Kingdom of Germany
The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom developed out of the eastern half of the former Carolingian Empire. Like Anglo-Saxon England and medieval France, it began as a conglomerate, East Francia was formed by the Treaty of Verdun in 843, and was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty until 911, after which the kingship was elective. The initial electors were the rulers of the duchies, who generally chose one of their own. After 962, when Otto I was crowned emperor, the formed the bulk of the Holy Roman Empire. The term rex teutonicorum first came into use in the chancery of Pope Gregory VII during the Investiture Controversy, in the twelfth century, in order to stress the imperial and transnational character of their office, the emperors began to employ the title rex Romanorum on their election. Distinct titulature for Germany and Burgundy, which traditionally had their own courts, there are nevertheless relatively few references to a German realm and an instability in the terms use. The eastern division of the Treaty of Verdun was called the regnum Francorum Orientalium or Francia Orientalis and it was the eastern half of the old Merovingian regnum Austrasiorum.
The east Franks themselves were the people of Franconia, which had settled by Franks. Foreign kings and ecclesiastics continued to refer to the regnum Alemanniae, the term regnum Germaniae begins to appear even in German sources at the beginning of the fourteenth century. Therefore, throughout the Middle Ages, the convention was that the king of Germany was Emperor of the Romans and his title was royal from his election to his coronation in Rome by the Pope, thereafter, he was emperor. After the death of Frederick II in 1250, the trend toward a clearly conceived German kingdom found no real consolidation. The title of king of the Romans became less and less reserved for the emperor-elect but uncrowned in Rome, the reign was dated to begin either on the day of election or the day of the coronation. The election day became the starting date permanently with Sigismund, Maximilian I changed the style of the emperor in 1508, with papal approval, after his German coronation, his style was Dei gratia Romanorum imperator electus semper augustus.
That is, he was emperor elect, a term that did not imply that he was emperor-in-waiting or not yet fully emperor, at the same time, the custom of having the heir-apparent elected as king of the Romans in the emperors lifetime resumed. For this reason, the king of the Romans came to mean heir-apparent. The Archbishop of Mainz was ex officio arch-chancellor of Germany, as his colleagues the Archbishop of Cologne and Archbishop of Trier were, arch-chancellors of Italy and these titles continued in use until the end of the empire, but only the German chancery actually existed. The tripartite division of the Carolingian Empire effected by the Treaty of Verdun was challenged early on with the death of the Emperor Lothair I in 855. He had divided his kingdom of Middle Francia between his three sons and immediately the northernmost of the three divisions, was disputed between the kings of East and West Francia, the war over Lotharingia lasted until 925
Battle of Arcadiopolis (970)
The Battle of Arcadiopolis was fought in 970 between a Byzantine army under Bardas Skleros and a Rus army, the latter including allied Bulgarian and Magyar contingents. In the preceding years, the Rus ruler Sviatoslav had conquered Bulgaria, the Rus force had been advancing through Thrace towards Constantinople when it was met by Skleros force. Having fewer men than the Rus, Skleros prepared an ambush, the Byzantines feigned retreat, and succeeded in drawing off the Pecheneg contingent into the ambush, routing it. The remainder of the Rus army panicked and fled, and he followed this up with a show of military strength, by sending a small force to raze a number of Bulgarian border posts in Thrace. It was a declaration of war, but Nikephoros forces were largely preoccupied in the East. Thus the emperor turned to the traditional Byzantine expedient of turning one of the peoples living further north, in modern-day Ukraine and he sent an ambassador, the patrikios Kalokyros, to Sviatoslav, ruler of the Rus with whom the Byzantines had maintained close relations.
