Edmund Kirby Smith
Edmund Kirby Smith was a career United States Army officer who served with the Confederates during the Civil War, as one of only seven officers to reach the rank of Full General. The area included most actions east of the Rocky Mountains and west of the Mississippi River, in 1863, Smith dispatched troops in an unsuccessful attempt to relieve the Siege of Vicksburg. After Vicksburg was captured in July, the isolated Trans-Mississippi zone was cut off from the rest of the Confederacy, and became virtually an independent nation, nicknamed Kirby Smithdom. In the Red River Campaign of Spring 1864, he commanded victorious Confederate troops under General Richard Taylor, on May 26,1865, he surrendered his army at Galveston, before fleeing abroad to avoid arrest for treason. After the war, Smith worked in the telegraph and railway industries, Smith was born in 1824 in St. Augustine, Florida, as the youngest child to Joseph Lee Smith and Frances Kirby Smith. Both his parents were natives of Litchfield, where their children were born.
The family moved to Florida in 1821, shortly before the elder Smith was named a Superior Court judge in the new Florida Territory, acquired by the US from Spain. Older siblings included Ephraim, born in 1807, sister Frances, born in 1809, and Josephine, who died in 1835, likely of tuberculosis. In 1836, his parents sent him to a boarding school in Virginia. On July 1,1841, Smith entered West Point and graduated four years later, while there he was nicknamed Seminole after the Native Americans of his state, and brevetted a second lieutenant in the 5th U. S. He was promoted to lieutenant on August 22,1846. In the Mexican–American War, he served under General Zachary Taylor at the Battle of Palo Alto and he served under General Winfield Scott later, and received brevet promotions to first lieutenant for Cerro Gordo and to captain for Contreras and Churubusco. His older brother, Ephraim Kirby Smith, who graduated from West Point in 1826 and was a captain in the regular army, Infantry in the campaigns with both Taylor and Scott.
Ephraim died in 1847 from wounds suffered at the Battle of Molino del Rey, after that war, Kirby Smith served as a captain in the 2nd U. S. Cavalry, primarily in Texas. Kirby Smith collected and studied materials as a botanist, like other military officers. Some of the items from his collecting at West Point, he donated to the Smithsonian Institution, Kirby Smith was assigned to teaching mathematics at West Point, from 1849 to 1852. According to his letters to his mother, he was happy with this environment, on May 13,1859, he was wounded in his thigh fighting Indians in the Nescutunga Valley of Texas. On January 31,1861, Smith was promoted to major and his sister Frances Webster remained loyal to the Union although married to Lucien Bonaparte Webster, a Confederate officer, who died during the war
Siege of Petersburg
The Richmond–Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, fought from June 9,1864, to March 25,1865, during the American Civil War. Numerous raids were conducted and battles fought in attempts to cut off the Richmond, many of these battles caused the lengthening of the trench lines, overloading dwindling Confederate resources. Lee finally gave in to the pressure and abandoned cities in April 1865, leading to his retreat and surrender at Appomattox Court House. The Siege of Petersburg foreshadowed the trench warfare that was common in World War I and it featured the wars largest concentration of African American troops, who suffered heavy casualties at such engagements as the Battle of the Crater and Chaffins Farm. In March 1864, Ulysses S. Grant was promoted to lieutenant general and was given command of the Union Army. He devised a strategy to apply pressure on the Confederacy from many points. Grant put Maj. Gen. William T, George Crook and William W. Averell to operate against railroad supply lines in West Virginia, and Maj.
