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Battle of Pinkie Cleugh

The Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, sometimes known as the Battle of Pinkie, took place on 10 September 1547 on the banks of the River Esk near Musselburgh, Scotland. The last pitched battle between Scottish and English armies, it was part of the conflict known as the Rough Wooing, is considered to have been the first modern battle in the British Isles, it was a catastrophic defeat for Scotland. A detailed and illustrated English account of the battle and campaign authored by an eyewitness William Patten was published in London as propaganda four months after the battle. In the last years of his reign, King Henry VIII of England tried to secure an alliance with Scotland by the marriage of the infant Mary, Queen of Scots, to his young son, the future Edward VI; when diplomacy failed, Scotland was on the point of an alliance with France, he launched a war against Scotland that has become known as the Rough Wooing. The war had a religious aspect. During the battle, the Scots taunted the English soldiers as "loons", "tykes" and "heretics".

The Earl of Angus, said to have arrived with monks "the professors of the Gospel", the heavy pikemen of the Lowlands, eight thousand strong, was in the lead. When Henry died in 1547, Edward Seymour, maternal uncle of Edward VI, became Lord Protector and Duke of Somerset, with unchallenged power, he continued the policy of forcible alliance with Scotland by the marriage of Mary to Edward, of imposing an Anglican Reformation on the Scottish Church. Early in September 1547, he led a well-equipped army into Scotland, supported by a large fleet; the Earl of Arran, Scottish Regent at the time, was forewarned by letters from Adam Otterburn, his representative in London, who had observed English war preparations. Otterburn may have seen the leather horse armour designed and made by the workshop of the Italian artist Nicholas Bellin of Modena at Greenwich. Somerset's army was composed of the traditional county levies, summoned by Commissions of Array and armed with longbow and bill as they had been at the Battle of Flodden, thirty years before.

However, Somerset had several hundred German mercenary arquebusiers, a large and well-appointed artillery train, 6,000 cavalry, including a contingent of Spanish and Italian mounted arquebusiers under Don Pedro de Gamboa. The cavalry were commanded by Lord Grey of Wilton, as High Marshal of the Army, the infantry by the Earl of Warwick, Lord Dacre of Gillesland, Somerset himself. William Patten, an officer of the English army, recorded its numbers as 16,800 fighting men and 1,400 "pioneers" or labourers. Somerset advanced along the east coast of Scotland to maintain contact with his fleet and thereby keep in supply. Scottish Border Reivers could impose no major check to their advance. Far to the west, a diversionary invasion of 5000 men was led by Thomas Wharton and the dissident Earl of Lennox. On 8 September 1547 they took Castlemilk in Annandale and burnt Annan after a bitter struggle to capture its fortified church. To oppose the English south of Edinburgh, the Earl of Arran had raised a large army, consisting of pikemen with contingents of Highland archers.

Arran had large numbers of guns, but these were not as mobile or as well-served as Somerset's. His cavalry consisted of only 2,000 equipped riders under the Earl of Home, most of whom were unreliable Borderers, his infantry and pikemen were commanded by the Earl of Angus, the Earl of Huntly and Arran himself. According to Huntly, the Scottish army numbered 22,000 or 23,000 men, while an English source claimed that it comprised 36,000. Arran occupied the slopes on the west bank of the River Esk to bar Somerset's progress; the Firth of Forth was on his left flank, a large bog protected his right. Some fortifications were constructed in; some guns pointed out into the Forth to keep English warships at a distance. On 9 September part of Somerset's army occupied Falside Hill, 3 miles east of Arran's main position. In an outdated chivalric gesture, the Earl of Home led 1,500 horsemen close to the English encampment and challenged an equal number of English cavalry to fight. With Somerset's reluctant approval, Lord Grey accepted the challenge and engaged the Scots with 1,000 armoured men-at-arms and 500 lighter demi-lancers.

The Scottish horsemen were pursued west for 3 mi. This action cost Arran most of his cavalry; the Scots lost around 800 men in the skirmish. Lord Home was badly wounded, his sons were taken hostage. During the day, Somerset sent a detachment with guns to occupy the Inveresk Slopes, which overlooked the Scottish position. During the night, Somerset received two more anachronistic challenges from Arran. One request was for Arran to settle the dispute by single combat. Another was for 20 champions from each side to decide the matter. Somerset rejected both proposals. On the morning of Saturday, 10 September, Somerset advanced his army, seeking to position his artillery at Inveresk. In response Arran moved his army across the Esk by the "Roman bridge", advanced to meet him. Arran may have seen movement in the English lines and assumed that the English were trying to retreat to their ships. Arran knew himself to be outmatched in artillery and therefore tried to force close combat before the English artillery could be deployed.

Arran's left wing came under fire from English ships offshore. Their advance meant, they were thrown into disorder and

St Mary's Church, Bramall Lane

St Mary's Church, Bramall Lane is a Church of England parish church in the City of Sheffield, England. St Mary's Church is one of three churches that were built in Sheffield under the Church Building Act 1818, is the only one still to be used as a church; the church was designed by Joseph Potter and cost £13,927. A grant of £13,941 was received from the Church Building Commission to cover the cost of building and other expenses; the foundation stone was laid on 12 October 1826 by the Countess of Surrey, the church was consecrated on 21 July 1830. The church is built in the Perpendicular style, with a 140 feet high tower, It was damaged by bombing during the "Sheffield Blitz" and when restored was divided: the chancel and two east bays of the nave remained in use as a church, the rest of the building used as a community centre, it is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated grade II* listed building. In 2000, a major internal refurbishment took place resulting in the church and community centre becoming a combined space.

The space is used to host conferences. There are close links between the church and Sheffield United F. C. whose ground is situated on Bramall Lane. During the refurbishment in 2000, church services took place at the football club. Listed buildings in Sheffield List of Commissioners' churches in Yorkshire Official website


Jang-geum was reputedly the first female Royal Physician in Korean history. She was mentioned 10 times in the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty, it is known that King Jungjong was pleased with Jang-geum's medical knowledge and trusted her with taking care of the royal family. Henceforth, Jang-geum became the third highest-ranking officer in the Court, was granted the use of Dae before her first name; some sources attest to Jang-geum as a real person and it is still a topic of debate among scholars. Mentions of "Jang-geum", sometimes alongside the title "female doctor", were noted on 10 occasions: 04 April 1515: Some court officers sent petitions to King Jungjong to punish all the uinyeo that had attended to the deceased Queen, including Jang-geum. Queen Janggyeong died past midnight on 16 March due to post-partum complications resulting from the birth of the legitimate heir; this was the first recorded entry as well as mention of Jang-geum's name in the Annals. 05 April 1515: In reply to the above petition, King Jungjong refused: "Jang-geum deserved a big credit for her role in the safe childbirth, but I have never rewarded her for her actions until now, because of other affairs.

Now you are telling me to punish her because the Queen is dead, but I won't do that as well as I won't reward her." 24 September 1522: Jungjong was recorded to have rewarded the staff of the medical department after the Queen Mother recovered from an illness. Jang-geum was rewarded 10 sacks of beans. 08 January 1525: Jungjong commented, after an illness: " However, Dae Jang-geum was better than any other uinyeo. As a result, she was permitted to look after the King"; this was the first recorded instance of the title "dae" attached to Jang-geum's name in the Annals. 06 March 1533: Jungjong commented on his state of health: "I have recovered from a sickness of several months. The royal physicians deserve reward. Uinyeo Dae Jang-geum and Kye-geum will each be rewarded 15 sacks of rice, 15 sacks of beans, 10 bolts of cloth." 21 February 1544: Jungjong commented on an order: "I haven't been able to execute my duties for a long time since I caught a cold. A few days ago, I attended an academic seminar.

I told the royal physicians Park Se-geo and Hong Chim, as well as uinyeo Dae Jang-geum, Eun-bi, the rest to discuss about the prescription with the medical officer-in-charge. " 02 March 1544: In relation to above, Jungjong recovered from his cold, was recorded to have rewarded the royal physicians and their staff. Dae Jang-geum was rewarded 5 sacks of rice and beans; this was the last record. 09 November 1544: The Annals recorded a conversation between the high-ranking ministers of the court and of Jang-geum, regarding on their enquiry on Jungjong's health. Wherein afterwards the physicians Park Se-geo and Hong Chim examined Jungjong's pulse and prescribed medications. Jang-geum was quoted: "His Majesty slept around midnight yesterday, has slept for a short time at dawn, he just passed his urine, but has been constipated for around 3 days." 10 November 1544: Jungjong commented: "I'm still constipated. What prescription should be made is under discussion; the female physician knows all about my condition," referring to the previous entry, where Jang-geum's reply was inserted as a complementary side-note.

13 November 1544: The Annals reported that Jungjong has recovered, transmitted to ministers who came by in greeting. Afterwards Jungjong granted all of the medical officers in attendance a holiday. Jungjong mentioned that Jang-geum visited him in the morning, told her that he had passed his stool and that he had felt immense relief; this was the last recorded entry as well as direct mention of Jang-geum's name in the Annals. 16 days Jungjong passed away. Jang-geum was mentioned in a book title "Yi dynasty Medical Officer's Journal"; the following was a text regarding Jang-geum's origins and achievements, as recorded in the medical journal. "Medical Lady Jang-geum, whose origins cannot be traced, received the right to be called "Dae Jang-geum" under an edict issued by the 11th King of Korea, Jungjong, in the 18th year of his reign. At that time, there was no precedent of a Medical Lady treating a King, but the King trusted in Jang-geum's method of treating illness with food. Jang-geum, with the granting of the right to use "Dae" in her name, is an epic lady whose name will be recorded in the history books."

Portrayed by Lee Young-ae in the 2003–2004 MBC TV series Dae Jang Geum. Portrayed by Kim Mi-kyung in the 2013 KBS2 TV series The Fugitive of Joseon. Joseon Dynasty List of Koreans

Grand Buddha at Ling Shan

The Grand Buddha is located at the south of the Longshan Mountain, near Mashan, town of Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China. It is one of the largest Buddha statues in China and in the world; the Grand Buddha at Ling Shan is a bronze Amitabha standing Buddha outdoor. It was completed at the end of 1996; the monument is 88 meters including 9 m lotus pedestal. In 2008, a Five-signets Palace and a Hindu inspired Brahma Palace were built south-east of the Grand Buddha Statue. List of statues by height Travel guide in Jiangsu and other provinces

Sahiwal District

Sahiwal District, is a district in the Punjab province of Pakistan. In 1998, it had a population of 16.27 % of which were in urban areas. Since 2008, Sahiwal District, Okara District, Pakpattan District have comprised the Sahiwal Division; the city of Sahiwal is the capital of the division. The Sahiwal District has been settled from the pre-historical era. Harappa is an archaeological site, about 35 km west of Sahiwal, built 2600 BCE; the area was part of South Asian empires and in crossroads of migrations and invasions from Central Asia. Sahiwal District was an agricultural region with forests during the Indus Valley Civilization; the Vedic period is characterized by Indo-Aryan culture that invaded from Central Asia and settled in Punjab region. The Kambojas, Kaikayas, Pauravas, Yaudheyas and Kurus invaded and ruled ancient Punjab region. After overrunning the Achaemenid Empire in 331 BCE, Alexander marched into present-day Punjab region with an army of 50,000; the Sahiwal was ruled by Maurya Empire, Indo-Greek kingdom, Kushan Empire, Gupta Empire, White Huns, Kushano-Hephthalites and Shahi kingdoms.

From the beginning of the 7th century Rajput kingdoms dominated Eastern portions of Pakistan and northern India. In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, followed it by the conquests of some western Punjab region. Eastern Regions of Punjab from Multan to the Rawalpindi in north remained under Rajput rule until 1193; the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region; the pastoral tribes of this barren expanse did not appear to have paid more than a nominal allegiance to the Muslim rulers. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, this area became part of the Sikh Empire; the district came under direct British rule in 1849, when the district was formed with its headquarters at Pakpattan. The district was expanded to include the trans-Ravi portion in 1852, the district headquarters were moved to Gugera.

In 1865, when the railway was opened, a village on the railway, was named Montgomery and became the capital of the district. During the period of British rule, Sahiwal district increased in importance. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, there was a general rising of the Rajput clans, the district formed the scene of the only rising which took place north of the Sutlej. Before the end of May 1857, emissaries from Delhi crossed the river from Sirsa and Hissar, where open rebellion was rife, met with a ready reception from the Kharrals and other Rajput clans; the district authorities, kept down the threatened rising till August 26, 1857 when jail prisoners made a desperate attempt to break loose. At the same time Ahmad Khan, a famous Kharral leader, detained at Gugera, broke his arrest and, though apprehended, was released on security, together with several other suspected chieftains. On September 16 they fled to their homes, the whole country rose in open rebellion. Kot Kamalia was sacked. Major Chamberlain, moving up with a small force from Multan, was besieged for some days at Chichawatni on the Ravi.

The situation at the civil station remained critical till Colonel Paton arrived with substantial reinforcements from Lahore. An attack which took place after their arrival was repulsed. Several minor actions followed in the open field, until the rebels, driven from the plain into the wildest jungles of the interior, were utterly defeated and dispersed; the British troops inflicted severe punishment on the insurgent clans, destroying their villages, seizing large numbers of cattle for sale. The region was traversed from Lahore to Multan, it is irrigated from the Ravi. The Rechna Doab was long home to the pastoral Jats, who had maintained a sturdy independence against the successive rulers of northern India; the sites of Kot Kamalia and Harappa contain large mounds of antique bricks and other ruins left by the Indus Valley Civilisation, while many other remains of ancient cities or villages lie scattered along the river bank, or dotted the then-barren stretches of the central waste. The district comprised 1371 villages.

Its population was 360,445, 426,529, 499,521 and 497,706. In 1901, 72% of the population were Muslims, while Hindus and Sikhs formed 28%; the district was part of the Lahore Division of Punjab. The predominantly Muslim population supported Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Sahiwal. According to the 1998 census, Punjabi is the predominant first language of the district accounting for 98% of its population. Urdu is the first language of 1.4% and Pashto of 0.4%. Sahiwal Division is in the southeast of Punjab. From Multan Division it lies between 73-06 longitude, it is 500 ft above sea level. It forms a parallelogram lying NE-SW along the River Ravi, it is 100 km from east to west and 45 km from the north-western boundary of the Division of Sahiwal, Division Faisalabad, District Toba Tek Singh. The dry River Khushak Bias separates it from the District Pakpattan. Okara District is east of the division.

District Khanewal and District Vehari form boundaries

Erich Weber

Erich Paul Weber was a German army officer, who served in both the German Imperial Army and the Ottoman Army during World War I, attained the rank of General of Infantry. Weber entered the Prussian Army and received his commission as Sekondeleutnant on 15 April 1878. A successful career as a junior regimental officer culminated in his command of the Schleswig-Holsteinische Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 9, headquartered in Harburg. On 14 April 1907, with the rank of Major, he was transferred to Engineer Inspectorate IV, where he served as an engineer officer in the Metz Fortification Command. On 22 March 1910 he was promoted to Oberstleutnant, his transfer to Strasbourg on 22 May 1912 followed his appointment as commanding officer of the Pioneers of the XV Corps. In this position he wore the uniform of the 1. Elsässische Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 15. On 19 November 1912 he was promoted to Oberst. On 3 December 1913 Weber was selected to participate in the newly inaugurated German Military Mission to the Ottoman Empire, headed by Liman von Sanders.

On 8 December Weber was formally granted retirement from active service in the German Imperial Army prior to his transfer to the Ottoman Army, he was among the first contingent of 10 German officers to arrive in Istanbul that month. He was appointed Inspector-General of Engineers attached to the Ottoman Ministry of War, with the higher Ottoman rank of Mirliva; as a specialist in fortifications, when the Ottoman Empire began preparing to enter World War I, Weber was assigned to strengthen the coastal defences of the Dardanelles. In late March/April 1915 he was appointed commander of the Ottoman XV Corps on the Asian shore of the Straits. During the Gallipoli Campaign, he distinguished himself in the early stages of the fighting on the Asian side of the Dardanelles. On 18 April 1915 he was promoted to the German rank of Generalmajor and thus automatically attained the higher Ottoman rank of Ferik, along with the honorific Ottoman title of Pasha. On 5 May Weber was appointed commander of South Group, on the southern part of the Gallipoli peninsula, during a phase of heavy fighting in this sector.

Following criticism of his performance, Weber quarreled with Liman von Sanders and was relieved of this command on 8 July. In October 1915 Weber returned to Germany. Formally reinstated in the German Imperial Army, from 22 October to 16 November 1915 he served on the Western Front as commanding officer of 100th Infantry Brigade. On 21 December 1916 he assumed command of 9th Division on the Western Front and remained in this post until the Armistice in 1918. Following the end of the war, Weber was absorbed into the Provisional Reichswehr. On 16 June 1920 he was promoted to Generalleutnant and appointed commander of Military District II. After the formation of the Reichswehr, on 1 October 1920 he was appointed commanding officer of the 2nd Division, based in Stettin. On 15 June 1921 he retired from the Reichswehr with the brevet rank of General der Infanterie. Weber's daughter Ingeborg married the High Admiral Karl Dönitz in 1916; the Bundeswehr barracks in Höxter are named after Weber