First English Civil War
The First English Civil War began the series of three wars known as the English Civil War. "The English Civil War" was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651, includes the Second English Civil War and the Third English Civil War. The wars in England were part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, being fought contemporaneously with equivalents in Scotland and Ireland. Many castles and high-status homes such as Lathom House were slighted after the conflict. Convention uses the name "The English Civil War" to refer collectively to the civil wars in England and the Scottish Civil War, which began with the raising of King Charles I's standard at Nottingham on 22 August 1642, ended on 3 September 1651 at the Battle of Worcester. There was some continued organised Royalist resistance in Scotland, which lasted until the surrender of Dunnottar Castle to Parliament's troops in May 1652, but this resistance is not included as part of the English Civil War.
The English Civil War can be divided into three: the First English Civil War, the Second English Civil War, the Third English Civil War. For the most part, accounts summarise the two sides that fought the English Civil Wars as the Royalist Cavaliers of Charles I of England versus the Parliamentarian Roundheads. However, as with many civil wars, loyalties shifted for various reasons, both sides changed during the conflicts. During this time, the Irish Confederate Wars continued in Ireland, starting with the Irish Rebellion of 1641 and ending with the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, its incidents had little or no direct connection with those of the Civil War, but the wars were mixed with, formed part of, a linked series of conflicts and civil wars between 1639 and 1652 in the kingdoms of England and Ireland, which at that time shared a monarch, but were distinct states in political organisation. These linked conflicts are known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms by some recent historians, aiming to have a unified overview, rather than treating parts of the other conflicts as a background to the English Civil War.
On the side of the King were enlisted: a deep-seated loyalty resulting from two centuries of effective royal protection. The first and last of these motives animated the foot-soldiers of the Royal armies; these troops, who followed their squires to the war saw the enemy as fanatics. The cavalry was composed of the higher social orders; the rebel troops on the other hand were drawn from the ranks of the middle class or bourgeois. The various groups of mercenary troops or soldiers of fortune seeking employ on either side of the conflict since the end of the German wars all felt the well hardened regulars' contempt for citizen militia; the other side of the war saw the causes of the quarrel as a constitutional issue, but as the war progressed they became more radical and religiously focused. Thus, the elements of resistance in Parliament and the nation were at first confused, strong and direct. Democracy, moderate republicanism, the desire for constitutional guarantees could hardly make head way against the various forces of royalism, for the most moderate men of either party were sufficiently in sympathy to admit compromise.
But the backbone of resistance was the Puritan element, this waging war at first with the rest on the political issue, soon brought the religious issue to the front. The Presbyterian system more rigid than that of the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud and the other bishops, whom few on either side except Charles himself supported, seemed destined for replacement by the Independents and by their ideal of free conscience, but for a generation before the war broke out, the system had disciplined and trained the middle classes of the nation to centre their will on the attainment of their ideals. The ideals changed during the struggle, but not the capacity for striving for them, the men capable of the effort came to the front, imposed their ideals on the rest by the force of their trained wills; the parliamentarians had the stronger material force. They controlled the navy, the nucleus of an army, being organised for the Irish war, nearly all the financial resources of the country, they had the sympathies of most of the large towns, where the trained bands, drilled once a month, provided cadres for new regiments.
