Port Said is a city that lies in north east Egypt extending about 30 kilometres along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, north of the Suez Canal, with an approximate population of 603,787. The city was established in 1859 during the building of the Suez Canal. There are numerous old houses with grand balconies on all floors, giving the city a distinctive look. Port Said's twin city is Port Fuad; the two cities coexist, to the extent. The cities are connected by free ferries running all through the day, together they form a metropolitan area with over a million residents that extends both on the African and the Asian sides of the Suez Canal; the only other metropolitan area in the world that spans two continents is Istanbul. Port Said acted as a global city since its establishment and flourished during the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century when it was inhabited by various nationalities and religions. Most of them were from Mediterranean countries, they coexisted in tolerance, forming a cosmopolitan community.
Referring to this fact Rudyard Kipling once said "If you wish to find someone you have known and who travels, there are two points on the globe you have but to sit and wait, sooner or your man will come there: the docks of London and Port Said". The name of Port Said first appeared in 1855, it was chosen by an International committee composed of Great Britain, the Russian Empire, Austria and Piedmont. It is a compound name which composed of two parts: Port and Said, who granted Ferdinand de Lesseps the concession to dig the Suez Canal. Urbanized residents pronounce the first syllable following Arabic. Port Said was founded by Sa'id of Egypt on Easter Monday, April 25, 1859, when Ferdinand de Lesseps gave the first symbolic swing of the pickaxe to signal the beginning of construction; the first problem encountered. Luckily, a single rocky outcrop flush with the shoreline was discovered a few hundred meters away. Equipped with a wooden wharf, it served as a mooring berth for the boats. Soon after, a wooden jetty was built, connecting the departure islet, as it became known, to the beach.
This rock could be considered the heart of the developing city, it was on this symbolic site, forty years that a monument to de Lesseps was erected. There were no local resources here. Everything Port Said needed had to be imported: wood, supplies, equipment, housing and water. Giant water storage containers were erected to supply fresh water until the Sweet Water Canal could be completed. One of the most pressing problems was the lack of stone. Early buildings were imported in kit form and made great use of wood. A newly developed technique was used to construct the jetties called conglomerate concrete or "Beton Coignet", named after its inventor Francois Coignet. Artificial blocks of concrete were sunk into the sea to be the foundations of the jetties. Still more innovative was the use of the same concrete for the lighthouse of Port Said, the only original building still standing in Port Said. In 1859 the first 150 laborers camped in tents around a wooden shed. A year the number of inhabitants had risen to 2000 — with the European contingent housed in wooden bungalows imported from northern Europe.
By 1869, when the canal opened, the permanent population had reached 10,000. The European district, clustered around the waterfront, was separated from the Arab district, Gemalia, 400 meters to the west, by a wide strip of sandy beach where a tongue of Lake Manzala reached towards the sea; this inlet soon dried out and was replaced by buildings, over time there was no division between the European and Arab quarters. At the start of the twentieth century, two things happened to change Port Said: in 1902, Egyptian cotton from Mataria started to be exported via Port Said; the result was to raise its social status. In particular a sizable Greek community grew up. In 1907, the growing city had about 50,000 inhabitants, among whom were 11,000 Europeans "of all nations". Following the end of the World War I, the directors of the Suez Canal Company decided to create a new city on the Asian bank, building 300 houses for its labourers and functionaries. Port Fouad was designed by the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris.
The houses follow the French model. The new city was founded in December 1926. Since its foundation people of all nationalities and religions had been moving to the city and each community brought in its own customs, cuisine and architecture. By the late 1920s the population numbered over 100,000 people. In the 1930s for example there were elegant public buildings designed by Italian architects; the old Arab Quarter was swallowed up into the thriving city. Port Said by now was a thriving, bustling international port with a multi-national population: Jewish merchants, Egyptian shopkeepers, Greek photographers, Italian architects, Swiss hoteliers, Maltese administrators, Scottish engineers, French bankers and diplomats from all around the world. All worked alongside the large local Egyptian community, and always passing through were international travelers to and from Africa and the Far East. Intermarriage between French and Maltese was common, resulting in a local Latin and Catholic community like those of Alexandria and Cairo.
French was the
The Nile Delta is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. It is one of the world's largest river deltas—from Alexandria in the west to Port Said in the east, it covers 240 km of Mediterranean coastline and is a rich agricultural region. From north to south the delta is 160 km in length; the Delta begins down-river from Cairo. The Nile Delta is an area of the world that lacks detailed ground truth data and monitoring stations. Despite the economic importance of the Nile Delta, it could be considered as one of the most data-poor regions with respect to sea level rise. From north to south, the delta is 160 km in length. From west to east, it covers some 240 km of coastline; the delta is sometimes divided into sections, with the Nile dividing into two main distributaries, the Damietta and the Rosetta, flowing into the Mediterranean at port cities with the same name. In the past, the delta had several distributaries, but these have been lost due to flood control and changing relief.
One such defunct distributary is Wadi Tumilat. The Suez Canal is east of the delta and enters the coastal Lake Manzala in the north-east of the delta. To the north-west are three other coastal lakes or lagoons: Lake Burullus, Lake Idku and Lake Mariout; the Nile is considered to be an "arcuate" delta, as it resembles a triangle or flower when seen from above. Some scholars such as Aristotle have written that the delta was constructed for agricultural purposes due to the drying of the region of Egypt. Although such an engineering feat would be considered equivalent to a wonder of the ancient world, there is insufficient evidence to determine conclusively whether the delta is man-made or was formed naturally. In modern day, the outer edges of the delta are eroding, some coastal lagoons have seen increasing salinity levels as their connection to the Mediterranean Sea increases. Since the delta no longer receives an annual supply of nutrients and sediments from upstream due to the construction of the Aswan Dam, the soils of the floodplains have become poorer, large amounts of fertilizers are now used.
Topsoil in the delta can be as much as 21 m in depth. People have lived in the Delta region for thousands of years, it has been intensively farmed for at least the last five thousand years; the Delta used to flood annually. Records from ancient times show that the delta had seven distributaries or branches,: the Pelusiac, the Tanitic, the Mendesian, the Phatnitic, the Sebennytic, the Bolbitine, the Canopic There are now only two main branches, due to flood control and changing relief: the Damietta to the east, the Rosetta in the western part of the Delta; the Rosetta Stone was found in the Nile Delta in 1799 in the port city of Rosetta. The delta was a major constituent of Lower Egypt. There are many archaeological sites around the Nile Delta. About 39 million people live in the Delta region. Outside of major cities, population density in the delta averages 1,000/km2 or more. Alexandria is the largest city in the delta with an estimated population of more than 4.5 million. Other large cities in the delta include Shubra El Kheima, Port Said, El Mahalla El Kubra, Mansura and Zagazig.
During autumn, parts of the Nile River are red with lotus flowers. The Lower Nile and the Upper Nile have plants; the Upper Nile plant is the Egyptian lotus, the Lower Nile plant is the Papyrus Sedge, although it is not nearly as plentiful as it once was, is becoming quite rare. Several hundred thousand water birds winter in the delta, including the world’s largest concentrations of little gulls and whiskered terns. Other birds making their homes in the delta include grey herons, Kentish plovers, cormorants and ibises. Other animals found in the delta include frogs, tortoises and the Nile monitor. Nile crocodiles and hippopotamus, two animals which were widespread in the delta during antiquity, are no longer found there. Fish found in the delta soles; the Delta has a hot desert climate as the rest of Egypt, but its northernmost part, as is the case with the rest of the northern coast of Egypt, the wettest region in the country, has moderate temperatures, with highs not surpassing 31 °C in the summer.
Only 100–200 mm of rain falls on the delta area during an average year, most of this falls in the winter months. The delta experiences its hottest temperatures in July and August, with a maximum average of 34 °C. Winter temperatures are in the range of 9 °C at nights to 19 °C in the daytime. With cooler temperatures and some rain, the Nile Delta region becomes quite humid during the winter months. Furthermore, Egypt’s Mediterranean coastline is being swallowed up by the sea because of global warming and the rise of the sea level, the lack of sediments being deposited since the construction of the Aswan Dam, in some places as much as 90 m a year; as the polar ice caps melt, much of the northern delta, including the ancient port city of Alexandria, will disappear under the Mediterranean. A 30 cm rise in sea level will affect about 6.6% of the total land cover area in the Nile Delta region.
For the beetle genus, see Ctesias. Ctesias known as Ctesias the Cnidian or Ctesias of Cnidus, was a Greek physician and historian from the town of Cnidus in Caria, when Caria was part of the Achaemenid Empire. Ctesias, who lived in the 5th century BC, was physician to the Achaemenid king Artaxerxes II, whom he accompanied in 401 BC on his expedition against his brother Cyrus the Younger. Ctesias was part of the entourage of King Artaxerxes at the Battle of Cunaxa against Cyrus the Younger and his Greek mercenaries called the Ten Thousand, brought medical assistance to the king by treating his flesh wound, he was involved in negotiations with the Greeks after the battle, helped their Spartan general Clearchus before his excecution at the royal court at Babylon. Ctesias was the author of treatises on rivers, on the Persian revenues, of an account of India entitled Indica, of a history of Assyria and Persia in 23 books, called Persica, written in opposition to Herodotus in the Ionic dialect, professedly founded on the Persian Royal Archives.
The first six books covered the history of Assyria and Babylon to the foundation of the Persian empire. Of the two histories, we possess abridgments by Photius, fragments are preserved in Athenaeus, Nicolaus of Damascus and Diodorus Siculus, whose second book is from Ctesias; as to the worth of the Persica there has been both in ancient and modern times. Although many ancient authorities valued it and used it to discredit Herodotus, a modern author writes that " unreliability makes Herodotus seem a model of accuracy." Ctesias's account of the Assyrian kings does not reconcile with the cuneiform evidence. The satirist Lucian thought so little of Ctesias' historical reliability that in his satirical True Story he places Ctesias on the island where the evil were punished. Lucian wrote that "The people who suffered the greatest torment were those who had told lies when they were alive and written mendacious histories. A record of the view that the Persians held of India, under the title Indica, it includes descriptions of god-like people, philosophers and unquantifiable gold, among other riches and wonders.
It is of value. The book only remains in fragments and in reports made about the book by authors; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Ctesias". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7. Cambridge University Press. P. 594. Ed. trad. Et commentaire par Dominique Ctésias de Cnide. La Perse. L'Inde. Autres fragments, Collection Budé, Belles Lettres, Paris, 2004. Schmitt, Rüdiger. "CTESIAS". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. VI, Fasc. 4. Pp. 441–446. Jan P. Stronk: Ctesias' Persian History. Part I: Introduction and Translation, Wellem Verlag, Düsseldorf, 2010. Andrew G. Nichols, Ctesias: On India. Translation and Commentary, Duckworth, 2011, ISBN 1-85399-742-0 Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones and James Robson, Ctesias' History of Persia: Tales of the Orient, Oxford, 2010. Ctesias of Cnidus Overview of all fragments of the Persica and Indica by Jona Lendering Photius' epitome of Persica translated by J. H. Freese Photius' epitome of Indica translated by J. H. Freese Greek text Texts of Ctesias
The term eunuch refers to a man from antiquity, castrated in order to serve a specific social function. In Latin, the words eunuchus and castratus were used to denote eunuchs; the earliest records for intentional castration to produce eunuchs are from the Sumerian city of Lagash in the 21st century BC. Over the millennia since, they have performed a wide variety of functions in many different cultures: courtiers or equivalent domestics, treble singers, religious specialists, royal guards, government officials, guardians of women or harem servants. Eunuchs would be servants or slaves, castrated in order to make them reliable servants of a royal court where physical access to the ruler could wield great influence. Lowly domestic functions—such as making the ruler's bed, bathing him, cutting his hair, carrying him in his litter, or relaying messages—could in theory give a eunuch "the ruler's ear" and impart de facto power on the formally humble but trusted servant. Similar instances are reflected in etymology of many high offices.
Eunuchs did not have loyalties to the military, the aristocracy, or to a family of their own, were thus seen as more trustworthy and less interested in establishing a private'dynasty'. Because their condition lowered their social status, they could be replaced or killed without repercussion. In cultures that had both harems and eunuchs, eunuchs were sometimes used as harem servants or seraglio guards. Eunuch comes from the Greek word eunoukhos, first attested in a fragment of Hipponax, the 6th century BC comic poet and prolific inventor of compound words; the acerbic poet describes a certain lover of fine food having "consumed his estate dining lavishly and at leisure every day on tuna and garlic-honey cheese paté like a Lampsacene eunoukhos". In ancient classical literature from the early 5th century BC onward, the word designates some incapacity for or abstention from procreation, whether due to natural constitution or to physical mutilation. For instance, Lucian suggests two methods to determine whether someone is a eunuch: physical inspection of the body, or scrutiny of his ability to perform sexually with females.
The earliest surviving etymology of the word is from late antiquity. The 5th century Etymologicon by Orion of Thebes offers two alternative origins for the word eunuch: first, to tēn eunēn ekhein, "guarding the bed", a derivation inferred from eunuchs' established role at the time as "bedchamber attendants" in the imperial palace, second, to eu tou nou ekhein, "being good with respect to the mind", which Orion explains based on their "being deprived of male-female intercourse, the things that the ancients used to call irrational". Orion's second option reflects well-established idioms in Greek, as shown by entries for noos and ekhein in Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon, while the first option is not listed as an idiom under eunē in that standard reference work. However, the first option was cited by the late 9th century Byzantine emperor Leo VI in his New Constitution 98 banning the marriage of eunuchs, in which he noted eunuchs' reputation as trustworthy guardians of the marriage bed and claimed that the word eunuch attested to this kind of employment.
The emperor goes further than Orion by attributing eunuchs' lack of male-female intercourse to castration, which he said was performed with the intention "that they will no longer do the things that males do, or at least to extinguish whatever has to do with desire for the female sex". The 11th century Byzantine monk Nikon of the Black Mountain, opting instead for Orion's second alternative, stated that the word came from eunoein, thus meaning "to be well-minded, well-inclined, well-disposed or favorable", but unlike Orion he argued that this was due to the trust that certain jealous and suspicious foreign rulers placed in the loyalty of their eunuchized servants. Theophylact of Ohrid in a dialogue In Defence of Eunuchs stated that the origin of the word was from eunoein and ekhein, "to have, hold", since they were always "well-disposed" toward the master who "held" or owned them; the 12th century Etymologicum Magnum repeats the entry from Orion, but stands by the first option, while attributing the second option to what "some say".
In the late 12th century, Eustathius of Thessalonica offered an original derivation of the word from eunis + okheuein, "deprived of mating". In translations of the Bible into modern European languages, such as the Luther Bible or the King James Bible, the word eunuchus as found in the Latin Vulgate is rendered as officer, official or chamberlain, consistent with the idea that the original meaning of eunuch was bed-keeper. Modern religious scholars have been disinclined to assume that the courts of Israel and Judah included castrated men though the original translation of the Bible into Greek used the word eunoukhos; the early 17th century scholar and theologian Gerardus Vossius therefore explains that the word designated an office, he affirms the view that it was derived from eunē and ekhein. He says the word came to be applied to castrated men in general because such men were the usual holders of that office. Still, Vossius notes the alternative etymologies offered by Eustathius and others, calling these analyse
Cambyses II, son of Cyrus the Great, ruled the Achaemenid Empire from 530 until his death in 522 BC. Cambyses' grandfather was king of Anshan. Following Cyrus the Great's conquest of the Near East and Central Asia, Cambyses II further expanded the empire into Egypt during the Late Period by defeating the Egyptian Pharaoh Psamtik III during the battle of Pelusium in 525 BC. After the Egyptian campaign and the truce with Libya, Cambyses invaded the Kingdom of Kush, but with little success. Though numerous scholars link Cambyses to the Sanskrit tribal name Kamboja there are a few scholars who suggest an Elamite origin of the name. Jean Przyluski had sought to find an Austric affinity for Kamboja. Friedrich von Spiegel, Sten Konow, Ernst Herzfeld, James Hope Moulton, Wojciech Skalmowski and some other scholars think that Kambūjiya is adjectival form of the Sanskrit tribal name Kamboja. Spiegel regards Kamboja/Kambujiya and Kuru/Kyros as the names of two prehistoric legendary heroes of the Indo-Iranians who were revived in the royal family of the Achaemenes and further opines that the myths about Cyrus the Great were due to the confusion between the historical and the legendary heroes of prehistory.
James Hope Moulton regards Spiegel's suggestions as the best of other etymological explanations of these two names. On the other hand, Arnold J. Toynbee discusses the issue of two Persian names Kambujiya as well as Kurush elaborately and regards them both as derived from two groups of Eurasian nomads, the Kambojas and the Kurus, mentioned in the Sanskrit texts and who, according to him, had entered India and Iran in the Migration Period of the eighth and seventh century BC. Toynbee concludes that the conquest of the world by the elder branch of the House of Achaemenes had been achieved by the valor of the Kuru and Kamboja Nomad reinforcements; when Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon in 539 BC, Cambyses was employed in leading religious ceremonies. In the cylinder which contains Cyrus' proclamation to the Babylonians, Cambyses' name is joined to his father's in the prayers to Marduk. On a tablet dated from the first year of Cyrus, Cambyses is called king of Babylon, although his authority seems to have been ephemeral.
Only in 530 BC, when Cyrus set out on his last expedition into the East, did Cyrus associate Cambyses with the throne. Numerous Babylonian tablets of the time date from the accession and the first year of Cambyses, when Cyrus was "king of the countries". After the death of his father in 530 BC, Cambyses became sole king; the tablets dating from his reign in Babylonia run to the end of his eighth year, in 522 BC. Herodotus, who dates his reign from the death of Cyrus, gives his reign a length of seven years five months, from 530 BC to the summer of 523 BC; the traditions about Cambyses, preserved by the Greek authors, come from two different sources. One, which forms the main part of the account of Herodotus, is of Egyptian origin. Cambyses is made the legitimate son of Cyrus and a daughter of Apries named Nitetis, whose death he avenges on the successor of the usurper Amasis; the Persians corrected this tradition: Cambyses wants to marry a daughter of Amasis, who sends him a daughter of Apries instead of his own daughter, by her Cambyses is induced to begin the war.
His great crime is the killing of the Apis bull, for which he is punished by madness, in which he commits many other crimes, kills his brother and his sister, at last loses his empire and dies from a wound in the thigh, at the same place where he had wounded the sacred animal. Intermingled are some stories derived from the Greek mercenaries about their leader Phanes of Halicarnassus, who betrayed Egypt to the Persians. In the Persian tradition the crime of Cambyses is the murder of his brother; these traditions are found in different passages of Herodotus, in a form, but with some trustworthy detail about his household, in the fragments of Ctesias. With the exception of Babylonian dated tablets and some Egyptian inscriptions, no contemporary evidence exists about the reign of Cambyses but the short account of Darius I in the Behistun Inscription, it is difficult to form a correct picture of Cambyses's character from the inscriptions. It was quite natural that, after Cyrus had conquered the Middle East, Cambyses should undertake the conquest of Egypt, the only remaining independent state in that part of the world.
The war took place in 525 BC, when Amasis II had just been succeeded by his son Psamtik III. Cambyses had prepared for the march through the desert by forming an alliance with Arabian chieftains, who brought a large supply of water to the stations. King Amasis had hoped that Egypt would be able to withstand the threatened Persian attack through his alliance with the Greeks. However, this hope failed, as the Cypriot towns and the tyrant Polycrates of Samos, who possessed a large fleet, now preferred to join the Persians, the commander of the Greek troops, Phanes of Halicarnassus went over to them. In the decisive battle at Pelusium the Egyptian army was defeated, shortly afterwards Memphis was taken; the captive king Psammetichus was executed. The Egyptian inscriptions show
Memphis was the ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, the first nome of Lower Egypt. Its ruins are located near the town of Mit Rahina, 20 km south of Giza. According to legend related by Manetho, the city was founded by the pharaoh Menes. Capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom, it remained an important city throughout ancient Egyptian history, it occupied a strategic position at the mouth of the Nile Delta, was home to feverish activity. Its principal port, Peru-nefer, harboured a high density of workshops and warehouses that distributed food and merchandise throughout the ancient kingdom. During its golden age, Memphis thrived as a regional centre for commerce and religion. Memphis was believed to be under the protection of the patron of craftsmen, its great temple, Hut-ka-Ptah, was one of the most prominent structures in the city. The name of this temple, rendered in Greek as Aἴγυπτoς by the historian Manetho, is believed to be the etymological origin of the modern English name Egypt; the history of Memphis is linked to that of the country itself.
Its eventual downfall is believed to be due to the loss of its economic significance in late antiquity, following the rise of coastal Alexandria. Its religious significance diminished after the abandonment of the ancient religion following the Edict of Thessalonica; the ruins of the former capital today offer fragmented evidence of its past. They have been preserved, along with the pyramid complex at Giza, as a World Heritage Site since 1979; the site is open to the public as an open-air museum. Memphis has had several names during its history of four millennia, its Ancient Egyptian name was Inbu-Hedj. Because of its size, the city came to be known by various other names that were the names of neighbourhoods or districts that enjoyed considerable prominence at one time or another. For example, according to a text of the First Intermediate Period, it was known as Djed-Sut, the name of the pyramid of Teti; the city was at one point referred to as Ankh-Tawy, stressing the strategic position of the city between Upper and Lower Egypt.
This name appears to date from the Middle Kingdom, is found in ancient Egyptian texts. Some scholars maintain that this name was that of the western district of the city that lay between the great Temple of Ptah and the necropolis at Saqqara, an area that contained a sacred tree. At the beginning of the New Kingdom, the city became known as Men-nefer, which became "Memfi" in Coptic; the name "Memphis" is the Greek adaptation of this name, the name of the pyramid of Pepi I, located west of the city. However, Greek poet Hesiod in his Theogony says that Memphis was a daughter of river god Nilus and the wife of Epaphus, who founded the city and named it after his wife. In the Bible, Memphis is called Noph; the city of Memphis is 20 km south of Cairo, on the west bank of the Nile. The modern cities and towns of Mit Rahina, Abusir, Abu Gorab, Zawyet el'Aryan, south of Cairo, all lie within the administrative borders of historical Memphis; the city was the place that marked the boundary between Upper and Lower Egypt..
The island of the city is today uninhabited. The closest settlement is the town of Mit Rahina. Estimates of historical population size differ between sources. According to Tertius Chandler, Memphis had some 30,000 inhabitants and was by far the largest settlement worldwide from the time of its foundation until around 2250 BCE and from 1557 to 1400 BCE. K. A. Bard is more cautious and estimates the city's population to have amounted to about 6,000 inhabitants during the Old Kingdom. Memphis became the capital of Ancient Egypt for over eight consecutive dynasties during the Old Kingdom; the city reached a peak of prestige under the 6th dynasty as a centre for the worship of Ptah, the god of creation and artworks. The alabaster sphinx that guards the Temple of Ptah serves as a memorial of the city's former power and prestige; the Memphis triad, consisting of the creator god Ptah, his consort Sekhmet, their son Nefertem, formed the main focus of worship in the city. Memphis declined after the 18th dynasty with the rise of Thebes and the New Kingdom, was revived under the Persians before falling into second place following the foundation of Alexandria.
Under the Roman Empire, Alexandria remained the most important Egyptian city. Memphis remained the second city of Egypt until the establishment of Fustat in 641 CE, it was largely abandoned and became a source of stone for the surrounding settlements. It was still an imposing set of ruins in the 12th century but soon became a little more than an expanse of low ruins and scattered stone; the legend recorded by Manetho was that Menes, the first pharaoh to unite the Two Lands, established his capital on the banks of the Nile by diverting the river with dikes. The Greek historian Herodotus, who tells a similar story, relates that during his visit to the city, the Persians, at that point the suzerains of the country, paid particular attention to the condition of these dams so that the city was saved from the annual flooding, it has been theorised that Menes was a mythical king, similar to Romulus of Rome. Some scholars suggest that Egypt most became unified through mutual need, developing cultural ties and trading partnerships, although it is u
Apries is the name by which Herodotus and Diodorus designate Wahibre Haaibre, a pharaoh of Egypt, the fourth king of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt. He was equated with the Waphres of Manetho, who records that he reigned for 19 years. Apries is called Hophra in Jeremiah 44:30. Apries inherited the throne from his father, pharaoh Psamtik II, in February 589 BC and his reign continued his father's history of foreign intrigue in Judean affairs. Apries was an active builder who constructed "additions to the temples at Athribis, Bahariya Oasis and Sais." In Year 4 of his reign, Apries' sister Ankhnesneferibre was adopted as the new God's Wife of Amun at Thebes. However, Apries' reign was fraught with internal problems. In 588 BC, Apries dispatched a force to Jerusalem to protect it from Babylonian forces sent by Nebuchadnezzar II, his forces withdrew, however avoiding a major confrontation with the Babylonians. Jerusalem, following an 18-month-long siege, was destroyed by the Babylonians in either 587 BC or 586 BC.
Apries's unsuccessful attempt to intervene in the politics of the Kingdom of Judah was followed by a mutiny of soldiers from the strategically important Aswan garrison. While the mutiny was contained, Apries attempted to protect Libya from incursions by Dorian Greek invaders, but his efforts backfired spectacularly, as his forces were mauled by the Greek invaders; when the defeated army returned home, a civil war broke out in the Egyptian army between the indigenous troops and the foreign mercenaries. The Egyptians threw their support to Amasis II, a general who had led Egyptian forces in a successful invasion of Nubia in 592 BC under Pharaoh Psamtik II, Apries' father. Amasis declared himself pharaoh in 570 BC, Apries fled Egypt and sought refuge in a foreign country; when Apries marched back to Egypt in 567 BC with the aid of a Babylonian army to reclaim the throne of Egypt, he was killed in battle with Amasis' forces. Alternatively, Herodotus holds that Apries survived the battle, was captured and treated well by the victorious Amasis, until the Egyptian people demanded justice against him, whereby he was placed into their hands and strangled to death.
Amasis thus secured his kingship over Egypt and was its unchallenged ruler. Amasis, however treated Apries' mortal remains with respect and observed the proper funerary rituals by having Apries' body carried to Sais and buried there with "full military honours." Amasis, the former general who had declared himself pharaoh married Apries' daughter, Chedebnitjerbone II, to legitimise his accession to power. While Herodotus claimed that the wife of Apries was called Nitetis, "there are no contemporary references naming her" in Egyptian records. Eusebius placed the eclipse of Thales in the eighth or twelfth year of Apries' reign. An obelisk which Apries erected at Sais was moved by the 3rd century AD Roman Emperor Diocletian and placed at the Temple of Isis in Rome, it is today located in front of the Santa Maria sopra Minerva basilica church in Rome. List of biblical figures identified in extra-biblical sources