu's Seal। श्री वर्धिष्णुर्विक्रमे विष्णोः। सा मूर्तिरिव वामनी । । शंभूसुतोरिव । मुद्रा शिवराजस्य राजते ।। Early in his reign, Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj appointed Bahiroji Pingale as the Peshwa and Dhanaji Jadhav as the Sar Senapati. Bahiroji Pingale was taken as prisoner by Kanhoji Angre in 1711. In 1713 Shahu Maharaj appointed Balaji Vishwanath as his Peshwa and other 7 ministers as Ashtapradhan Mandal. Over the next few years, Under the directions and orders of Chhatrapati Shahu, Balaji followed by his son, Bajirao I and grandson Balaji Bajirao with help of capable military leaders such as Shinde, Gaekwad and Bhonsle of Nagpur expanded Maratha power in all directions of the Indian subcontinent..
Shahu fathered four daughters. He adopted two sons, Fatehsinh I and Rajaram II of Satara. Rajaram II had been brought to him by Shahu's paternal aunt, who claimed that the young man was her grandson and a descendant of Shivaji, but disowned him as an imposter. After Shahu's death the powers were indirectly shifted to the Peshwa Balaji Bajirao and other ministers with Shrimant Rajaram 2 as the Chhatrapati of the Kingdom Shahu died in 1749, his adopted son Rajaram II of Satara succeeded him. Rajaram 2 was a powerful ruler but Tarabai tried to control his decisions, This led to a conflict between Tararani Sarkar and Rajaram 2, She told that Rajaram was just a imposter and so the actual power of Chhatrapati declined but still he continued to be the Chhatrapati and Chhatrapati enjoyed a lot of respect and ransom from the ministers as they were the real kings of the Maratha Empire, but the actual power was held by others: first by Tarabai and by Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao. Moreover the Peshwas lost their power and other independent kings started exercising real control.
Satara district Mehta, Jaswant Lal. Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707-1813. Sterling Publishers. Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 2, p. 441. Kasar, D. B. Rigveda to Raigarh making of Shivaji the great, Mumbai: Manudevi Prakashan, Rs. 165. Akkalkot, Solapur district gazette
Balaji Vishwanath, better known as Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath, was the sixth Peshwa and the first of a series of hereditary Peshwas hailing from the Chitpavan Kokanastha Brahmin Hindu family who gained effective control of the Maratha Empire during the 18th century. Balaji Vishwanath assisted a young Maratha Emperor Shahu to consolidate his grip on a kingdom, racked by civil war and persistent attack by the Mughals under Aurangzeb, his son Bajirao became the peshwa. Balaji Vishwanath was born into a Konkanastha Brahmin family; the family hailed from the coastal Konkan region of present-day Maharashtra and were the hereditary Deshmukh for Shrivardhan under the Siddi of Janjira. He went out in search of employment to the upper regions of western ghats and worked as a mercenary trooper under various Maratha generals. According to Kincaid & Parasnis, Balaji Vishwanath entered the Maratha administration during the reign of Chhatrapati Sambhaji or the regency of his brother, Rajaram, he served as an accountant for the Maratha general, Dhanaji Jadhav, at Janjira.
Between 1699 and 1702, he served as the Sar-subhedar or head-administrator at Pune and from 1704 to 1707 as Sarsubedar of Daulatabad. By the time Dhanaji died, Balaji had proven himself as an able officer. Balaji fell out with Dhanaji's son and successor, Chandrarao Jadhav and went over to the newly released Maratha ruler Chhatrapati Shahu who took note of his abilities and appointed Balaji as his assistant. Since the death of Chhatrapati Shivaji, his two sons Sambhaji and Rajaram continued the Maratha war against the Mughal Empire. Emperor Aurangzeb entered the Deccan in 1686. Aurangzeb spent the next 21 years in the Deccan in ceaseless warfare against the Marathas. Despite the cruel executions of Sambhaji and early death of Rajaram, Rajaram's widow Tarabai continued the resistance while Sambhaji's son Shahu was captured at a young age and held captive of the Mughals. Aurangzeb died at Ahmednagar in 1707 at the age of eighty-eight, with the Mughal armies exhausted and the treasury empty; the ensuing war of succession in the Mughal Empire resulted in accession of the aged Prince Mu'azzam, who ascended the Mughal throne under the title of Bahadur Shah In the intrigues following the death of Aurangzeb, the Mughal governor of the Deccan released Shahu from captivity, hoping to keep the Marathas locked in an internecine struggle between the partisans of Shahu, Tarabai, the widow of Rajaram who governed in the name of her son Shivaji and denounced Shahu as an impostor substituted by the Mughals for the son of Sambhaji.