By recognising that war was they prepared for war before Royalists did. The Earl of Warwick, the Earl of Essex, the Earl of Manchester, other nobles and gentry of the Parliamentary party had great wealth and territorial influence. On the other hand, Charles could raise men without authority from Parliament by using impressment and the Lords-Lieutenant, but could not raise taxes to support them, thus he depended on financial support from his adherents, such as the Earl of Newcastle and the Earl of Derby. Both the king and the Parliament raised men when and where they could, both claimed legal justification. Parliament claimed to be justified by its own recent "Militia Ordinance", while the king claimed the old-fashion
Battle of Lagganmore
The Battle of Lagganmore took place in 1646 at Lagganmore in Glen Euchar, west of Loch Scammadale. It was part of the Scottish Civil War, though in this case the battle, fought between Highland clansmen, incorporated a long running feud between Clan MacDonald and Clan Campbell; the Royalist forces of Alasdair Mac Colla, supported by men of Clan MacDougall and Clan MacAulay, defeated the pro-government forces of the Campbells who were supported by Clan MacCallum. The battle took place in the context of the Scottish Civil War. Mac Colla and a group of Irish professional soldiers were sent to Scotland in June 1644 by Confederate Ireland, ostensibly to aid the Royalist party there, at the instigation of the Earl of Antrim. Mac Colla joined with the Royalist Lord Montrose and fought a successful campaign against the Scottish government in 1644-5; however Antrim, Mac Colla and many of their recruits in Scotland were members of Clan Donald, it appears that a significant objective of Antrim's plan was to recover ancestral lands in Kintyre and elsewhere from which the Clan Donald South had been driven by the pro-government Clan Campbell.
After leaving Montrose's forces in late 1645, Mac Colla, some of his Irish troops and a large contingent of MacDonald and other clansmen returned to Kintyre and renewed their attacks on Clan Campbell lands. Much of early 1646 was spent on a fruitless siege of Craignish Castle, during which Archibald Campbell, the Tutor of Craignish taunted Mac Colla by challenging him to single combat. In the spring of 1646, the Campbells raised a force to oppose them under the local gentry, John Campbell of Lochnell and Donald Campbell of Bragleen; the location and scale of Lagganmore meant. Most of what is known about the battle is derived from local folklore, albeit most of the traditions are consistent with each other. Bragleen and Lochnell's forces consisting of men of Clan Campbell and several associated clans, assembled in Glen Euchar to attack Mac Colla. Another landowner Zachary MacCallum, or Malcolm, of Poltalloch joined the battle: by tradition, this was as he happened to be in the area, but Poltalloch was well-known as a political supporter of the Campbell chief Argyll so he and some of his men are to have been with the Campbell forces.
Mac Colla was said, at this point, to have had about 1500 men, retaining a number of his veteran Irish troops along with some clan levies from the MacDougalls of Dunollie and the MacAulays of Ardincaple. The number of Campbells was around 700; the Campbells were routed. Lochnell escaped from the field and Bragleen was captured, though was supposed to have escaped later. Poltalloch was close to killing Mac Colla himself when he was struck down by an opponent armed with a scythe, though other traditions place his death elsewhere; the battle is notorious, in the folklore of the area, for an atrocity purportedly committed by the Royalist forces in its aftermath. Mac Colla's men were claimed to have driven a number of prisoners from the battle, along with Campbell women and children from the district, into a barn, set alight. Only two women were said to have escaped from what became known as Sabhal nan Cnamh, the "Barn of Bones"; the massacre was part of a series of revenge-driven atrocities committed by both sides in the conflict
Battle of Aberdeen (1644)
The Battle of Aberdeen known as the Battle of Justice Mills and the Crabstane Rout, was an engagement in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms which took place outside the city of Aberdeen on 13 September 1644. During the battle, Royalist forces led by James Graham, Lord Montrose routed an army raised by the Covenanter-dominated Parliament of Scotland under Robert Balfour, 2nd Lord Balfour of Burleigh; the battlefield was assessed to be inventoried and protected by Historic Scotland under the Scottish Historical Environment Policy of 2009, but it failed to meet one or more of the criteria. After defeating the government forces commanded by Lord Elcho at the Battle of Tippermuir, outside Perth, Montrose's forces had captured a large cache of weapons and munitions, he was not, able to hold Perth: many of the Highlanders forming his army returned home with their plunder and a stronger government force under the Marquess of Argyll was approaching the town from the west. Montrose departed Perth on 4 September.