Gen. Nathaniel P. Most of these failed, often because of the assignment of generals to Grant for political rather than military reasons. Butlers Army of the James bogged down against inferior forces under Gen. P. G. T, Beauregard before Richmond in the Bermuda Hundred Campaign. Sigel was soundly defeated at the Battle of New Market in May, banks was distracted by the Red River Campaign and failed to move on Mobile. However and Averell were able to cut the last railway linking Virginia and Tennessee, on May 4, Grant and Meades Army of the Potomac crossed the Rapidan River and entered the area known as the Wilderness of Spotsylvania, beginning the six-week Overland Campaign. Grant spent the remainder of May maneuvering and fighting battles with the Confederate army as he attempted to turn Lees flank. Grant knew that his army and base of manpower in the North could sustain a war of attrition better than Lee. This theory was tested at the Battle of Cold Harbor when Grants army once again came into contact with Lees near Mechanicsville and he chose to engage Lees army directly, by ordering a frontal assault on the Confederate fortified positions on June 3.
This attack was repulsed with heavy losses, Cold Harbor was a battle that Grant regretted more than any other and Northern newspapers thereafter frequently referred to him as a butcher. On the night of June 12, Grant again advanced by his left flank and he planned to cross to the south bank of the river, bypassing Richmond, and isolate Richmond by seizing the railroad junction of Petersburg to the south. While Lee remained unaware of Grants intentions, the Union army constructed a pontoon bridge 2,100 feet long, what Lee had feared most of all—that Grant would force him into a siege of Richmond—was poised to occur. This represented a change of strategy from that of the preceding Overland Campaign, Lee at first believed that Grants main target was Richmond and devoted only minimal troops under Gen. P. G. T
Battle of Perryville
Confederate Gen. Braxton Braggs Army of Mississippi initially won a tactical victory against primarily a single corps of Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buells Union Army of the Ohio. The battle is considered a strategic Union victory, sometimes called the Battle for Kentucky, the Union retained control of the critical border state of Kentucky for the remainder of the war. On October 7, Buells army, in pursuit of Bragg, Union forces first skirmished with Confederate cavalry on the Springfield Pike before the fighting became more general, on Peters Hill, when the Confederate infantry arrived. Both sides were desperate to get access to fresh water, the next day, at dawn, fighting began again around Peters Hill as a Union division advanced up the pike, halting just before the Confederate line. After noon, a Confederate division struck the Union left flank—the I Corps of Maj. Gen. Alexander M. McCook—and forced it to fall back. When more Confederate divisions joined the fray, the Union line made a stand, counterattacked.
Buell, several miles behind the action, was unaware that a battle was taking place. The Union troops on the flank, reinforced by two brigades, stabilized their line, and the Confederate attack sputtered to a halt. Later, three Confederate regiments assaulted the Union division on the Springfield Pike but were repulsed and fell back into Perryville, Union troops pursued, and skirmishing occurred in the streets until dark. By that time, Union reinforcements were threatening the Confederate left flank, short of men and supplies, withdrew during the night, and continued the Confederate retreat by way of Cumberland Gap into East Tennessee. Considering the casualties relative to the strengths of the armies. It was the largest battle fought in the state of Kentucky, in September 1861, Kentucky-born President Abraham Lincoln wrote in a private letter, I think to lose Kentucky is nearly to lose the whole game. This neutrality was first violated on September 3,1861, when Confederate Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk occupied Columbus, two days Union Brig.
Gen. Ulysses S. Grant seized Paducah. Henceforth, the proclaimed neutrality was a dead letter, while the state never seceded from the Union, Confederate sympathizers who were members of the legislature set up a temporary Confederate capital in Bowling Green in November 1861. It never wielded significant power inside the state, the Confederate States recognized Kentucky and added a star representing the state to the Confederate flag. The initiative to invade Kentucky came primarily from Confederate Maj. Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith and he believed the campaign would allow them to obtain supplies, enlist recruits, divert Union troops from Tennessee, and claim Kentucky for the Confederacy. In July 1862 Col. John Hunt Morgan carried out a cavalry raid in the state. The raid caused considerable consternation in Buells command and in Washington, during the raid and his forces were cheered and supported by many residents
The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States. The 981-mile river flows through or along the border of six states, through its largest tributary, the Tennessee River, the basin includes many of the states of the southeastern U. S. It is the source of drinking water for three million people and it is named in Iroquoian or Seneca, Ohi, yó, lit. Good River or Shawnee and Spelewathiipi, the river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley. For thousands of years, Native Americans used the river as a major transportation, in 1669, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle led a French expedition to the Ohio River, becoming the first Europeans to see it. After European-American settlement, the served as a border between present-day Kentucky and Indian Territories. It was a transportation route for pioneers during the westward expansion of the early U. S.
