Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Florida, Georgia and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was dependent upon agriculture cotton, a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves; each state declared its secession from the United States, which became known as the Union during the ensuing civil war, following the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U. S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories. Before Lincoln took office in March, a new Confederate government was established in February 1861, considered illegal by the government of the United States. States volunteered militia units and the new government hastened to form its own Confederate States Army from scratch overnight.
After the American Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South—Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina—also declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The Confederacy accepted Missouri and Kentucky as members, although neither declared secession nor were they largely controlled by Confederate forces; the government of the United States rejected the claims of secession and considered the Confederacy illegally founded. The War began with the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. No foreign government recognized the Confederacy as an independent country, although Great Britain and France granted it belligerent status, which allowed Confederate agents to contract with private concerns for arms and other supplies. In early 1865, after four years of heavy fighting which led to 620,000–850,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered and the Confederacy vanished; the war lacked a formal end.
By 1865 Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederate States of America for the duration of the civil war, lamented that the Confederacy had "disappeared". On February 22, 1862, the Confederate Constitution of seven state signatories – Mississippi, South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Texas – replaced the Provisional Constitution of February 8, 1861, with one stating in its preamble a desire for a "permanent federal government". Four additional slave-holding states – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy following a call by U. S. President Abraham Lincoln for troops from each state to recapture Sumter and other seized federal properties in the South. Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions adopting the forms of state governments without control of substantial territory or population in either case; the antebellum state governments in both maintained their representation in the Union. Fighting for the Confederacy were two of the "Five Civilized Tribes" – the Choctaw and the Chickasaw – in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona.
Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of martial law. A Unionist government was formed in opposition to the secessionist state government in Richmond and administered the western parts of Virginia, occupied by Federal troops; the Restored Government recognized the new state of West Virginia, admitted to the Union during the war on June 20, 1863, re-located to Alexandria for the rest of the war. Confederate control over its claimed territory and population in congressional districts shrank from 73% to 34% during the course of the American Civil War due to the Union's successful overland campaigns, its control of the inland waterways into the South, its blockade of the southern coast. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal; as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers; the most notable advance was Sherman's "March to the Sea" in late 1864.
Much of the Confederacy's infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs and bridges. Plantations in the path of Sherman's forces were damaged. Internal movement became difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and limiting army mobility; these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance. Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Davis's administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, allegations of autocratic government. After four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. A few days General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant signalling the collapse of the Confederacy. President Davis was captured on May 10, 1865, jailed in preparation for a treason trial, never held; the initial Confederacy was established in the Montgomery Convention in February 1861 by seven states (South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana
Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War
This timeline of events leading up to the American Civil War describes and links to narrative articles and references about many of the events and issues which historians recognize as origins and causes of the Civil War. The pre-Civil War events can be divided into a period encompassing the long-term build-up over many decades and a period encompassing the five-month build-up to war after the election of Abraham Lincoln as President in the Election of 1860, which culminated in the Fall of Fort Sumter. Since the early colonial period in Virginia, slavery had been a part of the socioeconomic system of British North America and was recognized in the Thirteen Colonies at the time of the United States' Declaration of Independence. Since events and statements by politicians and others brought forth differences and divisions between the people of the slave states of the Southern United States and the people of the free states of the Northern United States over the topics of slavery; the large underlying issue from which other issues developed was whether slavery should be retained and expanded to other areas or whether it should be contained and abolished.
Over many decades, these issues and divisions became irreconcilable and contentious. Events in the 1850s culminated with the election of the anti-slavery Republican Abraham Lincoln as President on November 6, 1860; this provoked the first round of state secession as leaders of the Deep South cotton states were unwilling to remain in a second class political status with their way of life threatened by the President himself. The seven Deep South states seceded, with economies based on cotton, they were Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, South Carolina and Texas. After the Confederates attacked and captured Fort Sumter, President Lincoln called for volunteers to march south and suppress the rebellion; this pushed the four other Upper South States to secede. These states completed the formation of the Confederate States of America, their addition to the Confederacy ensured a war would be prolonged and bloody because they contributed territory and soldiers. The most significant, but not quite all, notable events related to government, secession of states, actions of key individuals, initiation of the American Civil War that occurred between November 6, 1860 and April 15, 1861 follow.