He reached Dundee on 6 September and ordered the town's surrender, but its burgesses answered defiantly. Montrose's army was further depleted when Lord Kilpont, one of his commanders, was murdered by an associate, James Stewart of Ardvorlich: Kilpont's levies disbanded. Rather than attempt to take Dundee by force, Montrose chose to head north in the hope of raising further recruits amongst the Marquess of Huntly's tenantry. With around 1,500 Irish infantry under Alasdair MacColla, a small number of Keppoch clansmen and around 80 horse, Montrose made a rapid advance, but found another government army blocking his path outside Aberdeen; the Scottish government had ordered all available militia from the Mearns and Banffshire to assemble at the city by 10 September. These comprised a number of levies from the surrounding area; the government commander Lord Balfour of Burleigh had two regiments of regular soldiers: his own regiment, brought from Fife, a newly raised Aberdeenshire regiment led by Lord Forbes.
Including regulars and militia the Covenanter infantry may have totalled 2,000 men. There were at least three troops of regular cavalry, commanded by Captain Alexander Keith, Sir William Forbes of Craigevar and Lord Lewis Gordon, along with further untrained'fencibles'. On the morning of 13 September 1644, the Covenanter force under Burleigh marched out of the town to meet the attackers. Burleigh's men drew up in a strong defensive position south-west of the town, on a steep ridge above the valley of the How Burn. Montrose sent a messenger and drummer under a flag of truce to demand the surrender of the city, or the defenders could expect no quarter, he requested that they send women and elderly people out of the town before his attack. Aberdeen's chief citizens and guild leaders received this ultimatum near the present day site of Justice Mill Lane. Although the ultimatum was rejected, the Royalist party were treated hospitably: they were treated to drink and one of the Aberdeen magistrates gave the drummer a coin worth 6 Pound Scots.
On the way back to the Royalist camp, a trooper of the Fife regiment fired on the Royalist party, killing the drummer. Montrose was so angered by this that he ordered an immediate attack and gave his troops permission to sack the town. Royalist Irish Brigade Thomas Laghtnan's Regiment Manus O'Cahan's Regiment James MacDonell's Regiment Clan MacDonald of Keppoch Sir Nathaniel Gordon's Horse Sir Thomas Ogilvie's HorseCovenanter Lord Balfour of Burleigh's Regiment Lord Forbes' Regiment Aberdeen Militia Aberdeenshire Fencibles Cavalry units: Sir William Forbes of Craigevar Capt. Alexander Keith Lord Lewis Gordon'Fencible' cavalry Montrose drew up an extended line of men, his left wing, under the professional soldier Colonel James Hay, included Gordon's cavalry and a small unit of Irish musketeers led by Captain Mortimer of O'Cahan's regiment. The right wing, commanded by Sir William Rollo, included Ogilvie's troopers and a number of Highland infantry. Burleigh placed the majority of his cavalry, under Crichton and Fraser, on his left flank opposite Rollo, where the gradient to the ridge was shallowest and his defensive position weakest, with his'regular' cavalry on his right wing.
The infantry were in the centre, with his Fife regiment, the strongest, towards the left of the position. A number of Burleigh's musketeers occupied defensive positions in the buildings of the Justice Mills, on his right flank towards the west side of the battlefield; the battle began with a cannonade from the Covenanters' field guns. The Royalist troopers on the left wing under Gordon attempted to drive some government musketeers out of the Justice Mills buildings, but were attacked by Alexander Keith's cavalry, who in turn were repulsed by a volley from Mortimer's musketeers. Craigevar's cavalry troop advanced downhill towards the Royalist positions of O'Cahan's regiment. O'Cahan's men parted to let the cavalry through, firing at the troopers' backs, in the confusion the government troopers were charged and routed by Gordon's horse: Craigevar and his second in command Forbes of Boyndlie were taken prisoner. On the Royalist right wing, Sir William Rollo and MacDonnell's foot defended against several inconclusive attacks by Fraser and Crighton's fencible cavalry.