In his Notes on the State of Virginia published in 1781–82, Thomas Jefferson stated and its current gentle, waters clear, and bosom smooth and unbroken by rocks and rapids, a single instance only excepted. During the 19th century, the river was the boundary of the Northwest Territory. Where the river was narrow, it was the way to freedom for thousands of slaves escaping to the North, many helped by free blacks and whites of the Underground Railroad resistance movement. The Ohio River is a transition area, as its water runs along the periphery of the humid subtropical. It is inhabited by fauna and flora of both climates, in winter, it regularly freezes over at Pittsburgh but rarely further south toward Cincinnati and Louisville. At Paducah, Kentucky, in the south, near the Ohios confluence with the Mississippi, Paducah was founded there because it is the northernmost ice-free reach of the Ohio. The Ohio River is formed by the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers at Point State Park in Pittsburgh, from there, it flows northwest through Allegheny and Beaver counties, before making an abrupt turn to the south-southwest at the West Virginia–Ohio–Pennsylvania triple-state line.
From there, it forms the border between West Virginia and Ohio, upstream of Wheeling, West Virginia, the river follows a roughly southwest and west-northwest course until Cincinnati, before bending to a west-southwest course for most of its length. The course forms the borders of West Virginia and Kentucky. The Ohio drains parts of 15 states in four regions, northeast New York, a small area of the southern border along the headwaters of the Allegheny. Pennsylvania, a corridor from the corner to north central border
The Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. The operation, commanded by Maj. Gen. George B, McClellan, was an amphibious turning movement against the Confederate States Army in Northern Virginia, intended to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond. McClellan landed his army at Fort Monroe and moved northwest, up the Virginia Peninsula, Magruders defensive position on the Warwick Line caught McClellan by surprise. His hopes for a quick advance foiled, McClellan ordered his army to prepare for a siege of Yorktown, just before the siege preparations were completed, the Confederates, now under the direct command of Johnston, began a withdrawal toward Richmond. The first heavy fighting of the campaign occurred in the Battle of Williamsburg, in which the Union troops managed some tactical victories, an amphibious flanking movement to Elthams Landing was ineffective in cutting off the Confederate retreat.
In the Battle of Drewrys Bluff, an attempt by the U. S. Navy to reach Richmond by way of the James River was repulsed. As McClellans army reached the outskirts of Richmond, a battle occurred at Hanover Court House. The battle was inconclusive, with casualties, but it had lasting effects on the campaign. On August 20,1861, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan formed the Army of the Potomac, with himself as its first commander. During the summer and fall, McClellan brought a degree of organization to his new army. It was an achievement, in which he came to personify the Army of the Potomac. He created defenses for Washington that were almost impregnable, consisting of 48 forts and strong points, on November 1,1861, Gen. Winfield Scott retired and McClellan became general in chief of all the Union armies. The president expressed his concern about the vast labor involved in the role of army commander and general in chief. On January 27, Lincoln issued an order that all of his armies to begin offensive operations by February 22.
