George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River
George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River, which occurred on the night of December 25–26, 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, was the first move in a surprise attack organized by George Washington against the Hessian forces in Trenton, New Jersey, on the morning of December 26. Planned in partial secrecy, Washington led a column of Continental Army troops across the icy Delaware River in a logistically challenging and dangerous operation. Other planned crossings in support of the operation were either called off or ineffective, but this did not prevent Washington from surprising and defeating the troops of Johann Rall quartered in Trenton; the army crossed the river back to Pennsylvania, this time laden with prisoners and military stores taken as a result of the battle. Washington's army crossed the river a third time at the end of the year, under conditions made more difficult by the uncertain thickness of the ice on the river, they defeated British reinforcements under Lord Cornwallis at Trenton on January 2, 1777, defeated his rear guard at Princeton on January 3, before retreating to winter quarters in Morristown, New Jersey.
The unincorporated communities of Washington Crossing and Washington Crossing, New Jersey, are named in honor of this event. While 1776 had started well for the American cause with the evacuation of British troops from Boston in March, the defense of New York City had gone quite poorly. British general William Howe had landed troops on Long Island in August and had pushed George Washington's Continental Army out of New York by mid-November, when he captured the remaining troops on Manhattan; the main British troops returned to New York for the winter season. They left Hessian troops in New Jersey; these troops were under the command of Colonel Von Donop. They were ordered to small outposts around Trenton. Howe sent troops under the command of Charles Cornwallis across the Hudson River into New Jersey and chased Washington across New Jersey. Washington's army was shrinking, due to expiring enlistments and desertions, suffered from poor morale, due to the defeats in the New York area. Most of Washington's army crossed the Delaware River into Pennsylvania north of Trenton, New Jersey, destroyed or moved to the western shore all boats for miles in both directions.
Cornwallis, rather than attempting to chase Washington further, established a chain of outposts from New Brunswick to Burlington, including one at Bordentown and one at Trenton, ordered his troops into winter quarters. The British were happy to end the campaign season; this was a time for the generals to regroup, re-supply, strategize for the upcoming campaign season the following spring. Washington encamped the army near McKonkey's Ferry, not far from the crossing site. While Washington at first took quarters across the river from Trenton, he moved his headquarters on December 15 to the home of William Keith so he could remain closer to his forces; when Washington's army first arrived at McKonkey's Ferry, he had four to six thousand men, although 1,700 soldiers were unfit for duty and needed hospital care. In the retreat across New Jersey Washington had lost precious supplies, as well as losing contact with two important divisions of his army. General Horatio Gates was in the Hudson River Valley and General Charles Lee was in western New Jersey with 2,000 men.
Washington had ordered both generals to join him, but Gates was delayed by heavy snows en route, Lee, who did not have a high opinion of Washington, delayed following repeated orders, preferring to remain on the British flank near Morristown, New Jersey. Other problems affected the quality of his forces. Many of his men's enlistments were due to expire before Christmas, many soldiers were inclined to leave the army when their commission ended. Several deserted before their enlistments were up; the pending loss of forces, the series of lost battles, the loss of New York, the flight of the Army along with many New Yorkers and the Second Continental Congress to Philadelphia, left many in doubt about the prospects of winning the war. But Washington persisted, he procured supplies and dispatched men to recruit new members of the militia, successful in part due to British and Hessian mistreatment of New Jersey and Pennsylvania residents. The losses at Fort Lee and Washington placed a heavy toll on the Patriots.
When they evacuated their forts, they were forced to leave behind critical munitions. Many troops had been killed or taken prisoner, the morale of the remaining troops was low. Few believed that they could win the gain independence, but the morale of the Patriot forces was boosted on December 19 when a new pamphlet titled The American Crisis written by Thomas Paine, the author of Common Sense, was published. These are the times. Tyranny, like hell, is not conquered. Within a day of its publication in Philadelphia, General Washington ordered it to be read to all of his troops, it improved their tolerance of their difficult conditions. On December 20, General Lee's division of 2,000 troops arrived in Washington's camp under the command of General John Sullivan. General Lee had been captured by the British on December 12, when he ventured too far outside the protection of his troops in search of more comfortable lodgings (or, according to rumors, a possible assignat
Kingdom of Great Britain
The Kingdom of Great Britain called Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands; the unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government, based in Westminster. The former kingdoms had been in personal union since James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I, bringing about the "Union of the Crowns". After the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Electorate of Hanover; the early years of the unified kingdom were marked by Jacobite risings which ended in defeat for the Stuart cause at Culloden in 1746.