Montrose ordered the remaining uncommitted Irish regiment, Laghtnan's, to advance up the steep slope towards the Government centre. There was an intense and prolonged firefight at the top
James Livingston, 1st Earl of Callendar
James Livingston, 1st Earl of Callendar, army officer who fought on the Royalist side in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Livingston was the third son of 1st Earl of Linlithgow and Helenor Hay, he was born during the 1590s. Around 1616 he was commissioned as a lieutenant in the Dutch army under the command of his brother, Sir Henry Livingston. By 1629 he was an experienced soldier and lieutenant-colonel of one of the three regiments of the Scottish brigade. By 1633 he was a full colonel in the Dutch army. During the same period he served both James VI and Charles I receiving both a pension and a knighthood for his services to the Crown. During a royal visit to Scotland, Livingston was created Lord Livingston of Almond on 19 June 1633 by Charles I. During the opening phases of the Bishops' War, Livingston at first appeared to support the King by supporting a rival to the National Covenant called the King's Covenant, but declared that it too upheld Presbyterianism. Pleading the need to go abroad for treatment of gallstones, he avoided any further entanglement in the war.
After consulting his surgeon it was decided he did not need an operation, but instead of returning to Scotland he went to Holland and took command of his regiment. During the Second Bishops' War Livingston served as lieutenant-general of the Covenanters' army and played a leading role during the invasion of England, but he opposed the policies of the Earl of Argyll and his faction, signed the Cumbernauld Bond along with the Earl of Montrose and others. After the Cumbernauld Bond was discovered by Argyll, the Committee of Estates considered the matter but in the end it was hushed up and Livingston retained the lieutenant-generalship. Livingston's support for the Covenanters' caused lost him his Dutch command at the request of Charles I. However, during negotiations between Charles I and the Covenanters Charles hoped to persuade Livingston to be sympathetic to his proposals by offering Livingston the position of Treasurer of Scotland. Livingston was involved in a planned Royalist coup d'état known to history as "The Incident".
It was alleged that a conspiracy to arrest the Earl of Argyll and the Marquess of Hamilton was discussed in Livingston's house, that Livingston would have played a leading part in the arrests. However it suited neither the King or the Covenanters to investigate the conspiracy too rigorously as they were close to an agreement. Livingston declined the offer of a high position in the army raised by Charles, instead led a division of the Scottish forces into England in 1644 and helped Earl of Leven to capture Newcastle-upon-Tyne. In 1645 Livingston, who imagined himself slighted, left the army, in 1647 he was one of the promoters of The Engagement for the release of King Charles I. In 1648, when the Scots marched into England in the Campaign of Preston, Livingston served as lieutenant-general under the Duke of Hamilton, but Hamilton found him as difficult to work with as Leven had done and his advice was responsible for the defeat at the Battle of Preston. After Preston, Livingston escaped to Holland.
In 1650 he was allowed to return to Scotland, but in 1654 his estates were seized and he was imprisoned. He came into prominence once more at the Restoration; when Livingston died in March 1674, leaving no children, according to a special remainder, he was succeeded in the earldom by his nephew Alexander Livingston, the second son of Alexander Livingston, 2nd Earl of Linlithgow. Stevenson, David. "Livingston, first earl of Callendar ". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/16808. Cites: DNB Scots peerage GEC, Peerage James Turner, Memoirs of his own life and times, 1632–1670, ed. Thomas Thomson, Bannatyne Club, 28 The letters and journals of Robert Baillie, ed. D. Laing, 3 vols. Bannatyne Club, 73 The memoirs of Henry Guthry, late bishop, ed. G. Crawford, 2nd edn D. Stevenson, The Scottish revolution, 1637–44: the triumph of the covenanters D. Stevenson and counter-revolution in Scotland, 1644–1651, Royal Historical Society Studies in History, 4 The historical works of Sir James Balfour, ed. J. Haig, 4 vols.
APS Reg. PCS, 1st ser. Reg. PCS, 2nd ser. Reg. PCS, 3rd ser. C. H. Firth, ed. Scotland and the Commonwealth: letters and papers relating to the military government of Scotland, from August 1651 to December 1653, Scottish History Society, 18 C. H. Firth, ed. Scotland and the protectorate: letters and papers relating to the military government of Scotland from January 1654 to June 1659, Scottish History Society, 31 J. G. Fotheringham, ed; the diplomatic correspondence of Jean de Montereul and the brothers de Bellièvre: French ambassadors in England and Scotland, 1645–1648, 2 vols. Scottish History Society, 29–30 Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Linlithgow, John Adrian Louis Hope, 1st Marquess of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. P. 730–731
Siege of Pembroke
The Siege of Pembroke took place in 1648 during the Second English Civil War. In April 1648, Parliamentarian troops in Wales, who had not been paid for a long time, staged a Royalist rebellion under the command of the Colonel John Poyer, the Parliamentarian Governor of Pembroke Castle, he was joined by Major-General Rowland Laugharne, his district commander, Colonel Rice Powell. After the failure of his pre-emptive strike against the small Parliamentarian army of Colonel Thomas Horton at the Battle of St. Fagans, Laugharne retreated with what was left of his army to join Colonel Poyer at Pembroke. Colonel Horton marched his 3,000 well disciplined troops, about half of which were dragoons, west to Tenby and laid siege to Tenby Castle, held by about 500 Royalists under the command of Colonel Rice Powell. Oliver Cromwell with another Parliamentarian army consisting of three regiments of foot and two of horse had reached Gloucester on the day that the Royalist army was routed at the Battle of St. Fagans and proceeded to cross the south Welsh border shortly afterwards.
He left Colonel Isaac Ewer in command of a small force to besiege the Royalist garrison of Chepstow Castle, under the command of Sir Nicholas Kemeys and pressed on to join Horton at Tenby arriving on 15 May. Leaving Horton with enough men to deal with Powel, Cromwell marched the rest of the army to lay siege to Pembroke. Kemeys was killed when Chepstow Castle was stormed on 25 May, Powel was taken prisoner when he surrendered Tenby Castle to Horton on 31 May, but Pembroke Castle was a strong medieval fortress which could not be taken as quickly, it stood on a rocky promontory surrounded on three sides by the sea, on the landward side its defences consisted of a deep ditch and walls up to 20 feet thick. Ships carrying siege artillery to Cromwell were forced back up the Bristol Channel to Gloucester by storms, so Cromwell tried a frontal assault, it failed. The defenders managed to surprise the besiegers in a sudden sortie, killing thirty of the besiegers and damaging the circumvallation; the siege guns arrived in mid-June but over the next month they made little impact on the thick curtain walls.
The siege ended when Cromwell's forces discovered the conduit pipe which delivered water to the castle, cut off the defenders' water supply. Poyer and Laugharne were forced to surrender on 11 July. Cromwell ordered the castle slighted so that it could never again be used as a military fortress. Laugharne and Powell were taken to London and sentenced to death, but Poyer alone was executed on 25 April 1649, being the victim selected by lot. Wales and the Civil War Siege of Pembroke, May–July 1648
Battle of Dunaverty
The Battle of Dunaverty involved a battle and the siege of Dunaverty Castle in Kintyre, Scotland in 1647. The events involved the Covenanter Army under the command of General David Leslie on one side and 200–300 Highland troops under the command of Archibald Og of Sanda on the other. After the Battle of Rhunahaorine Moss, the remaining royalist army of Alasdair Mac Colla fled to Kinlochkilkerran, where a fleet of birlinns transported many of the troops to Ireland, while others fled to Dunaverty to be transported to Ireland as well as Dunyvaig Castle. About 200–300 men who could not be transported or did not wish to leave Scotland prepared to defend the castle; when the Covenanter Army arrived, they laid siege to the castle and made small raids against the forces inside. Once the attackers had captured the stronghold's water supply, the defenders–by now running out of water–requested a surrender on fair terms. After agreeing to surrender and leaving the castle, the men and children were put to the sword at the request of Reverend John Naves and Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll.