Sviatoslav enthusiastically responded, and invaded Bulgaria in 967 or 968 in a devastating raid and this forced the Bulgarian tsar, Peter I, to the negotiating table, agreeing to terms favourable to Byzantium. However, this brief sojourn awakened in Sviatoslav the desire to conquer Bulgaria and he returned in force in July or August 969 and conquered the country within a few months. Nikephoros scheme had backfired dramatically, instead of peace, a new and formidable foe had appeared in the Balkans, the emperor, was murdered in December 969, and it fell to his successor, John I Tzimiskes, to deal with the Rus threat. Sviatoslav now turned his sights on Byzantium, and to Johns entreaties for peace he allegedly answered that the Empire should abandon its European territories to him and they were to winter in Thrace and raise an army, whilst sending spies to discover Sviatoslavs intentions. At the news of this, a powerful Rus force, along with many Bulgarians, after sacking the city of Philippopolis in Thrace, they bypassed the heavily defended city of Adrianople and turned towards Constantinople.
The size of the Rus army, and whether it comprised the entirety of Sviatoslavs forces or just a division, is unclear, Skleros quickly assembled a force of ten to twelve thousand men and set out to meet the Rus. The two armies met near Arcadiopolis, some 80 km west of Constantinople, the Byzantine detachment quickly came into contact with the Rus army, and charged the Pecheneg contingent. The Byzantines executed an orderly retreat, turning at intervals to charge back at the pursuing Pechenegs. This conflict was fierce and bloody, taxing the discipline and endurance of the small Byzantine force. According to Leo the Deacon, at one point one of the Pechenegs charged Bardas himself and delivered a blow on his helmet. Bardas young brother Constantine came to his rescue, killing the Pecheneg, when the two opposing forces reached the place of the ambush, Bardas ordered the trumpets blown and the two concealed Byzantine divisions attacked the Pechenegs from the flanks and the rear. Cut off from aid and surrounded, the Pechenegs began to panic, the Byzantines were unable to exploit this victory or pursue the remnants of the Rus army, since Bardas Phokas rose in revolt in Asia Minor
Lehel, a member of the Árpád dynasty, was a Magyar chieftain and, together with Bulcsú, one of the most important figures of the Hungarian invasions of Europe. After the Magyar defeat at the Battle of Lechfeld, he was executed in Regensburg, the medieval chronicler Anonymus calls Lehel the son of Tas, who was one of the Seven chieftains of the Magyars, and descendent of late Grand Prince Árpád. Most historians agree there is a mismatch in the timing, though he should be the son of Tas. Lehels dukedom from about 925 was the Principality of Nitra, where he ruled in the former Kabarian lands, the historic cities of Alsólelóc and Felsőlelóc kept the name of Lél. His dukedom could refer to the status of Lél being a crown-prince, when in Spring of 954, the Magyars again attacked the Duchy of Bavaria, Lehel led the Nitrian Kabars. The Hungarian troops advanced up to Lotharingia, where they signed an armistice with the Salian prince Conrad the Red, the next year, they met with the united East Frankish forces under King Otto I at the Battle of Lechfeld near Augsburg.
The battle ended with the defeat of the Hungarians. According to the Annales Sangallenses maiores, the three Hungarian military leaders were captured by Bohemian troopers, with Bulcsú and Súr, Lehel was arrested, handed over to King Ottos brother, Duke Henry of Bavaria, and hanged at his residence in Regensburg. By his victory, Otto put an end to the Hungarian invasions, close to the city, at the Lech field, the Germans smashed the Hungarians, part of them were killed brutally, some others were imprisoned. At that place Lehel and Bulcsú were imprisoned, and taken in front of the emperor, when the emperor asked, why the Hungarians are so cruel against the Christians, they replied, We are the revenge of the highest God, sent to you as a scourge. You shall imprison us and kill us, when we cease to chase you, the emperor called them, Choose the type of death you wish. Then Lehel replied, Bring me my horn, which I will blow, the horn was handed to him, and during the preparation to blow it, he stepped forward, and hit the emperor so strongly he died instantly.