In 1763, victory in the Seven Years' War led to the dominance of the British Empire, to become the foremost global power for over a century and grew to become the largest empire in history. The Kingdom of Great Britain was replaced by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801 with the Acts of Union 1800; the name Britain descends from the Latin name for the island of Great Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, the land of the Britons via the Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The term Great Britain was first used in 1474; the use of the word "Great" before "Britain" originates in the French language, which uses Bretagne for both Britain and Brittany. French therefore distinguishes between the two by calling Britain la Grande Bretagne, a distinction, transferred into English; the Treaty of Union and the subsequent Acts of Union state that England and Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain", as such "Great Britain" was the official name of the state, as well as being used in titles such as "Parliament of Great Britain".
Both the Acts and the Treaty describe the country as "One Kingdom" and a "United Kingdom", which has led some much publications into the error of treating the "United Kingdom" as a name before it came into being in 1801. The websites of the Scottish Parliament, the BBC, others, including the Historical Association, refer to the state created on 1 May 1707 as the United Kingdom of Great Britain; the term United Kingdom was sometimes used during the 18th century to describe the state, but was not its name. The kingdoms of England and Scotland, both in existence from the 9th century, were separate states until 1707. However, they had come into a personal union in 1603, when James VI of Scotland became king of England under the name of James I; this Union of the Crowns under the House of Stuart meant that the whole of the island of Great Britain was now ruled by a single monarch, who by virtue of holding the English crown ruled over the Kingdom of Ireland. Each of the three kingdoms maintained laws.
Various smaller islands were in the king's domain, including the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. This disposition changed when the Acts of Union 1707 came into force, with a single unified Crown of Great Britain and a single unified parliament. Ireland remained formally separate, with its own parliament, until the Acts of Union 1800; the Union of 1707 provided for a Protestant-only succession to the throne in accordance with the English Act of Settlement of 1701. The Act of Settlement required that the heir to the English throne be a descendant of the Electress Sophia of Hanover and not be a Catholic. Legislative power was vested in the Parliament of Great Britain, which replaced both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. In practice it was a continuation of the English parliament, sitting at the same location in Westminster, expanded to include representation from Scotland; as with the former Parliament of England and the modern Parliament of the United Kingdom, the Parliament of Great Britain was formally constituted of three elements: the House of Commons, the House of Lords, the Crown.
The right of the English peerage to sit in the House of Lords remained unchanged, while the disproportionately large Scottish peerage was permitted to send only 16 representative peers, elected from amongst their number for the life of each parliament. The members of the former English House of Commons continued as members of the British House of Commons, but as a reflection of the relative tax bases of the two countries the number of Scottish representatives was reduced to 45. Newly created peers in the Peerage of Great Britain were given the automatic right to sit in the Lords. Despite the end of a separate parliament for Scotland, it retained its own laws and system of courts, As its own established Presbyterian Church, control over its own schools; the social structure was hierarchical, the same elite remain in control after 1707. Scotland continued to have its own excellent universities, with the strong intellectual community in Edinburgh, The Scottish Enlightenment had a major impact on British and European thinking.
As a result of Poynings' Law of 1495, the Parliament of Ireland was subordinate to the Parliament of England, after 1707 to the Parliament of Great Britain. The Westminster parliament's Declaratory Act 1719 (also called the Dependency of Ireland
River Edge, New Jersey
River Edge is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 11,340, reflecting an increase of 394 from the 10,946 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 343 from the 10,603 counted in the 1990 Census; the community was incorporated as the borough of Riverside by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on June 30, 1894, from portions of Midland Township, based on the results of a referendum held the previous day. On December 1, 1930, the borough's name was changed to River Edge; the borough was formed during the "Boroughitis" phenomenon sweeping through Bergen County, in which 26 boroughs were formed in the county in 1894 alone. The borough was named for its location along the Hackensack River. According to the United States Census Bureau, River Edge borough had a total area of 1.895 square miles, including 1.854 square miles of land and 0.041 square miles of water. A suburb of New York City, River Edge is located 8 miles west of Upper Manhattan.