On January 31, he issued an order for the Army of the Potomac to move overland to attack the Confederates at Manassas Junction. Although Lincoln believed his plan was superior, he was relieved that McClellan finally agreed to begin moving, on March 8, doubting McClellans resolve, Lincoln called a council of war at the White House in which McClellans subordinates were asked about their confidence in the Urbanna plan. They expressed their confidence to varying degrees, after the meeting, Lincoln issued another order, naming specific officers as corps commanders to report to McClellan. McClellan retooled his plan so that his troops would disembark at Fort Monroe, Virginia, in the Battle of Hampton Roads, Virginia defeated wooden U. S
The Union Army was the land force that fought for the Union during the American Civil War,1861 to 1865. It included the permanent regular army of the United States, which was augmented by numbers of temporary units consisting of volunteers as well as conscripts. The Union Army fought and eventually defeated the Confederate Army during the war, at least two and a half million men served in the Union Army, almost all were volunteers. About 360,000 Union soldiers died from all causes,280,000 were wounded and 200,000 deserted. When the American Civil War began in April 1861, there were only 16,000 men in the U. S. Army, and of these many Southern officers resigned and joined the Confederate army. The U. S. Army consisted of ten regiments of infantry, four of artillery, Lincolns call forced the border states to choose sides, and four seceded, making the Confederacy eleven states strong. The war proved to be longer and more extensive than anyone North or South had expected, the call for volunteers initially was easily met by patriotic Northerners and even immigrants who enlisted for a steady income and meals.
Over 10,000 Germans in New York and Pennsylvania immediately responded to Lincolns call, as more men were needed, the number of volunteers fell and both money bounties and forced conscription had to be turned to. Nevertheless, between April 1861 and April 1865, at least two and a million men served in the Union Army, of whom the majority were volunteers. It is a misconception that the South held an advantage because of the percentage of professional officers who resigned to join the Confederate army. At the start of the war, there were 824 graduates of the U. S, Military Academy on the active list, of these,296 resigned or were dismissed, and 184 of those became Confederate officers. Of the approximately 900 West Point graduates who were civilians,400 returned to the Union Army and 99 to the Confederate. Therefore, the ratio of Union to Confederate professional officers was 642 to 283, the South did have the advantage of other military colleges, such as The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute, but they produced fewer officers.
The Union Army was composed of numerous organizations, which were generally organized geographically, Military Division A collection of Departments reporting to one commander. Military Divisions were similar to the modern term Theater, and were modeled close to, though not synonymous with. Department An organization that covered a region, including responsibilities for the Federal installations therein. Those named for states usually referred to Southern states that had been occupied and it was more common to name departments for rivers or regions. District A subdivision of a Department, there were Subdistricts for smaller regions
Frankfort is the capital city of the Commonwealth of Kentucky and the seat of Franklin County. Based on population, it is the fifth-smallest state capital in the United States and it is a home rule-class city in Kentucky, the population was 25,527 at the 2010 census. Located along the Kentucky River, Frankfort is the city of the Frankfort, Kentucky Micropolitan Statistical Area. The town of Frankfort likely received its name from an event that took place in the 1780s, American Indians attacked a group of early European-American pioneers from Bryan Station, who were making salt at a ford in the Kentucky River. Pioneer Stephen Frank was killed, and the settlers called the crossing Franks Ford. This name was elided to Frankfort, in 1786, James Wilkinson purchased the 260-acre tract of land on the north side of the Kentucky River, which developed as downtown Frankfort. He was a promoter of Frankfort as the state capital. After Kentucky became the 15th state in early 1792, five commissioners from various counties were appointed on June 20 to choose a location for the capital and they were John Allen and John Edwards, Henry Lee, Thomas Kennedy, and Robert Todd.
A number of communities competed for this honor, but Frankfort won, Frankfort had a United States post office by 1794, with Daniel Weisiger as postmaster. John Brown, a Virginia lawyer and statesman, built a home now called Liberty Hall in Frankfort in 1796, before Kentuckys statehood, he represented Virginia in the Continental Congress and the U. S. Congress. While in Congress, he introduced the bill granting statehood to Kentucky, after statehood, he was elected by the state legislature as one of the states U. S. Senators. In 1796, the Kentucky General Assembly appropriated funds to provide a house to accommodate the governor, the Old Governors Mansion is claimed to be the oldest official executive residence still in use in the United States. In 1829, Gideon Shryock designed the Old Capitol, Kentuckys third and it served Kentucky as its capitol from 1830 to 1910. The separate settlement known as South Frankfort was annexed by the city in January 3,1850, during the American Civil War, the Union Army built fortifications overlooking Frankfort on what is now called Fort Hill.