Then he said, You will walk before me and serve me in the world, as it is a common belief within the Scythians. They were taken to custody and were hanged quickly in Regensburg and this fiction cleverly re-interpreted the fact that Duke Henry of Bavaria died shortly after the battle of disease, in Lehels favour. It may refer to Lehels former ally Conrad the Red, according to Widukind of Corvey, was killed in the battle, when an arrow pierced his throat. The legend was rendered in the 13th century chronicles by Magister Ákos and depicted in the Chronicon Pictum. Nowadays there is a described as Lehels Horn on display at Jászberény. This is a Byzantine ivory horn from 10-11th century and therefore cant have been the horn mentioned in the myth
Hungarian invasions of Europe
The westward raids were stopped only with the Magyar defeat of the Battle of Lechfeld of 955, which led to a new political order in Western Europe centered on the Holy Roman Empire. Georgius Monachus work mentions that around 837 the Bulgarian Empire sought an alliance with the Hungarians, constantine Porphyrogenitus wrote in his work On Administering the Empire that the Khagan and the Bek of the Khazars asked the Emperor Teophilos to have the fortress of Sarkel built for them. In the 10th century, Ahmad ibn Rustah wrote that earlier, in 860–861, Hungarian soldiers attacked Saint Cyrils convoy but the meeting is said to have ended peacefully. Saint Cyril was traveling to the Khagan at Chersonesos Taurica, which had captured by the Khazars. Muslim geographers recorded that the Magyars regularly attacked the neighboring East Slavic tribes, there is some information about Hungarian raids into the eastern Carolingian Empire in 862. In 881, the Hungarians and the Kabars invaded East Francia, in 892, according to the Annales Fuldenses, King Arnulf of East Francia invaded Great Moravia and the Magyars joined his troops.
After 893, Magyar troops were conveyed across the Danube by the Byzantine fleet, in 894, the Magyars invaded Pannonia in alliance with King Svatopluk I of Moravia. Around 896, probably under the leadership of Árpád, the Hungarians crossed the Carpathians, in 899, these Magyars defeated Berengars army in the Battle of Brenta River and invaded the northern regions of Italy. They pillaged the countryside around Treviso, Verona, Brescia and they defeated Braslav, Duke of Lower Pannonia. In 901, they attacked Italy again, in 902, they led a campaign against northern Moravia and defeated the Moravians whose country was annihilated. Almost every year after 900 they conducted raids against the Catholic west, in 905, the Magyars and King Berengar formed an amicitia, and fifteen years passed without Hungarian troops entering Italy. The Magyars defeated no fewer than three large Frankish imperial armies between 907 and 910, as follows, in 907 they defeated the invading Bavarians near Brezalauspurc, destroying their army, successfully defending Hungary and laying Great Moravia, Germany and Italy open to Magyar raids.
On 3 August 908 the Hungarians won the battle of Eisenach, Duke of Thuringia was killed, along with Burchard, Duke of Thuringia and Rudolf I, Bishop of Würzburg. The Magyars defeated Louis the Childs united Frankish Imperial Army at the first Battle of Lechfeld in 910, smaller units penetrated as far as Bremen in 915. In 919, after the death of Conrad I of Germany, in 921, they defeated King Berengars enemies at Verona and reached Apulia in 922. Between 917 and 925, the Magyars raided through Basel, Burgundy, Provence, in 926, they ravaged Swabia and Alsace, campaigned through present-day Luxembourg and reached as far as the Atlantic Ocean. In 927, brother of Pope John X, called on the Magyars to rule Italy and they marched into Rome and imposed large tribute payments on Tuscany and Tarento. In 933, a substantial Magyar army appeared in Saxony but was defeated by Henry I at Merseburg, Magyar attacks continued against Upper Burgundy and against Saxony
Battle of Achelous (917)
The battle was one of the worst disasters ever to befall a Byzantine army, and conversely one of the greatest military successes of Bulgaria. Among the most significant consequences was the recognition of the Imperial title of the Bulgarian monarchs. After the Bulgarian victory in the War of 894–896 the Byzantines were forced to pay tribute to Tsar Simeon I of Bulgaria, in 912 when the Byzantine emperor Leo VI died, his brother Alexander refused to pay tribute to the Bulgarians. Simeon saw an opportunity to wage a new war and fulfill his ambitions to conquer Constantinople, at some point, the patriarch and Simeon even met outside the walls of Constantinople, performing a coronation ceremony. Thereafter, Simeon began using the title Tsar of the Bulgarians, after a plot in the Byzantine court in 914 however, the new regent Zoe, Constantines mother, rejected the marriage. In answer the Bulgarians raided Eastern Thrace, adrianople opened its gates to Simeon in September 914, and its population recognised Simeon as their ruler, while the Byzantine army was occupied in the east.