Cherry Hill and North Hackensack are unincorporated communities located within River Edge. The borough is bordered by Paramus, New Milford and Teaneck; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 11,340 people, 4,134 households, 3,162.510 families residing in the borough. The population density was 6,116.3 per square mile. There were 4,261 housing units at an average density of 2,298.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 73.42% White, 1.52% Black or African American, 0.05% Native American, 22.19% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 1.25% from other races, 1.49% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.66% of the population. Korean Americans accounted for 11.1% of the borough's population. There were 4,134 households out of which 38.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.8% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.5% were non-families. 20.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.21. In the borough, the population was spread out with 26.0% under the age of 18, 5.9% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 29.7% from 45 to 64, 13.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.4 years. For every 100 females there were 92.8 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 88.4 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $97,816 and the median family income was $109,335. Males had a median income of $71,219 versus $63,305 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $38,772. About 3.0% of families and 4.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.0% of those under age 18 and 4.2% of those age 65 or over. Same-sex couples headed 19 households in 2010, a decrease from the 24 counted in 2000; as of the 2000 United States Census there were 10,946 people, 4,165 households, 3,102 families residing in the borough.
The population density was 5,804.5 people per square mile. There were 4,210 housing units at an average density of 2,232.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 84.12% White, 1.06% African American, 0.08% American Indian, 12.60% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.81% from other races, 1.32% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.31% of the population. There were 4,165 households out of which 35.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.4% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.5% were non-families. 22.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.11. In the borough the population was spread out with 24.1% under the age of 18, 5.0% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, 17.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years.
For every 100 females, there were 90.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.7 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $71,792, the median income for a family was $80,422. Males had a median income of $62,044 versus $41,085 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $33,188. About 2.5% of families and 3.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.5% of those under age 18 and 2.6% of those age 65 or over. River Edge is governed under the Borough form of New Jersey municipal government; the governing body consists of a Mayor and a Borough Council comprising six council members, with all positions elected at-large on a partisan basis as part of the November general election. A Mayor is elected directly by the voters to a four-year term of office; the Borough Council consists of six members elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with two seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle. The Borough form of government used by River Edge, the most common system used in the state, is a "weak mayor / strong council" government in which council members act as the legislative body with the mayor presiding at meetings and voting only in the event of a tie.
The mayor can veto ordinances subject to an override by a two-thirds majority vote of the council. The mayor makes committee and liaison assignments for council members, most appointments are
The Hackensack River is a river 45 miles long, in the U. S. states of New York and New Jersey, emptying into a back chamber of New York Harbor. The watershed of the river includes part of the suburban area outside New York City just west of the lower Hudson River, which it parallels, separated from it by the New Jersey Palisades, it flows through and drains the New Jersey Meadowlands. The lower river, navigable as far as the city of Hackensack, is industrialized and forms a commercial extension of Newark Bay. Once believed to be among the most polluted water courses in the United States, it had staged a modest revival by the late 2000s; the Hackensack River rises in southeastern New York, in Rockland County, in the Sweet Swamp, just west of the Hudson River and 1 mi south of West Haverstraw. It flows southeast, into the Lake DeForest reservoir, separated from the Hudson by less than 3 mi. South of the dam, it flows south, diverging from the Hudson. Just across the New Jersey state line, in northern Bergen County, it is impounded to form the reservoir Lake Tappan near River Vale.
South of Lake Tappan, it flows in a meandering course southward through the suburban communities of New Jersey. Near Oradell, it is impounded to form Oradell Reservoir, where it is joined by several streams, including the Dwars Kill, the Cherry Brook and Pascack Brook. Van Buskirk Island, a man-made island and site of the New Milford Plant of the Hackensack Water Company, lies in this area. South of the reservoir, it flows past River Edge, Teaneck and Ridgefield Park, once again approaching within 3 mi of the Hudson, separated from it by the ridge of the Palisades. At Little Ferry, it is joined by the broad Overpeck Creek flows southward, widening in a broad meandering tidal estuary through the Meadowlands, forming extensive side streams and wetlands. South of North Bergen, it forms the boundary between Bergen County to the west and Hudson County to the east. Opposite Secaucus it is joined by Berrys Creek flows past the western edge of Jersey City, which overlooks the river's valley from the ridge of the Palisades, before forming Newark Bay at its confluence with the Passaic River between Jersey City and Kearny.