However, a number of people appear to have survived the massacre, including Flora McCambridge, the infant Ranald MacDonald of Sanda, James Stewart and a MacDougall of Kilmun. More than 300 MacDougalls and followers, men and children, were slaughtered at Dunaverty, despite the promised quarter from the Covenanters. According to Volume II of the Highland Papers published in 1916: In May 1647 Montrose's well-known lieutenant, Sir Alexander Macdonald, the son of Colla Ciotach Macdonald left a garrison of some 500 men in Dunavertie Castle in Kintyre, besieged by the Covenanters under David Leslie, afterwards Lord Newark. According to Sir James Turner, Leslie's Adjutant-General, "after some fighting inexorable thirst made them desire a parley. I was ordered to speak with them. Neither could the Lieutenant-General be moved to grant any other conditions that they should yeeld on discretion or mercy. At length they did so, after they were comd out of the Castle they were put to the sword everie mothers sonne except one young man Mackoull, whose life I begd to be sent to France with a hundredth countrey fellows whom we had smoked out of a cave as they doe foxes, who were given to Captain Campbell, the Chancellors brother.'
There is controversy as to the circumstances. In Bishop Guthry's Memoirs, p. 24.3, it is distinctly said that the garrison had been promised quarter, "But having surrendered their arms the Marquis and a bloody preacher, Mr. John Nevoy, prevailed with him to break his word, so the army was let loose upon them and killed them all without mercy, whereat David Lesley seemed to have some inward check. For while the Marquis and he with Mr. Nevoy were walking over the ancles in blood he turned about and said, Now, Mr. John, have you not once gotten your fill of blood?" In the appendix to his memoirs, who had seen the Bishop's MS. and seems to have felt that his own honour was involved, contradicts certain of its statements. In particular he denies that there was a promise of quarter, that Leslie and Nevoy walked over the ankles in blood. An ingenious argument with regard to this latter point is submitted in his by the Rev. Dr. Willcock, who says:'As a mere matter of fact there was but little blood on the ground if the local tradition be correct that most of the prisoners were killed by being thrown over the cliffs into the sea.'
Be this as it may, two questions still remain. Was quarter promised? and, Who was responsible for the butchery? If it be true that Leslie attempted to salve such conscience as he had by the' nice distinction' which surprised Turner, it is probable that his victims were misled by his quibbling. For otherwise it is unlikely, and the fact that they were induced to believe that quarter had been promised seems established by the decree in an action raised after the Restoration against Argyll and others said to have been concerned in the massacre, at the instance of Sir John Fletcher, the King's Advocate, John M'Dougall of Donnollie, Alane M'Dougall of Rarae, Dougall M'Dougall of Donnach, John M'Dougall of Dagnish. After narrating that Sir James Lamont had been commissioned to raise troops in the King's service the decree proceeds:'The said John M'Dougall of Donnollie and the deceast Alexander M'Dougall, his father, having risen in arms with all their followers to the number of 500 men of their friends kindred and tennents and joyned themselves to the said Sir James Lamont during the war in the said years, being still in his Majesty's most royal father his service were invaded by the said Defenders and particularlie be the said deceast Archibald Campbell, late Marquess of Argyll, David Leslie and these in armes with them, pursued to the fort of Dunavertie in Kintyre, which not being able to hold out there being ane message sent into these within the fort that if they did not come forth again ten hours the next day they should not have quarters, if they came out they should have quarters.
And the said Johne M'dougall being within the fort with his friends, who having punctually as wes desired at the verie hour of the day com forth and rendered themselves they wer all be the instigation of the deceast Archibald Campbell, late Marquess of Argyll, to the number of fyve hundredth men and souldiers, cruellie and inhumanelie butchered in cold blood.' From this decree it is clear that at that time it was believed that quarter had been promised, the minu
Roundheads were supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War. Known as Parliamentarians, they fought against King Charles I of England and his supporters, known as the Cavaliers or Royalists, who claimed rule by absolute monarchy and the principle of the'divine right of kings'; the goal of the Roundhead party was to give the Parliament supreme control over executive administration of the country/kingdom. Most Roundheads sought constitutional monarchy in place of the absolutist monarchy sought by Charles. However, at the end of the English Civil War in 1649, public antipathy towards the king was high enough to allow republican leaders such as Oliver Cromwell to abolish the monarchy and establish the Commonwealth of England; the Roundhead commander-in-chief of the first Civil War, Thomas Fairfax, remained a supporter of constitutional monarchy, as did many other Roundhead leaders such as Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester and Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex. England's many Puritans and Presbyterians were invariably Roundhead supporters, as were many smaller religious groups such as the Independents.