In the next year the Bulgarian armies attacked the areas of Dyrrhachium, both sides carefully prepared for a decisive end of the conflict. Empress Zoe wanted to make a peace settlement with the Arabs and to engage the whole army of the East in a war with Simeon. Thus the Byzantines were forced to fight alone and this was a very large army by contemporary standards, and its goal was the elimination of the Bulgarian threat from the north. The Byzantine commanders were convinced that their strategy would be successful, morale was raised as the soldiers vowed by the miraculous Cross to die for one another. The spirit of the army was raised as the troops were paid in advance. The Byzantines had tried to pay some Pecheneg tribes to attack, but Romanus would not agree to transport them across the Danube, the size of the Bulgarian army under Simeon I of Bulgaria is unknown. However Miracula Sancti Georgii points that the Bulgarian army in the battle of Achelous was allied with Hungarian and Pecheneg troops, in addition Bulgarian forces under Marmais were deployed near the western borders with the Serb principalities to prevent possible unrest.
The Byzantine army marched northwards and set its camp in the vicinity of the fortress of Anchialus. Leo Phocas intended to invade Moesia and meet the Pechenegs and Lecapenuss troops in Dobrudzha, Simeon swiftly concentrated his army on the heights around the fortress. The Byzantine generals planned to outflank the right Bulgarian wing in order to detach Simeons troops from the Balkan Passes. The Bulgarian ruler concentrated his most powerful forces in the two wings and left the centre relatively weak in order to surround the enemy when the centre would yield to the Byzantine attack. Simeon himself was in charge of large cavalry reserves hidden behind the hills which were intended to strike the decisive blow, the Byzantine attack was fierce and it was not long before the Bulgarians began slowly to retreat
The Helme is river in central Germany that is about 65 kilometres long and which forms a left-hand, western tributary of the Unstrut in the states of Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt. The river rises in Thuringia south of the Harz mountains in the district of Eichsfeld and its source lies amongst the northern foothills of the Ohm Hills between Weißenborn-Lüderode and Stöckey by the Helmspring. The Helme flows eastwards through the municipalities of Hohenstein and Werther to Nordhausen, near Heringen the river is joined by the waters of the Zorge from the Harz. Northwest of the Kyffhäuser hills it is impounded into a reservoir, from there the Helme – now in the state of Saxony-Anhalt – continues eastwards flowing through Roßla towards Allstedt, where it swings south and enters Thuringia again. Near Kalbsrieth, southeast of Artern, it discharges into the Unstrut
Duchy of Bavaria
The Duchy of Bavaria was, from the sixth through the eighth century, a frontier region in the southeastern part of the Merovingian kingdom and was ruled by dukes under Frankish lordship. In the late ninth century a new duchy was created from this area and it was one of the stem duchies of the Kingdom of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire. Between 1070 and 1180 the Emperor was opposed by Bavaria, especially by the House of Welf, in the final conflict between the Duke Henry the Lion and the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick I, Frederick I triumphed and deprived Henry of his fiefs. Bavaria passed over to the House of Wittelsbach, which held it until 1918, the origins of the older Bavarian duchy can be traced to the year 551/555. In his Getica, the chronicler Jordanes writes, That area of the Swabians has the Bavarii in the east, until the end of the first duchy, all rulers descended from the family of the Agilolfings. The first documented duke was Garibald I, a scion of the Frankish Agilolfings, at around 743, the Bavarian duke Odilo vassalised the Slavic princes of Carantania, who had asked him for protection against the invading Avars.
The residence of the largely independent Agilolfing dukes was Regensburg, in the adjacent Alamannic lands west of the Lech river, Augsburg was a bishops seat. When Boniface established the Diocese of Passau in 739, he could build on local Early Christian traditions. In the south, Saint Rupert had founded in 696 the Diocese of Salzburg, probably after he had baptized Duke Theodo of Bavaria at his court in Regensburg, becoming the Apostle of Bavaria. In 798 Pope Leo III created the Bavarian ecclesiastical province with Salzburg as metropolitan seat and Regensburg, Freising, in the west, the Carolingian mayor of the palace Carloman had suppressed the last Alamannic revolt at the 746 Blood court at Cannstatt. The last tribal stem duchy to be incorporated was Bavaria in 788, the conquest of the Lombard Kingdom by Charlemagne entailed the fall of Tassilo, who was deposed in 788. Bavaria was administrated by Frankish prefects, from 825 Louis the German styled himself King of Bavaria in the territory that was to become the centre of his power.
Carlomans natural son Arnulf of Carinthia, raised in the former Carantanian lands, secured possession of the March of Carinthia upon his fathers death in 880, Carinthia and Bavaria were the bases of his power, with Regensburg as the seat of his government. Due mainly to the support of the Bavarians, Arnulf could take the field against Charles in 887, in 899 Bavaria passed to Louis the Child, during whose reign continuous Hungarian ravages occurred. During the reign of Louis the Child, Count of Scheyern, the German king Conrad I unsuccessfully attacked Arnulf when the latter refused to acknowledge his royal supremacy. The Carolingian reign in East Francia ended in 911 when Arnulfs son, King Louis the Child, the discontinuation of the central authority led to a new strengthening of the German stem duchies. At the same time, East Francia was exposed to the threat from Hungarian invasions. In 907 the army of Luitpold, Margrave of Bavaria suffered a defeat at the Battle of Pressburg
Hungarians, known as Magyars, are a nation and ethnic group who speak Hungarian and are primarily associated with Hungary. There are around 13. 1–14.7 million Hungarians, of whom 8. 5–9.8 million live in todays Hungary, the Hungarians own ethnonym to denote themselves in the Early Middle Ages is uncertain. The Magyars/Hungarians probably belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance, and it is possible that they became its ethnic majority, in the Early Middle Ages the Hungarians had many names, including Ungherese and Hungarus. The H- prefix is an addition of Medieval Latin, another possible explanation comes from the Old Russian Yugra. It may refer to the Hungarians during a time when they dwelt east of the Ural Mountains along the borders of Europe. The Hungarian people refer to themselves by the demonym Magyar rather than Hungarian, Magyar is Finno-Ugric from the Old Hungarian mogyër. Magyar possibly derived from the name of the most prominent Hungarian tribe, the tribal name Megyer became Magyar in reference to the Hungarian people as a whole.
Magyar may derive from the Hunnic Muageris or Mugel, the Greek cognate of Tourkia was used by the scholar and Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus in his De Administrando Imperio of c. AD950, though in his use, Turks always referred to Magyars, the historical Latin phrase Natio Hungarica had a wider meaning because it once referred to all nobles of the Kingdom of Hungary, regardless of their ethnicity. During the 4th millennium BC, the Uralic-speaking peoples who were living in the central, some dispersed towards the west and northwest and came into contact with Iranian speakers who were spreading northwards. From at least 2000 BC onwards, the Ugrian speakers became distinguished from the rest of the Uralic community, judging by evidence from burial mounds and settlement sites, they interacted with the Indo-Iranian Andronovo culture. In the 4th and 5th centuries AD, the Hungarians moved from the west of the Ural Mountains to the area between the southern Ural Mountains and the Volga River known as Bashkiria and Perm Krai.