Tarabai sent the Maratha senapati Dhanaji Jadhav to attack Shahu. Balaji Vishwanath was despatched by Dhanaji Jadhav to meet secretly with Shahu and verify his bona fides. Balaji is believed to have persuaded his master to support the cause of Shahu. Dhanaji's forces met Shahu's at Khed, in Pune District. Instead of attacking Shahu, Dhanaji Jadhav declared him to be the rightful successor to the Maratha throne. Dhanaji's confidence in Balaji Vishwanath, aroused the jealousy of his son and successor, Chandrasen Jadhav. After death of Dhanaji Jadhav in June 1708, Shahu appointed Dhanaji's son Chandrasen Jadhav as Senapati, but the rivalry between Chandrasen and Balaji led the former to intrigue with Tarabai, while seeking an opportunity to eliminate Balaji. A dispute over the conduct of a junior officer in Balaji's employ led Chandrasen to attack Balaji, who fled to the fortress of Purandar. Chandrasen besieged Purandar whereupon Balaji fled again to Pandavgad whence he sent an emissary to plead for help from his sovereign.
Shahu had Balaji Vishwanath brought under escort to his capital Satara and asked Chandrasen to make the case against Balaji Vishwanath before him. Instead of obeying Shahu Chandrasen defected to the cause of Tarabai in April 1711. Haibatrao Nimbalkar, who Shahu had dispatched against Chandrasen defected to Tarabai, Shahu's fortunes were an at their lowest. Bereft of his experienced generals, Shahu turned to Balaji Vishwanath, who undertook to raise a new army in the cause of Shahu. For his efforts, Shahu He bestowed Balaji with the title of Senakarte or Organiser of Maratha armies. Balaji "next turned against Tarabai her own armoury of intrigue"; the fall of Tarabai at Kolhapur in 1712 was the outcome of a conspiracy hatched by Balaji Vishwanath in connivance with the disgruntled elements of Tarabai's court. Balaji Vishwanath induced Rajaram's other widow, Rajasbai to conduct a coup against Shivaji II, the son of Tarabai and install her own son, Sambhaji II, on the throne of Kolhapur; this brought the ruling house of Kolhapur under subordination of Shahu at that time.
Next Shahu turned to subdue the Angres. Tukoji Angre had commanded Chattrapati Shivaji's navy and was succeeded in 1690 by his son Kanhoji Angre. Kanhoji received from Tarabai Koli Admiral of the Maratha fleet. Kanhoji seized the opportunity of war between Tarabai and Shahu to free himself of the suzerainty of either. Instead, he captured the major trading center of Kalyan and the neighboring forts of Rajmachi and Lohgad. Shahu sent a large force under Chief Minister, Bahiroji Pingale. Kanhoji defeated Pingle and imprisoned him at Lohagad, started to advance towards Shahu's capital Satara. Shahu commanded Balaji again to raise another army to subdue Kanhoji. Balaji preferred the path of negotiation and was appointed as Shahu's plenipotentiary to negotiate with the admiral. Balaji and Kanhoji met at Lonavala; the newly appointed Peshwa appealed to the old sailor's patriotism for the Maratha cause. Angre agreed to become the Sarkhel of Shahu's navy with control of the
A Peshwa was the equivalent of a modern Prime Minister in the Maratha Empire of the Indian subcontinent. The Peshwas served as subordinates to the Chhatrapati, but they became the de facto leaders of the Marathas, the Chatrapati was reduced to a nominal ruler. During the last years of the Maratha Empire, the Peshwas themselves were reduced to titular leaders, remained under the authority of the Maratha nobles and the British East India Company. All the Peshwas during the rule of Chhatrapati Shivaji and Sambhaji belonged to Deshastha Brahmin community The first Peshwa was Moropant Pingle, appointed as the head of the Ashta Pradhan by Chhatrapati Shivaji, the founder of the Maratha Empire; the initial Peshwas were all ministers. The Peshwas held the highest administrative office and controlled the Maratha confederacy. Under the Chitpavan Brahmin Bhat family, the Peshwas became the de facto hereditary administrators of the Confederacy; the Peshwa's office was most powerful under Baji Rao I. Under Peshwa administration and with the support of several key generals and diplomats, the Maratha Empire reached its zenith, ruling major areas of India.