As it flows through the Meadowlands it is traversed by numerous road bridges. The name of the river comes from the Lenape word Achinigeu-hach, or Ackingsah-sack, meaning flat confluence of streams or stony ground. Conflicts with the Lenape prevented the early Dutch settlers of the New Netherland colony from expanding westward into the valley into late in the 17th century; the river furnished both the Native Americans and the European settlers with abundant runs of herring and striped bass. In the colonial era, the river and the surrounding Meadowlands presented a formidable difficulty in transportation and communication; the wetlands helped allow the escape of the Continental Army under George Washington in 1776 after several defeats at the hands of the British army on the east side of the Hudson. It served as a protective barrier that allowed Washington's army to encamp in the nearby hills near Morristown. For two centuries, the river suffered from severe pollution; the construction of the Oradell Reservoir dam in 1921 changed the lower river from a free-flowing stream into a brackish estuary, allowing the encroachment of marine species.
Urbanization in the region intensified after World War II, with the expansion of roads and highways, including the New Jersey Turnpike, as well as the Meadowlands Sports Complex. By the 1960s, much of the lower river was a turbid hypoxic dead zone, with only the hardiest of species such as the mummichog able to survive in its waters. Chemical companies dumped large volumes of waste into Berry's Creek during the 20th century, resulting in the highest concentrations of methyl mercury of any fresh-water sediment in the world, as well as extensive residues of PCBs and other chemicals. Three sites along the creek are federally-designated Superfund sites and require major cleanup operations, which are ongoing as of 2019; the river recovered somewhat by the late 2000s following the decline in manufacturing in the area, as well as from enforcement of Clean Water Act regulations and from the efforts of local conservancy groups. Recreational fishing has staged a modest comeback, although catch and release may be advisable, as there are continuing health advisories against the consumption of fish caught in the river.
Urban runoff pollution, municipal sewage discharges from sanitary sewer overflows and combined sewer overflows, runoff from hazardous waste sites continue to impair the river's water quality. The future of the wetlands around the lower river has been an ongoing controversy between development and preservation groups in recent decades; the Hackensack Meadowlands Development Commission called the New Jersey Meadowlands Commission, was established by the state in 1968 to manage development and habitat preservation. Berrys Creek Bashes Creek Cherry Brook Moonachie Creek Mill Creek Cromakill Creek Bellmans Creek Losen Slote Overpeck Creek Coles Brook French Brook Hirshfeld Brook Dwars KillTappan RunPascack Brook Holdrum BrookHillsdale BrookCherry Brook Nauraushaun Brook Nanuet, New York East Branch Hackensack River Toms Creek West Branch Hackensack River List of New Jersey rivers List of New York rivers List of crossings of the Hackensack River Little Ferry Seaplane Base Hackensack RiverWalk Bergen SWAN - Watershed Protection Group Hackensack Riverkeeper - Environmental organization Hackensack River tides - Fairleigh Dickinson University Hackensack River bridge
Weehawken, New Jersey
Weehawken is a township in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 12,554, reflecting a decline of 947 from the 13,501 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 1,116 from the 12,385 counted in the 1990 Census; the name Weehawken is considered to have evolved from the Algonquian language Lenape spoken by the Hackensack and Tappan. It has variously been interpreted as "maize land", "place of gulls", "rocks that look like trees", which would refer to the Palisades, atop which most of the town sits, or "at the end", among other suggested translations. Three U. S. Navy ships have been named for the city; the USS Weehawken, launched on November 5, 1862, was a Passaic-class monitor, or ironclad ship, which sailed for the Union Navy during the American Civil War, encountered battles at the Charleston, South Carolina coast, sank in a moderate gale on December 6, 1863. The Weehawken was the last ferry to The West Shore Terminal on March 25, 1959, at 1:10 am, ending 259 years of continuous ferry service.