In the early 8th century, some of the Hungarians moved to the Don River to an area between the Volga and the Seversky Donets rivers, the descendants of those Hungarians who stayed in Bashkiria remained there as late as 1241. The Hungarians around the Don River were subordinates of the Khazar khaganate and their neighbours were the archaeological Saltov Culture, i. e. Bulgars and the Alans, from whom they learned gardening, elements of cattle breeding and of agriculture. Tradition holds that the Hungarians were organized in a confederacy of seven tribes, the names of the seven tribes were, Jenő, Kér, Keszi, Kürt-Gyarmat, Megyer, Nyék, and Tarján. Around 830, a rebellion broke out in the Khazar khaganate, as a result, three Kabar tribes of the Khazars joined the Hungarians and moved to what the Hungarians call the Etelköz, the territory between the Carpathians and the Dnieper River. The Hungarians faced their first attack by the Pechenegs around 854, the new neighbours of the Hungarians were the Varangians and the eastern Slavs.
In 895/896, under the leadership of Árpád, some Hungarians crossed the Carpathians, the tribe called Magyar was the leading tribe of the Hungarian alliance that conquered the centre of the basin
Great Moravia, the Great Moravian Empire, or simply Moravia, was the first major state that was predominantly Slavonic to emerge in the area of Central Europe. Its core territories were located on the Morava river which gave its name to the kingdom, Morava in both Czech and Slovak refers to both the river and the land of Moravia - the medieval Margraviate of Moravia, which is now the eastern part of the Czech Republic. The kingdom saw the rise of the first ever Slavic literary culture in the Old Church Slavonic language, after the fall of Great Moravia, its core territory was gradually divided between the newly ascending Czech Kingdom and Hungarian Kingdom, the frontier was originally settled on the Morava river. After this, the Czech-Hungarian border shifted east to the White Carpathians, záhorie boasts the only surviving building from Great Moravian times - the chapel at Kopčany just across the Morava from the archaeological site of Mikulčice. The core of Great Moravia was established, according to legend, in the early 830s, when Prince Mojmír I crossed the Morava and conquered the principality of Nitra.
The former principality of Nitra was used as the údelné kniežatsvo, or the given to, and ruled by. The extent and location of Great Moravia are a subject of debate, rival theories place the heart of it either south of the river Danube or on the Great Hungarian Plain. The exact date when the Moravian state was founded is disputed, but it occurred in the early 830s under Prince Mojmír I. Moravia reached its largest territorial extent under Svätopluk I, who ruled from 870 to 894, separatism and internal conflicts emerging after Svätopluks death contributed to the fall of Great Moravia, which was overrun by the Hungarians. The exact date of Moravias collapse is unknown, but it occurred between 902 and 907, Moravia experienced significant cultural development under Prince Rastislav, with the arrival in 863 of the mission of Saints Cyril and Methodius. Rastislav had asked the Byzantine emperor to send a teacher to introduce literacy, the brothers Cyril and Methodius introduced a system of writing and Slavonic liturgy, the latter eventually formally approved by Pope Adrian II.
The language, termed Old Church Slavonic, was the ancestral language for Bulgarian. Old Church Slavonic, differed somewhat from the local Slavic dialect of Great Moravia which was the idiom to the dialects spoken in Moravia. Later, the disciples of Cyril and Methodius were expelled from Great Moravia by King Svätopluk I, arriving in the First Bulgarian Empire, the disciples continued the Cyrilo-Methodian mission and the Glagolitic script was superseded by Cyrillic. The meaning of the name has been subject to debate, the designation Great Moravia – megale Moravia in Greek – stems from the work De Administrando Imperio written by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitos around 950. The emperor only used the adjective megale in connection with the polity when referring to events that occurred after its fall, according to a third theory, the megale adjective refers to a territory located beyond the borders of the Byzantine Empire. Finally, the historian Lubomír E. Havlík writes that Byzantine scholars used this adjective when referring to homelands of nomadic peoples, Morava is the Czech and Slovak name for both the river and the country.
In modern German, the land of the medieval Margraviate of Moravia is called Mähren, as the territory was inhabited by Germanic tribes before the Slavs settled there, the name is possibly of Germanic origin, with the ending -ava usually explained as coming from the Germanic -ahwa