However, after the Peshwa Raghunathrao allied himself with the British, the Peshwa's power declined substantially. The subsequent Peshwas were titular leaders and are said to be responsible for the downfall of the Maratha empire, due to inefficiency in handling the affairs of the state. On many provinces were controlled and administered either by the Maratha nobles such as Daulat Rao Sindhia or by the East India Company. During this period, the Maratha confederacy came to its end through its formal annexation into the British Empire in 1818; the word Peshwa is from Persian پیشوا pēshwā, meaning "foremost, leader". After the coronation of Shivaji in 1674, he appointed Moropant Trimbak Pingle as the first Peshwa. Shivaji renamed this designation as Pantpradhan in 1674 but this term was less used. Moropant Trimbak Pingale's son, Nilopant Moreshvar Pingale, succeeded him during Sambhaji's rule after Moropant's s death in 1683; the third Peshwa, Ramchandra Amatya, received royal status from Chhatrapati Rajaram as "Hukumatpanha" from 1689 to 1699.
He was a sound administrator who rose from the level of a local Kulkarni to the ranks of Ashta Pradhan due to guidance and support from Shivaji. Amatya is a Sanskrit term denoting counselor, supervisor or overseer of both personal and governmental affairs, he recaptured many forts from the Mughals between 1690 and 1694, some in person, as well as conducting guerilla war techniques. When Chhatrapati Rajaram fled to Jinji in 1689, before leaving from Maharashtra, he gave "Hukumat panha" to Pant. Ramchandra Pant managed the entire state under many challenges such as the Mughal influx, the betrayal of Vatandars, scarcity of food. With his help, Sachiv kept the Maratha State on a sound economic footing. Pant got tremendous military help from Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav, the great Maratha Generals. Many times he directly participated in battles during 1689–1695. In 1698, he stepped down from the post of "Hukumatpanha" and Rajaram offered this post to his wife Tarabai. Tarabai gave an important position to Pant in the administration of Maratha State.
He wrote a book called Adnyapatra, which explained different techniques of war, maintenance of forts and administration etc. The concepts in Adnyapatra and the wisdom and leadership of Tarabai helped the Maratha empire in building the foundation of the state; as he was more loyal to Tarabai than Shahu, he was sidelined after the arrival of Chhatrapati Shahu. The Peshwa post was given to Balaji Vishwanath in 1713. Ramchandra Pant died in 1716 at Panhala fort. Parshuram Trimbak Kulkarni was born in a Deshastha Brahmin family and held the post of Pantpratinidhi. On, he became the Jagirdar of Aundh State and Vishalgad, he was instrumental in holding the fort Panhala against Aurangzeb. Though he lost the fort he recaptured it in 1692, he captured territories between Miraj and fort Rangana and Bhudargad, Pavangad and Vasantgad. He continued his loyalty towards Tarabai much to the chagrin of Shahu. Shahu imprisoned him twice between 1710-14. 14. But his life was spared by Shahu because of the intervention of Khando Ballal who reminded his king of Parshuram Trimbak's contribution to the Maratha cause.
Parshuram Trimbak continued holding the position of Pant Pratinidhi in the time of Tarabai until his death in 1718. He had composed poems praising her might, he was succeeded by his son Shrinivasrao, aka Shripatrao Pant Pratinidhi, who continued albeit as the feudatory ruler of Aundh State. The Maratha war of succession between Tara Bai and Shahu resulted in latter's victory and assumption of Maratha throne as Chhatrapati. In 1713, Shahu appointed Balaji Vishwanath, as Peshwa; the appointment of Balaji's son, Baji Rao I, as Peshwa in 1719 by Shahu made the position hereditary in the Bhat family. Baji Rao proved his loyalty and patriotism by controlling the feudal chieftains who wanted independence from the Maratha Empire; the rebellion of General Trimbak Rao Dabhade, the senapati, over Chauthai of Gujarat is one example of such internal Maratha feuds. The followers of Baji and Trimbak clashed at the Battle of
Abu'l Muzaffar Muin ud-din Muhammad Shah Farrukh-siyar Alim Akbar Sani Wala Shan Padshah-i-bahr-u-bar Ahmed amin abbas khan rahim shah, or Farrukhsiyar, was the Mughal emperor from 1713 to 1719 after he murdered Jahandar Shah. A handsome man, swayed by his advisers, he lacked the ability and character to rule independently. Farrukhsiyar was the son of Sahiba Nizwan, his reign saw the primacy of the Sayyid brothers, who became the effective power behind the facade of Mughal rule. Farrukhsiyar's frequent plotting led the brothers to depose him. Muhammad Farrukhsiyar was born on 20 August 1685 in the city of Aurangabad on the Deccan plateau, he was the second son of Azim-ush-Shan. In 1696, Farrukhsiyar accompanied his father on his campaign to Bengal. Mughal emperor Aurangzeb recalled his grandson, Azim-ush-Shan, from Bengal in 1707 and instructed Farrukhsiyar to take charge of the province. Farrukhsiyar spent his early years in the capital city of Dhaka. In 1712 Azim-ush-Shan anticipated Bahadur Shah I's death and a struggle for power, recalled Farrukhsiyar.
He was marching past Azimabad. On 21 March Farrukhsiyar proclaimed his father's accession to the throne, issued coinage in his name and ordered khutba. On 6 April, he learned of his father's defeat. Although the prince considered suicide, he was dissuaded by his friends from Bengal. In 1712 Jahandar Shah ascended the throne of the Mughal empire by defeating Farrukhsiyar's father, Azim-ush-Shan. Farrukhsiyar wanted revenge for his father's death and was joined by Hussain Ali Khan and Abdullah Khan, his brother and the subahdar of Allahabad; when they reached Allahabad from Azimabad, Jahandar Shah's military general Syed Abdul Ghaffar Khan Gardezi and 12,000 troops clashed with Abdullah Khan and Abdullah retreated to the Allahabad Fort. However, Gardezi's army fled. After the defeat, Jahandar Shah sent his son Aazuddin; when they reached Khajwah, they learned that Farrukhsiyar was accompanied by Hussain Ali Khan and Abdullah Khan. With Abdullah Khan commanding the vanguard, Farrukhsiyar began the attack.
After a night-long artillery fight and Khwaja Ahsan Khan fled and the camp fell to Farrukhsiyar. On 10 January 1713 Farrukhsiyar and Jahandar Shah's forces met at Samugarh, 9 miles east of Agra in present-day Uttar Pradesh. Jahandar Shah was defeated and imprisoned, the following day Farrukhsiyar proclaimed himself the Mughal emperor. On 12 February he marched to the Mughal capital of Delhi, capturing the citadel. Jahandar Shah's head, mounted on a bamboo rod, was carried by an executioner on an elephant and his body was carried by another elephant. Farrukhsiyar defeated Jahandar Shah with the aid of the Sayyid brothers, one of the brothers, Abdullah Khan, wanted the post of wazir, his demand was rejected, since the post was promised to Ghaziuddin Khan, but Farrukhsiyar offered him a post as regent under the name of wakil-e-mutlaq. Abdullah Khan refused, saying that he deserved the post of wazir since he led Farrukhsiyar's army against Jahandar Shah. Farrukhsiyar gave in to his demand, Abdullah Khan became prime minister.
According to historian William Irvine, Farrukhsiyar's close aides Mir Jumla III and Khan Dauran sowed seeds of suspicion in his mind that they might usurp him from the throne. Learning about these developments, the other Sayyid brother wrote to Abdullah: "It was clear, from the Prince's talk and the nature of his acts, that he was a man who paid no regard to claims for service performed, one void of faith, a breaker of his word and altogether without shame". Hussain Ali Khan felt it necessary to act in their interests "without regard to the plans of the new sovereign". Maharaja Ajit Singh captured Ajmer with the support of the Marwari nobles and expelled Mughal diplomats from his state. Farrukhsiyar sent Hussain Ali Khan to subjuguate him. However, the anti-Sayyid brothers faction in the Mughal emperor's court compelled him to send secret letters to Ajit Singh assuring him of rewards if he defeated Hussain Ali Khan. Hussain left Delhi for Ajmer on 6 January 1714, accompanied by Afrasyab Khan.
As his army reached Sarai Sahal, Ajit Singh sent diplomats. As Hussain Ali Khan advanced to Ajmer via Jodhpur and Mairtha, Ajit Singh retreated to the deserts hoping to dissuade the Mughal general from a battle; as Hussain advanced, Ajit Singh surrendered at Mairtha. As a result, Mughal authority was restored in Rajasthan. Ajit Singh gave Indira Kanwar, as a bride to Farrukhsiyar, his son, Abhai Singh, was compelled to accompany him to see the Mughal emperor. Due to Aurangzeb's 25-year campaign on the Deccan plateau, Mughal authority weakened in North India with the rise of local rulers. Taking advantage of the situation, the Jats advanced. In early 1713, Farrukhsiyar unsuccessfully sent subahdar of Agra Chabela Ram to defeat Churaman, his successor, Samsamud Daulah Khan, compelled Churaman to negotiate with the Mughal emperor. Raja Bahadur Rathore accompanied him to the Mughal court, where negotiations with Farrukhsiyar failed. In September 1716 Raja Jai Singh II undertook a campaign against Churaman.
By 19 November, Jai Singh II began besieging the Thun
Ramchandra Pant Amatya
Ramchandra Neelkanth Bawadekar known as Ramchandra Pant Amatya, served on the Council of 8 as the Finance Minister to Emperor Shivaji dating from 1674 to 1680. He served as the Imperial Regent to four emperors, namely Sambhaji, Shivaji II and Sambhaji II, he authored the Adnyapatra, a famous code of civil and military administration, is renowned as one of the greatest civil administrators and military strategists of the Maratha Empire. Ramchandra Pant was born in a Deshastha Brahmin family in 1650, he was the youngest son of Neelkanth Sondeo Bahutkar who had risen from a local revenue collection post to the post of Minister in the court of Shivaji Maharaj, His family came from the village of Kolwan, near Kalyan Bhiwandi. Ramchandra Pant's grandfather Sonopant and uncle Abaji Sondeo were in the close circle of Shivaji; the Bahutkar family was associated with Samarth Ramdas, the spiritual guru of Shivaji Maharaj Samarth Ramdas is believed to be the one who named the newly born child as Ramchandra.
Before 1672, Ramchandra Pant was engaged in various clerical jobs in Shivaji's administration. In 1672, he and his elder brother Narayan were both promoted to the post of Revenue Minister by Shivaji. In 1674, at the coronation ceremony, the post of Mujumdar was renamed as Amatya and the title was bestowed upon Ramchandra Pant, he worked in this capacity until 1678. On his death bed, Shivaji named him as one among six pillars of the Maratha Empire that would save the kingdom in difficult times. After Shivaji's death in 1680, Sambhaji became ruler of the Maratha Empire and Ramchandra Pant continued with his administration in various posts. Among other duties, Ramchandra Pant was sent to Prince Akbar, Aurangzeb's rebel son, for negotiations and, in 1685, Sambhaji deployed him as an envoy to Vijapur for certain sensitive talks. Ramchandra Pant Amatya was the only person who dedicatedly served The Maratha Swarajya under 5 Chhatrapati's in a row; when the Marathi empire was in trouble he used his wisdom, dedication to the throne and force as needed to keep the empire and its Swarajya safe.
During the coronation of Shivaji Maharaj, Ramchandra Pant Amatya was the youngest Pradhan of all the Asthapradhan's existing at that time. Thereafter, during the reign of Sambhaji Maharaj, Rajaram Maharaj, Maharani Tarabai and Sambhaji Raje, Pant Amatya always held a prominent positions; as Riyasatkar rightly said that ‘ever since the time of Shivaji Maharaj, Ramchandra Pant Amatya was the only person in the history of the Marathas who seems to have dedicatedly served the throne.’ Ramchandra Pant Amatya has laid down all the experiences encountered by him, while serving the throne in his book Rajniti. The said book is a testament to his dedication and service to the throne of Chatrapati's and Hindavi Swarajya; the forefathers of Ramchandra Pant Amatya had close relations with the Bhosle Gharana before the establishment of Swarajya. Before the coronation of Shivaji Maharaj, Ramchandra Pant Amatya's father used to participate in various initiatives undertaken by Shivaji Maharaj. Ramchandra Pant Amatya subsequently carried forward this tradition with more impact.
Ramchandra Pant Amatya took the lead. Being Impressed by his efforts, Shivaji Maharaj included Ramchandra Pant as Amatya in his First AshtaPradhan mandal i.e. Council of Ministers. This, in itself portrays the qualities. During the coronation ceremony of Shivaji Maharaj, Pant was included as Amatya, he must’ve been 22–23 years old then. Before the coronation, a PradhanMandal was appointed by Maharaj in the year 1662 which included Ramchandra Pant's father Neelkanth Sondev as Maharaj's Amatya; this legacy was carried forward, as after the death of Neelkanth Sondev his son Ramchandra Pant was appointed as Maharaj's Amatya. According to the information provided by the bakharkar, Ramchandra Pant Amatya was one of the few people present when Shivaji Maharaj was on his death bed at Raigad. Shivaji maharaj had named a few people. Ramchandra Pant Amatya was one of them. During the Reign of Sambhaji Maharaj, Ramchandra Pant Amatya was given an important position. After the unfortunate demise of Sambhaji Maharaj, the Maratha Empire was in great trouble.
Aurangzeb had taken a vow to defeat the Maratha empire at any cost, with that motive, he attacked many forts of the Marathas with a huge army. Sadness prevailed all over the Maratha Empire. In this situation, Ramchandra Pant Amatya acted with a lot of patience; this was the era of the freedom struggle of the Maratha empire. Ramchandra Pant Amatya did every thing he could to keep the royal family and the Maratha empire safe and endure the struggle of the troubled times. Ramchandra Pant Amatya, Santaji Ghorpade, Dhanaji Jadhav, Parshurampant Pant-Pratinidhi where the major contributors to the struggle for freedom. Rajaram Maharaj's stay in Jingi ended in 1697, he returned to Maharashtra. However, Rajaram Maharaj died in 1700; the Maratha empire was in trouble again. Ramchandra Pant Amatya did everything he could to save the Maratha Empire from the trouble and he succeeded; this was no mean achievement. Ramchandra Pant had paid a visit to Rajaram Maharaj. Pant had sensed the inevitable, he wrote letters to many Sardars and informed them of the dire situation and brought to their notice, the need to protect the Empire.
After the death of Rajaram Mahar