Additional events related to secession and initiation of the war follow. Several small skirmishes and battles as well as bloody riots in St. Louis and Baltimore took place in the early months of the war; the Battle of First Bull Run or Battle of First Manassas, the first major battle of the war, occurred on July 21, 1861. After that, it became clear that there could be no compromise between the Union and the seceding states and that a long and bloody war could not be avoided. All hope of a settlement short of a catastrophic war was lost. Issues of the American Civil War Battles of the American Civil War Origins of the American Civil War Slavery in the United States Timeline of the civil rights movement Bibliography of the American Civil War Bibliography of Abraham Lincoln Bibliography of Ulysses S. Grant
Portland Head Light
Portland Head Light, is a historic lighthouse in Cape Elizabeth, Maine. The light station sits on a head of land at the entrance of the primary shipping channel into Portland Harbor, within Casco Bay in the Gulf of Maine. Completed in 1791, it is the oldest lighthouse in the state of Maine; the light station is automated, the tower and foghorn are maintained by the United States Coast Guard, while the former lighthouse keepers' house is a maritime museum within Fort Williams Park. Construction began in 1787 at the directive of George Washington, was completed on January 10, 1791 using a fund of $1,500, established by him. Whale oil lamps were used for illumination. In 1855, following formation of the Lighthouse Board, a fourth-order Fresnel lens was installed; that lens was updated with a DCB-224 aerobeacon in 1991. In 1787, while Maine was still part of the state of Massachusetts, George Washington engaged two masons from the town of Falmouth, Jonathan Bryant and John Nichols, instructed them to take charge of the construction of a lighthouse on Portland Head.
Washington reminded them that the early government was poor, said that the materials used to build the lighthouse should be taken from the fields and shores, which could be handled nicely when hauled by oxen on a drag. The original plans called for the tower to be 58 feet tall; when the masons completed this task they climbed to the top of the tower and realized that it would not be visible beyond the headlands to the south, so it was raised 20 feet. The tower was built of rubblestone, Washington gave the masons four years to build it. While it was under construction in 1789, the federal government was being formed and for a while it looked as though the lighthouse would not be finished. Following passage of their ninth law, the first congress made an appropriation and authorized the Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, to inform the mechanics that they could go on with the completion of the tower. On August 10, 1790, the second session of congress appropriated a sum not to exceed $1500, under the direction of the President, "to cause the said lighthouse to be finished and completed accordingly."
The tower was completed during 1790 and first lit January 10, 1791. During the American Civil War, raids on shipping in and out of Portland Harbor became commonplace, because of the necessity for ships at sea to sight Portland Head Light as soon as possible, the tower was raised twenty feet; the current keepers' house was built in 1891. When Halfway Rock Light was built, Portland Head Light was considered less important and in 1883 the tower was shortened 20 feet and a weaker fourth-order Fresnel lens was added; the former height and second-order Fresnel lens was restored in 1885 following mariners' complaints. The station has changed little except for the rebuilding of the whistle house in 1975 due to it being badly damaged in a storm. Today, Portland Head Light stands 80 feet above ground and 101 feet above water, its white conical tower being connected with a dwelling; the 224 airport style aerobeacon is visible for 24 nautical miles. The 400 watt metal halide lamp is rated for 20,000 hours and produces 36,000 lumens of light at 200,000 candlepower.
The grounds, keeper's house are owned by the town of Cape Elizabeth, while the beacon, fog signal are owned and maintained by the U. S. Coast Guard as a current aid to navigation, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places as Portland Head light on April 24, 1973, reference number 73000121. Joseph K. Greenleaf David Duncan Barzillai Delano Joshua Freeman Richard Lee John F. Watts John W. Coolidge James S. Williams James Delano Elder M. Jordan Joshua F. Strout Joseph W. Strout Edward Hopper painted the lighthouse in 1927; the watercolor resides at Boston's Museum of Fine Arts. A snowy Portland Head Light was featured in the 1999 drama Snow Falling on Cedars, filmed during the Ice storm of 1998; the lighthouse was featured on ABC Networks Marvel Television show Agents of S. H. I. E. L. D - Season 5, it had an underground bunker used by SHIELD for an apocalyptic event and acted as their covert base of operations. Annie C. Maguire shipwreck Port of Portland, ME National Register of Historic Places listings in Cumberland County, Maine Media related to Portland Head Lighthouse at Wikimedia Commons Portland Head Light - official site Portland Head Light - United States Lighthouses
Boston Harbor is a natural harbor and estuary of Massachusetts Bay, is located adjacent to the city of Boston, Massachusetts. It is home to the Port of Boston, a major shipping facility in the northeastern United States. Since its discovery to Europeans by John Smith in 1614, Boston Harbor has been an important port in American history, it was the site of the Boston Tea Party as well as continuous building of waves, piers, a new filled land into the harbor until the 19th century. By 1660 all imports came to the greater Boston area and the New England coast through the waters of Boston Harbor. A rapid influx of people transformed Boston into a booming city; the health of the harbor deteriorated as the population of Boston increased. As early as the late 19th century Boston citizens were advised not to swim in any portion of the Harbor. In the 19th century, two of the first steam sewage stations were built. With these mandates, the harbor was seeing small improvements, but raw sewage was still continuously pumped into the harbor.
In 1919, the Metropolitan District Commission was created to oversee and regulate the quality of harbor water. However, not much improvement was seen and general public awareness of the poor quality of water was low. In 1972 the Clean Water Act was passed in order to help promote increased national water quality. Boston did not receive a clean water act waiver from the Environmental Protection Agency, leaving Boston with little incentive to increase water quality of the harbor. Since the mid-1970s organizations within the Boston community have battled for a cleaner Boston Harbor. More the harbor was the site of the $4.5 billion Boston Harbor Project. Failures at the Nut Island sewage treatment plant in Quincy and the companion Deer Island plant adjacent to Winthrop had far-reaching environmental and political effects. Fecal coliform bacteria levels forced frequent swimming prohibitions along the harbor beaches and the Charles River for many years; the city of Quincy sued the Metropolitan District Commission and the separate Boston Water and Sewer Commission in 1982, charging that unchecked systemic pollution of the city’s waterfront contributed to the problem.
That suit was followed by one by the Conservation Law Foundation and by the United States government, resulting in the landmark court-ordered cleanup of Boston Harbor. The lawsuits forced then-Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis to propose separating the water and sewer treatment divisions from the MDC, resulting in the creation of the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority in 1985; the slow progress of the cleanup became a key theme of the 1988 U. S. presidential election as George H. W. Bush defeated Dukakis through campaign speeches casting doubt on the governor’s environmental record, which Dukakis himself had claimed was better than that of Bush; the court-ordered cleanup is still ongoing. Before the clean-up projects, the water was so polluted that The Standells released a song in 1965 called "Dirty Water" which referred to the sorry state of the Charles River. Neal Stephenson, who attended Boston University from 1977 to 1981, based his second novel, around pollution of the harbor. Since the writing of the song, the water quality in both the Harbor and the Charles River has improved, the projects have transformed Boston Harbor from one of the filthiest in the nation to one of the cleanest.
Today, Boston Harbor is safe for fishing and for swimming nearly every day, though there are still beach closings after small rainstorms, caused by bacteria-laden storm water and the occasional combined sewer overflow. Boston Harbor is a large harbor; the harbor is sheltered from Massachusetts Bay and the open Atlantic Ocean by a combination of the Winthrop Peninsula and Deer Island to the north, the hooked Nantasket Peninsula and Point Allerton to the south, the harbor islands in the middle. The harbor is described as being split into an inner harbor and an outer harbor; the harbor itself comprises fifty square miles with 180 miles of 34 harbor islands. The inner harbor was the main port of Boston and is still the site of most of its port facilities as well as the Boston waterfront, redeveloped for residential and recreational uses; the inner harbor extends from the mouths of the Charles River and the Mystic River, both of which empty into the harbor, to Logan International Airport and Castle Island, where the inner harbor meets the outer harbor.
The outer harbor stretches to east of the inner harbor. To its landward side, moving in a counterclockwise direction, the harbor is made up of the three small bays of Dorchester Bay, Quincy Bay and Hingham Bay. To seaward, the two deep water anchorages of President Roads and Nantasket Roads are separated by Long Island; the outer harbor is fed by several rivers, including the Neponset River, the Weymouth Fore River, the Weymouth Back River and the Weir River. Dredged deepwater channels stretch from President Roads to the inner harbor, from Nantasket Roads to the Weymouth Fore River and Hingham Bay via Hull Gut and West Gut; some commercial port facilities are located in the Fore River area, an area which has a history of shipbuilding including the notable Fore River Shipyard. In the 1830s members of the maritime community observed physical decay in the harbor. Islands in the outer harbor were visibly deteriorating and erosion was causing weathered materials and sediment to move from where it was protecting the harbor to where it would do the most harm.
Recent shoaling experiences and comparisons with old charts caused observers to
Southport is a town in Lincoln County, United States. The population was 606 at the 2010 census, it includes the villages of Southport, West Southport, Cape Newagen, Squirrel Island. The majority of the town's residents live on Southport Island. Cape Newagen, at the southern tip of the island, was an early European fishing outpost. Southport was part of Boothbay until it separated on February 12, 1842. Called Townshend after Lord Townshend, the name was changed to Southport in 1850. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 23.16 square miles, of which, 5.38 square miles of it is land and 17.78 square miles is water. Southport is on Southport Island in the mouth of the Sheepscot River; the Town of Southport comprises the whole of smaller islands. It is crossed by state routes 27 and 238, it is connected by a green swing bridge to the adjacent municipality of Boothbay Harbor. As of the census of 2010, there were 606 people, 316 households, 195 families residing in the town.
The population density was 112.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,051 housing units at an average density of 195.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.5% White, 1.7% from two or more races, 1.3% Asian, 0.3% African American and 0.2% Native American. Hispanic and/or Latino of any race were 0.2% of the population. There were 316 households of which 14.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.1% were married couples living together, 4.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 1.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 38.3% were non-families. 33.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.92 and the average family size was 2.38. The median age in the town was 60.1 years. 12% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 48.5% male and 51.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 684 people, 331 households, 218 families residing in the town.
The population density was 127.0 people per square mile. There were 912 housing units at an average density of 169.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.83% White, 0.58% Asian, 0.58% from two or more races. There were 331 households out of which 19.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.8% were married couples living together, 3.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.1% were non-families. 29.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.07 and the average family size was 2.52. In the town, the population was spread out with 14.6% under the age of 18, 3.5% from 18 to 24, 15.4% from 25 to 44, 35.7% from 45 to 64, 30.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 53 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $38,125, the median income for a family was $52,750.
Males had a median income of $35,500 versus $24,583 for females. The per capita income for the town was $33,481. About 4.2% of families and 6.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.2% of those under age 18 and 3.3% of those age 65 or over. Boothbay Register newspaper Cuckolds Light Hendricks Head Light Hendricks Hill Museum Southport Yacht Club Ralph H. Cameron, US representative and senator from Arizona Rachel Carson, marine biologist and nature writer Wilder Hobson and editor Hart Day Leavitt and jazz musician Gustaf Tenggren, illustrator Claggett Wilson, painter Francis Byron Greene, History of Boothbay and Boothbay Harbor, Maine 1623-1905.
Great Lakes Patrol
The Great Lakes Patrol was carried out by American naval forces, beginning in 1844 to suppress criminal activity and to protect the maritime border with Canada. A small force of United States Navy, Coast Guard, Revenue Service ships served in the Great Lakes throughout these operations. Through the decades, they were involved in several incidents with rebels; the patrol was ended in 1920 when the US Coast Guard assumed full command of the operations as part of the Rum Patrol. This was initiated during the Prohibition era to try to reduce or end liquor smuggling from Canada across the rivers and lakes, a difficult task; the USS Michigan led the patrol singlehandedly, from its beginning on October 1, 1844 until the ship was retired in 1912. Michigan was the only American gunboat to patrol the vast Great Lakes, she was the navy's first iron-hulled warship. The Michigan was built to defend the lakes due to the construction of two British steamers during the Canadian rebellions in 1837. Based in Erie, Pennsylvania throughout her career, the gunboat was commissioned on September 29, 1844 under Commander William Inman.
Because the Great Lakes are vast inland seas in the north of the continent, during every winter parts of the lakes would freeze over, ending ship traffic. When passageways were open, icebergs would make navigation hazardous and difficult; the Michigan sailed from about March to December before heading back for Erie for the winter. A type of house was built there at its mooring to protect the ship from the elements. During the winter, the officers and crew of the ship either stayed at their homes in Erie or at a government-owned hotel near the wharf. In 1853 the USS Michigan was assigned to operate against criminals who were ravaging the logging industry; these so called timber pirates conducted illegal cutting of timber on federal land and smuggled the valuable commodity out of the area in order to sell it. The areas most affected were in the western Great Lakes region, along the coasts of Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. Much of these forested areas controlled by the government were reserved for the building of new warships.
The illegal timber trade centered on Milwaukee. It was nearly as violent as the alcohol trade, carried out over the same waters during the Prohibition era of the 1920s. In 1851 the government sent timber agents from the Department of the Interior to survey the land and work with local police and naval forces to stop the crime; when loads of wood were found to have been acquired illegally, the agents confiscated it and auctioned it off to the public, in foreign markets. Many of the timber barons of the Great Lakes were involved in the illegal trade, they began stealing back the wood or burning it before it could be shipped away. Timber agents and smugglers came into conflict on the upper Mississippi River. An separate United States Navy operation was conducted along the Calcasieu River of Louisiana. In 1852 one agent was killed by the pirates while sailing a raft loaded with stolen timber to Dubuque, Iowa. Newspapers such as The Chicago Tribune and The Chicago Democratic Press advocated armed resistance against the agents.
One article in the Chicago Tribune read. If men cannot have a law protect their property, they will protect it themselves." The newspapers noted that most of the timber smugglers were from Wisconsin and Illinois, raided Michigan's timberlands, causing much damage to the reserves. When Agent Isaac W. Willard was sent to the Great Lakes in 1853, he observed gangs of timber pirates defy and intimidate federal authorities and burn government-owned property, they burned boats loaded with logs at Grand Haven, as a re-enactment of the Boston Tea Party of 1773. At this time the only American warship on the Great Lakes was the USS Michigan under Commander Abraham Bigelow; the only other vessel in the lakes which could have been used against the pirates was the revenue cutter USRC Ingham, described by one Detroit newspaper as being "burlesque" and unfit for duty. Because the Ingham had no steam engine, was propelled by sails and wind, the more advanced steam-powered vessels used by the smugglers, could escape her.
In late April the Michigan headed for Buffalo to resupply before her yearly patrol. After that Commander Bigelow sailed west across Lake Erie, passing north along Detroit on Thursday, May 5, 1853 and entered Lake Huron via Saint Clair River. On the following morning, at about 2:15 am, a lookout sighted a light in the darkness ahead of the Michigan; the officer on duty, Lieutenant George M. Ransom, ordered the helmsman to steer north by northwest, so as to avoid the light, but by 2:40 am the light was still ahead and "close upon us", according to one sailor. At 3:00 am the two ships were only a few hundred yards from each other and it appeared as though the two would pass by. However, the unknown ship turned ninety degrees to port side and headed straight for the Michigan's port bow. Lieutenant Ransom had only a few seconds to react, he ordered the ship hard to port. Just as he was ringing the ship's bell to alarm the crew, the unknown ship crashed into the Michigan. Damage to the gunboat was heavy, though because of her iron hull, there was no leaking and the ship was not in danger of sinking.
Commander Bigelow said to Secretary of the Navy James Cochran Dobbin. The other ship bounced off the Michigan's metal hull just after impact, her com
Fort Warren (Massachusetts)
Fort Warren is a historic fort on the 28-acre Georges Island at the entrance to Boston Harbor. It is not to be confused with Fort Winthrop, named Fort Warren from 1808 to 1833. Fort Warren is a pentagonal bastion fort, made with stone and granite, was constructed from 1833–1861, completed shortly after the beginning of the American Civil War. Fort Warren defended the harbor in Boston, from 1861 through the end of World War II, during the Civil War served as a prison for Confederate officers and government officials; the fort remained active through the Spanish–American War and World War I, was re-activated during World War II. It was permanently decommissioned in 1947, is now a tourist site, it was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1970 as a masterpiece of coastal engineering of the pre-Civil War period, for its role in the Civil War. The fort is named for Revolutionary War hero Dr. Joseph Warren, who sent Paul Revere on his famous ride, was killed at the Battle of Bunker Hill; the name was transferred from the first Fort Warren in 1833, renamed Fort Winthrop.
Fort Warren was built from 1833 to 1861 and was completed shortly after the beginning of the American Civil War as part of the third system of US fortifications. The Army engineer in charge during the bulk of the fort's construction was Colonel Sylvanus Thayer, best known for his tenure as Superintendent of the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, it was the fifth largest of the 42 third system forts. The overall plan was pentagonal in shape irregular to make the best use of the island's terrain; the fort features excellent granite work. A demilune battery protecting the north sally port is a rare feature in US forts; the fort was designed for over 200 guns, including some mortars and flank howitzers. During the Civil War it was armed with 10-inch Rodman smoothbore guns. During the Civil War, the island fort served as a prison for captured Confederate army and navy personnel, elected civil officials from the state of Maryland, Northern political prisoners. James M. Mason and John Slidell, the Confederate diplomats seized in the Trent affair, were among those held at the fort.
Confederate military officers held at Fort Warren included Richard S. Ewell, Isaac R. Trimble, John Gregg, Adam "Stovepipe" Johnson, Simon Bolivar Buckner, Sr. and Lloyd Tilghman. High-ranking civilians held at Fort Warren include Confederate Vice President Alexander H. Stephens and Confederate Postmaster General John Henninger Reagan; the prison camp had a reputation for humane treatment of its detainees. When the camp commander's son, Lieutenant Justin E. Dimick, left Fort Warren for active duty in the field with the Second U. S. Artillery, he was given a letter from Confederate officers in the camp urging good care should he be captured; the famous Union marching song John Brown's Body was written at the fort using a tune from an old Methodist camp song, was performed at a flag-raising there on 12 May 1861. The song was carried to the Army of the Potomac by the men of the "Webster Regiment", who had mustered in at Fort Warren. Julia Ward Howe heard this song while visiting Washington, DC. At the suggestion of her minister, Howe was encouraged to write new words.
The Battle Hymn of the Republic, published as a poem, was matched with the melody of the "John Brown" song and became one of the best remembered songs of the Civil War era. In the 1870s Fort Warren was upgraded with new barbette batteries on the parapets along with a six-gun external battery. A plaque at the fort states that the southeast bastion was roofed over at this time to create a rare casemated 15-inch Rodman gun battery; the massive brick arches built to enclose this bastion are impressive. From 1892 to 1903 Fort Warren was rebuilt to accommodate modern breech-loading rifled guns under the Endicott program. Five batteries were added to the fort, replacing some of the older gun positions, as follows: The two 12-inch and five 10-inch guns were the fort's main armament against enemy battleships. For defense against smaller vessels to defend nearby mine fields against minesweepers, two 4-inch and three 3-inch guns were included; the 4-inch guns were a Navy design by Driggs-Schroeder, in the whole US Army coast defense system only Fort Warren and Fort Washington in Maryland had this type of gun.
Battery Adams was built of low-quality concrete and was disarmed and abandoned due to deterioration in 1914. Fort Warren was the headquarters of the Coast Defenses of Boston in World War I. In 1917–1918 the four 10-inch guns of Battery Bartlett were removed for potential service as railway artillery on the Western Front. Contrary to some references, no 10-inch railway guns were mounted in time to be shipped to France for World War I. Different 10-inch M1888 guns, including two from Battery Reilly at Fort Adams in Rhode Island and two from storage, replaced these weapons in 1919. In 1920, with World War I over, several weapon types were withdrawn from Coast Artillery service; these included the 4-inch Driggs-Schroeder guns of Battery Plunkett and the 3-inch Driggs-Seabury guns of Battery Lowell. The 4-inch guns at Fort Warren remained as display pieces at least through 1941. None of these were replaced. During World War II, the fort served as a control center for Boston Harbor's south mine field, a precaution taken in anticipation of potential attacks by Kriegsmarine U-boats.
At that time, Fort Warren was garrisoned by the 241st Coast Artillery Regiment (Harbor Defens