The Confederate Army occupied Frankfort for a time starting from September 3,1862. On February 3,1900 Governor-elect William Goebel was assassinated in Frankfort while walking to the capitol on the way to his inauguration, former Secretary of State Caleb Powers was found guilty of a conspiracy to murder Goebel. Frankfort has grown considerably since the 1960s, a modern addition to the State Office Building was completed in 1967. The original building was completed in the 1930s on the location of the former Kentucky State Penitentiary, some of the stone from the old prison was used for the walls surrounding the office building
Confederate Heartland Offensive
Though they scored some successes, notably a tactical win at Perryville, they soon retreated, leaving Kentucky primarily under Union control for the rest of the war. Western campaigns by Union forces earlier in 1862 had reaped much progress, the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers had been opened to the U. S. Navy after successes at the battles of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson. The railroad hub at Corinth had been evacuated by the Confederates, new Orleans, the Confederacys largest city at that time, had been captured by Admiral David Farragut. Consequentially, protecting the Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River became a top priority for the Confederacy, the most southern of the border states, produced cotton in west Kentucky and was the primary supplier of hemp for rope used in the cotton industry. The state was a slave trade center. Eighty percent of Kentucky counties had voted for secession after the Union Army occupied Louisville, upwards of 400,00 Union troops occupied Kentucky at times, using firing squads and martial law orders.
Still, about half of all Kentuckians fought for the Confederacy, some in Virginia and Tennessee units, Kentucky had called for support from the deep south during the early secession period. The lower south failed to respond at that time and the lower south did respond later. Kentucky had a star on the Confederate flag, and seats in the Confederate Congress, in addition many Confederate leaders were from Kentucky like Jefferson Davis and Breckenridge and many others. For example, most of Mrs Mary Todd Lincolns relatives from the Lexington, Bragg transported all of his infantry by railroads from Tupelo, Mississippi, to Chattanooga, while his cavalry and artillery moved by road. By moving his army to Chattanooga, he was able to challenge Buells advance on the city and he captured over 4,000 Union soldiers at Munfordville, and moved his army to Bardstown. On October 4,1862, he participated in the inauguration of Richard Hawes as the provisional Confederate governor of Kentucky, the wing of Braggs army under Maj.
Gen. Leonidas Polk met Buells army at Perryville on October 8 and won a tactical victory against him. Kirby Smith pleaded with Bragg to follow up on his success, For Gods sake, Bragg referred to his retreat as a withdrawal, the successful culmination of a giant raid. He had multiple reasons for withdrawing, disheartening news had arrived from North Mississippi that Earl Van Dorn and Sterling Price had failed at Corinth, just as Robert E. Lee had failed in his Maryland Campaign. He saw that his army had not much to gain from a further, isolated victory, whereas a defeat might cost not only the food and supplies yet collected. The armies of Bragg and Kirby Smith suffered from a lack of unified command, Bragg can be faulted for moving his army away from Munfordville, out of Buells path, a prime location for a battle to Confederate advantage. Polk can be blamed for not following Braggs instructions on the day before, Davis kept Bragg in command of the Army of Tennessee. Lincoln removed Buell from command of the Army of the Ohio for being too cautious in pursuit of Bragg, Shelby, The Civil War, A Narrative, Fort Sumter to Perryville, Random House,1958, ISBN 0-394-49517-9
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Mahlon Dickerson Manson was a druggist, Indiana politician, and a Union general in the American Civil War. Manson was born in Piqua, Ohio, to David Manson, Jr. and he was a descendant of David Manson, an aide to Revolutionary War General George Washington. His family moved to Crawfordsville, Indiana and he was a school teacher in Montgomery County, Indiana. He studied medicine in Cincinnati and gave lectures in New Orleans. During the Mexican-American War he served with the 5th Indiana Volunteers as a captain and he was a druggist in Crawfordsville, and a member of the Indiana Legislature. At the beginning of the Civil War he was appointed a captain in the 10th Indiana Infantry and was promoted to colonel in less than a month. He commanded a brigade in the Army of the Ohio at the Battle of Mill Springs in 1862 and was promoted to general on March 24,1862. General Manson was wounded in the thigh and captured by Confederate forces at the Battle of Richmond and he was exchanged two months and fought Morgan on his raid into Ohio.