However many Roundheads were members of the Church of England. Roundhead political factions included the proto-anarchist Diggers, the diverse group known as the Levellers and the apocalyptic Christian movement of the Fifth Monarchists; some Puritans, but by no means all, wore their hair cropped round the head or flat and there was thus an obvious contrast between them and the men of courtly fashion, who wore long ringlets. During the war and for a time afterwards, Roundhead was a term of derision—in the New Model Army it was a punishable offence to call a fellow soldier a Roundhead; this contrasted with the term "Cavalier" to describe supporters of the Royalist cause. Cavalier started out as a pejorative term—the first proponents used it to compare members of the Royalist party with Spanish Caballeros who had abused Dutch Protestants during the reign of Elizabeth I—but unlike Roundhead, Cavalier was embraced by those who were the target of the epithet and used by them to describe themselves."Roundheads" appears to have been first used as a term of derision toward the end of 1641, when the debates in Parliament in the Clergy Act 1640 were causing riots at Westminster.
The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition quotes a contemporary authority's description of the crowd gathered there: "They had the hair of their heads few of them longer than their ears, whereupon it came to pass that those who with their cries attended at Westminster were by a nickname called Roundheads". The demonstrators included London apprentices and Roundhead was a term of derision for them because the regulations to which they had agreed included a provision for cropped hair. According to John Rushworth the word was first used on 27 December 1641 by a disbanded officer named David Hide. During a riot, Hide is reported to have drawn his sword and said he would "cut the throat of those round-headed dogs that bawled against bishops". However, Richard Baxter ascribes the origin of the term to a remark made by Queen Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles I, at the trial of Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford, earlier that year. Referring to John Pym, she asked; the principal advisor to Charles II, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, remarked on the matter, "and from those contestations the two terms of Roundhead and Cavalier grew to be received in discourse... they who were looked upon as servants to the king being called Cavaliers, the other of the rabble contemned and despised under the name of Roundheads."Ironically, after Anglican Archbishop William Laud made a statute in 1636 instructing all clergy to wear short hair, many Puritans rebelled to show their contempt for his authority and began to grow their hair longer though they continued to be known as Roundheads.
The longer hair was more common among the "Independent" and "high ranking" Puritans toward the end of the Protectorate, while the "Presbyterian" faction, the military rank-and-file, continued to abhor long hair. By the end of this period some Independent Puritans were again derisively using the term Roundhead to refer to the Presbyterian Puritans. Roundhead remained in use to describe those with republican tendencies up until the Exclusion Crisis of 1678–1681. During the Exclusion Bill crisis, the term Cavalier was replaced with "Tory", an Irish term introduced by their opponents, initially a pejorative term. Macaulay, Thomas Babington; the History of England from the Accession of James II. 1. New York: Harper & Brothers. P. 105. ISBN 0-543-93129-3. Hanbury, Benjamin. Historical Memorials Relating to the Independents Or Congregationalists: From Their Rise to the Restoration of the Monarchy. 3. Pp. 118, 635. Hunt, John. Religious Thought from the Reformation to the End of Last Century. 2. General Books LLC. p. 5.
ISBN 1-150-98096-6. Roberts, Chris. Heavy Words Lightly Thrown: The Reason Behind Rhyme. Thorndike Press. ISBN 0-7862-8517-6. Worden, Blair; the English Civil Wars 1640–1660. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-100694-3. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Anonymous. "Roundhead". In Chisholm