Weehawken Street in Manhattan's Greenwich Village was the site of a colonial Hudson River ferry landing. The name and the place have inspired mention in multiple works of popular culture. Weehawken was formed as a township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature, on March 15, 1859, from portions of Hoboken and North Bergen. A portion of the township was ceded to Hoboken in 1874. Additional territory was annexed in 1879 from West Hoboken; the township's written history began in 1609, when Henry Hudson, on his third voyage to the New World, sailed down what was named the North River on the Half Moon and weighed anchor in Weehawken Cove. At the time it was the territory of the Hackensack and Tappan, of the Turtle Clan, or Unami, a branch of the Lenni Lenape, they were displaced by immigrants to the province of New Netherland, who had begun to settle the west bank of the Hudson at Pavonia in 1630. On May 11, 1647, Maryn Adriansen received a patent for a plantation at Awiehaken. In 1658, Director-General of New Netherland Peter Stuyvesant negotiated a deal with the Lenape to purchase all the land from "the great rock above Wiehacken", west to Sikakes and south to Konstapels Hoeck.
In 1661, Weehawken became part of Bergen when it came under the jurisdiction of the court at Bergen Square. In 1674, New Netherland was ceded to the British, the town became part of the Province of East Jersey. John Luby, in 1677, acquired several parcels comprising 35 acres along the Hudson. Most habitation was along the top of the cliffs since the low-lying areas were marshland. Descriptions from the period speak of the dense foliage and forests and excellent land for growing vegetables and orchard fruits; as early as 1700 there was regular. In 1752, King George II made the first official grant for ferry service, the ferry house north of Hoboken used for farm produce, was sold at the Greenwich Village landing that became Weehawken Street. During the American Revolutionary War, Weehawken was used as a lookout for the patriots to check on the British, who were situated in New York and controlled the surrounding waterways. In fact, in July 1778, Lord Stirling asked Aaron Burr, in a letter written on behalf of General George Washington, to employ several persons to "go to Bergen Heights, Hoebuck, or any other heights thereabout to observe the motions of the enemy's shipping" and to gather any other possible intelligence.
Early documented inhabitants included a Captain James Deas, whose stately residence at Deas' Point was located atop a knoll along the river. Lafayette had used the mansion as his headquarters and Washington Irving came to gaze at Manhattan. Not far from Deas' was a ledge 11 paces wide and 20 paces long, situated 20 feet above the Hudson on the Palisades; this ledge, long gone, was the site of 18 documented duels and many unrecorded ones in the years 1798–1845. The most famous is the duel between General Alexander Hamilton, first Secretary of the Treasury, Colonel Aaron Burr, sitting third Vice President of the United States, which took place on July 11, 1804.. Three years earlier, a duel was held at this spot between George Eacker. In the mid-19th century, James G. King built his estate Highwood on the bluff that now bears his name, entertained many political and artistic figures of the era, including Daniel Webster. With the ferry, the Hackensack Plank Road, the West Shore Railroad, built during the early 1870s, the waterfront became a transportation hub.
The wealthy built homes along the top of the New Jersey Palisades, where they might flee from the sweltering heat of New York, breathe the fresh air of the heights. Weehawken became the playground of the rich during the middle to late 19th century. A series of wagon lifts, a passenger elevator designed by the same engineer as those at the Eiffel Tower were put in place to accommodate the tourists and summer dwellers; the Eldorado Amusement Park, a pleasure garden which opened in 1891, drew massive crowds. Weehawken is part of the New York metropolitan area. Situated on the western shore of the Hudson River, along the southern end of the New Jersey Palisades across from Midtown Manhattan, it is
The Passaic River is a river 80 mi long, in northern New Jersey in the United States. The river in its upper course flows in a circuitous route, meandering through the swamp lowlands between the ridge hills of rural and suburban northern New Jersey, called the Great Swamp, draining much of the northern portion of the state through its tributaries. In its lower portion, it flows through the most urbanized and industrialized areas of the state, including along downtown Newark; the lower river suffered from industrial abandonment in the 20th century. In April 2014, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency announced a $1.7 billion plan to remove 4.3 million cubic yards of toxic mud from the bottom of lower eight miles of the river. It is considered one of the most polluted stretches of water in the nation and the project one of the largest clean-ups undertaken; the Passaic rises in southern Morris County. It begins between Spring Hill and Hardscrabble Road, travelling northeast and crossing Corey Lane before entering the Buck Hill Tract Natural Area.