In the span of two months Manson advanced from brigade, to division and to command the XXIII Corps and he led the corps during the Knoxville Campaign seeing action at Campbells Station and Knoxville. General Manson returned to command, in the Army of the Ohio, during the Atlanta Campaign and was seriously wounded in the Battle of Resaca. After the war he served in the United States House of Representatives as a Democrat from 1871 to 1873, was auditor. Manson died in Frankfort, and is buried in Oak Hill Cemetery, list of American Civil War generals Eicher, John H. and Eicher, David J. Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press,2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. Lambert, D. Warren, When the Ripe Pears Fell, The Battle of Richmond, Madison County Historical Society,1996, Oran, Adjutant-General, Indiana in the Mexican War, Indianapolis,1908. Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Blue, Lives of the Union Commanders, Louisiana State University Press,1964, congressional biography Civil War in Indiana Photographs at the Wayback Machine
Battle of Cannae
The Battle of Cannae was a major battle of the Second Punic War that took place on 2 August 216 BC in Apulia, in southeast Italy. The army of Carthage, under Hannibal and decisively defeated an army of the Roman Republic under the consuls Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Gaius Terentius Varro. It is regarded both as one of the greatest tactical feats in history and as one of the worst defeats in Roman history. Having recovered from their losses at Trebia and Lake Trasimene, the Romans decided to engage Hannibal at Cannae, with roughly 86,000 Roman, the Romans massed their heavy infantry in a deeper formation than usual, while Hannibal utilized the double-envelopment tactic. This was so successful that the Roman army was destroyed as a fighting force. Following the defeat and several other Italian city-states defected from the Roman Republic to Carthage, shortly after the start of the Second Punic War, the Carthaginian general Hannibal crossed into Italy by traversing the Pyrenees and the Alps during the summer and early autumn.
He quickly won major victories over the Romans at Trebia and at Lake Trasimene, after these losses, the Romans appointed Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus as dictator to deal with the threat. Fabius used attrition warfare against Hannibal, cutting off his supply lines, the majority of Romans were eager to see a quick conclusion to the war. It was feared that, if Hannibal continued plundering Italy unopposed, when Fabius came to the end of his term, the Senate did not renew his dictatorial powers and command was given to consuls Gnaeus Servilius Geminus and Marcus Atilius Regulus. But on this occasion, so great was the alarm and terror of what would happen, they resolved to bring not only four, Rome typically employed four legions each year, each consisting of four thousand foot soldiers and two hundred cavalry. Eight legions, some 40,000 Roman soldiers and an estimated 2,400 cavalry, some have suggested that the destruction of an army of 90,000 troops would be impossible. They argue that Rome probably had 48,000 troops and 6,000 cavalry against Hannibals 35,000 troops and 10,000 cavalry, Livy quotes one source stating the Romans added only 10,000 men to their usual army.
While no definitive number of Roman troops exists, all agree that the Carthaginians faced a considerably larger foe. Consuls were each assigned two of the four legions to command, rarely employing all four legions at once to the same assignment, the Senate feared a real threat and not only employed all four legions into the field, but all eight, including allies. Ordinarily, each of the two consuls would command his own portion of the army, but since the two armies were combined into one, Roman law required them to alternate their command on a daily basis. The traditional account puts Varro in command on the day of the battle, his low origins seem to be exaggerated in the sources, and Varro may have been made a scapegoat by the aristocratic establishment. In the spring of 216 BC, Hannibal took the initiative and seized the large depot at Cannae, in the Apulian plain. Hannibal recently harvested his crops so he had an army ready for action in the city of Cannae