At this point the river begins to flow south, through Morristown National Historical Park, forms the boundary between Morris and Somerset counties. In its current path, it passes through the southeast edge and drains Lord Stirling Park along the western edge of the Great Swamp, which it drains through several small tributaries including Black Brook; the river passes through a gorge in Millington and turns abruptly northeast, flowing through the valley between Long Hill to the west and the Second Watchung Mountain to the east. It forms the boundary between Morris and Union counties as it passes Berkeley Heights, New Providence, Summit. Near Chatham it turns north, forming the boundary between Essex counties, it passes Livingston and Fairfield, where it flows through the Hatfield Swamp and is joined by the Rockaway River just after the Whippany River runs into it. Southwest of Lincoln Park it passes through the Great Piece Meadows, where it turns abruptly eastward and is joined at Two Bridges by its major tributary, the Pompton River meandering through Little Falls, New Jersey as it drops over a fall, across some rapids, under Passaic County Route 646 and an abandoned railroad trestle.
The river flows northeast into the city of Paterson, where it drops over the Great Falls of the Passaic. On the north end of Paterson, it turns abruptly south, flowing between Paterson and Clifton on the west and Hawthorne, Fair Lawn, Elmwood Park, Garfield on the east, next through the city of Clifton. At Elmwood Park it begins to form Dundee Lake, created by the Dundee Dam built in 1845; the river becomes navigable two and a half miles downstream of the Dundee Dam at the Eighth Street/Locust Ave Bridge in Wallington where the dredged Wallington Reach channel begins. Proceeding beyond the Wallington Reach, the river remains navigable via a series of maintained channels to its final destination, Newark Bay, it passes Passaic, Clifton again Nutley and Belleville on the west. In its lowest reaches, it flows along the northeast portion of the city of Newark on the west, passing Kearny, East Newark, Harrison, New Jersey on the eastern bank. Near downtown Newark it makes an abrupt easterly bend south around Ironbound, joining the Hackensack River at the northern end of Newark Bay, a back bay of New York Harbor.
The Passaic River formed as a result of drainage from a massive proglacial lake that formed in Northern New Jersey at the end of the last ice age 13,000 years ago. That prehistoric lake is now known as Glacial Lake Passaic and was centered in the present lowland swamps of Morris County, forming because of a blockage of the normal drainage path; the lake level rose high enough that the water flowed out of a new outlet. The Passaic River found a new path to the ocean via the Millington Gorge and the Paterson Falls as the glacier that covered the area retreated northward and the lake drained; as a result, the river as we now know. Prior to European colonialization along the Passaic in the late 17th century, the valley was the territory of the Lenape groups now known as the Acquackanonk and Hackensack, who used the river for fishing. To that end they built overflow dams, to create pools and where the fish could be trapped. Many of these archeological sites are still present and, in some cases, in good condition.
The river was significant in the early industrial development of New Jersey. It provided a navigable route connected by canals to the Delaware River starting in the late 18th century, it was an early source of hydropower at the Great Falls of the Passaic in Paterson, resulting in the early emergence of the area as the center of industrial mills. Much of the lower river suffered severe pollution during the 19th and 20th centuries because of the development. Although the health of the river has improved due to enactment of the 1972 Clean Water Act and other environmental legislation, the decline of industry along the river, it still suffers from substantial degradation of water quality; the sediment at the mouth of the river near Newark Bay remains contaminated by such pollutants as dioxin. The dioxin was generated principally by the Diamond Shamrock Chemical Plant in Newark, as a waste product resulting from the production of the agent orange defoliation chemical used during the Vietnam War; the cleanup of the dioxin contamination on the bottom of the river is the subject of a major environmental lawsuit regarding the responsibility for the cleanup.
In 2008 the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency reached a settlement with Occidental Chemical Cor
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –