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Battle of Rorke's Drift

The Battle of Rorke's Drift known as the Defence of Rorke's Drift, was an engagement in the Anglo-Zulu War. The successful defence of the mission station of Rorke's Drift, under the command of Lieutenants John Chard of the Royal Engineers and Gonville Bromhead, began when a large contingent of Zulu warriors broke off from their main force during the final hour of the British defeat at the day-long Battle of Isandlwana on 22 January 1879, diverting 6 miles to attack Rorke's Drift that day and continuing into the following day. Just over 150 British and colonial troops defended the station against attacks by 3,000 to 4,000 Zulu warriors; the massive but piecemeal attacks by the Zulu on Rorke's Drift came close to defeating the much smaller garrison, but were repelled. Eleven Victoria Crosses were awarded to the defenders, along with a number of other decorations and honours. Rorke's Drift, known as kwaJimu in the Zulu language, was a mission station and the former trading post of James Rorke, an Irish merchant.

It was located near a drift, or ford, on the Buffalo River, which at the time formed the border between the British colony of Natal and the Zulu Kingdom. On 9 January 1879, the British No. 3 Column, under Lord Chelmsford and encamped at the drift. On 11 January, the day after the British ultimatum to the Zulus expired, the column crossed the river and encamped on the Zulu bank. A small force consisting of B Company, 2nd Battalion, 24th Regiment of Foot under Lieutenant Gonville Bromhead was detailed to garrison the post, turned into a supply depot and hospital under the overall command of Brevet Major Henry Spalding, 104th Foot, a member of Chelmsford's staff. On 20 January, after reconnaissance patrolling and building of a track for its wagons, Chelmsford's column marched to Isandlwana 6 miles to the east, leaving behind the small garrison. A large company of the 2nd/3rd Natal Native Contingent under Captain William Stevenson was ordered to remain at the post to strengthen the garrison; this company numbered between 350 men.

Captain Thomas Rainforth's G Company of the 1st/24th Foot was ordered to move up from its station at Helpmekaar, 10 miles to the southeast, after its own relief arrived, to further reinforce the position. That evening a portion of the No. 2 Column under Brevet Colonel Anthony Durnford, late of the Royal Engineers, arrived at the drift and camped on the Zulu bank, where it remained through the next day. Late on the evening of 21 January, Durnford was ordered to Isandlwana, as was a small detachment of No. 5 Field Company, Royal Engineers, commanded by Lieutenant John Chard, which had arrived on the 19th to repair the pontoons that bridged the Buffalo. Chard rode ahead of his detachment to Isandlwana on the morning of 22 January to clarify his orders, but was sent back to Rorke's Drift with only his wagon and its driver to construct defensive positions for the expected reinforcement company, passing Durnford's column en route in the opposite direction. Sometime around noon on the 22nd, Major Spalding left the station for Helpmekaar to ascertain the whereabouts of Rainforth's G Company, now overdue.

He left Chard in temporary command. Chard rode down to the drift itself where the engineers' camp was located. Soon thereafter, two survivors from Isandlwana – Lieutenant Gert Adendorff of the 1st/3rd NNC and a trooper from the Natal Carbineers – arrived bearing the news of the defeat and that a part of the Zulu impi was approaching the station. Upon hearing this news, Chard and another of the station's officers, Acting Assistant Commissary James Dalton, held a quick meeting to decide the best course of action – whether to attempt a retreat to Helpmekaar or to defend their current position. Dalton pointed out that a small column, travelling in open country and burdened with carts full of hospital patients, would be overtaken and defeated by a numerically superior Zulu force, so it was soon agreed that the only acceptable course was to remain and fight. Once the British officers decided to stay and Bromhead directed their men to make preparations to defend the station. With the garrison's some 400 men working a defensive perimeter was constructed out of mealie bags.

This perimeter incorporated the storehouse, the hospital, a stout stone kraal. The buildings were fortified, with loopholes knocked through the external walls and the external doors barricaded with furniture. At about 3:30 pm, a mixed troop of about 100 Natal Native Horse under Lieutenant Alfred Henderson arrived at the station after having retreated in good order from Isandlwana, they volunteered to picket the far side of the Oscarberg, the large hill that overlooked the station and from behind which the Zulus were expected to approach. With the defences nearing completion and battle approaching, Chard had several hundred men available to him: Bromhead's B Company, Stevenson's large NNC company, Henderson's NNH troop, various others drawn from various British and colonial units. Adendorff stayed, while the trooper who had ridden in with him galloped on to warn the garrison at Helpmekaar; the force was sufficient, in Chard's estimation, to fend off the Zulus. Chard posted the British soldiers around the perimeter, adding some of the more able patients, the'casuals' and civilians, those of the NNC who possessed firearms along the barricade.

The rest of the NNC, armed only with spears, were posted outside the mealie bag and biscuit box barricade within the stone-walled cattle kraal. The approaching Zulu force was vastly larger.

2007 World Series

The 2007 World Series was the championship series of Major League Baseball's 2007 season. The 103rd edition of the World Series, it was a best-of-seven playoff between the National League champion Colorado Rockies and the American League champion Boston Red Sox, it was the Rockies' first appearance in a World Series. The Red Sox's victory was their second World Series championship in four seasons and their seventh overall; the series began on Wednesday, October 24 and ended on Sunday, October 28. Terry Francona became the second Red Sox manager to win two World Series titles, following Bill Carrigan, who won the 1915 and 1916 World Series. Including the last three games of the AL Championship Series, the Red Sox outscored their opposition 59–15 over their final seven games. Francona became the first manager to win his first 8 World Series games; the Rockies, became the first NL team to get swept in a World Series after sweeping the League Championship Series, just the second team to suffer such a fate, following the Oakland Athletics in 1990.

This fate would again be suffered by the 2012 Detroit Tigers, being swept by the San Francisco Giants in the World Series after sweeping the New York Yankees in the ALCS. The Rockies entered the Series having won 21 of their last 22 games, going back to the end of the regular season, including sweeps of the Philadelphia Phillies in the NLDS and the Arizona Diamondbacks in the NLCS, they beat the San Diego Padres in the NL Wild Card tie-breaker. The Red Sox swept the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim in the ALDS and defeated the Cleveland Indians in the ALCS after trailing three games to one, taking the final three contests by a combined score of 30–5. Neither participating team was in the previous year's postseason; the Rockies' eight-day layoff was the longest in MLB postseason history, caused by their sweep in the NLCS, the ALCS going seven games, scheduling by MLB. Per the 2006 Collective Bargaining Agreement, the Red Sox had home-field advantage in the World Series following the American League's 5–4 win in the 2007 All-Star Game.

The first two games took place with games 3 and 4 in Denver. AL Boston Red Sox vs. NL Colorado Rockies The Red Sox cruised to a blowout win in Game 1 behind ALCS MVP Josh Beckett, who struck out nine batters, including the first four he faced, over seven innings en route to his fourth win of the 2007 postseason. Mike Timlin and Éric Gagné pitched a perfect ninth, respectively. Boston Hall of Famer Carl Yastrzemski threw the ceremonial first pitch, as he had done before Game 1 in 2004. Rookie Dustin Pedroia led off the Sox' first inning with a home run over the Green Monster in Fenway Park off of Jeff Francis. Pedroia's homer was only the second lead-off home run to start a World Series. Kevin Youkilis doubled to right, moved to third on David Ortiz's groundout, scored on Manny Ramirez's single. After Mike Lowell flew out, Jason Varitek singled before J. D. Drew doubled to make it 3-0 Red Sox; the Rockies got on the board in the second when Garrett Atkins doubled with one out off Beckett and scored on Troy Tulowitzki's double one out but the Red Sox got that run back off of Francis when Youkilis walked with two outs and scored on Ortiz's double.

In the fourth, the Red Sox loaded the bases with two outs on a single and intentional walk when Varitek's two-run double put them up 6-1. They put the game out of reach with seven runs in the fifth. Julio Lugo hit a leadoff single off of reliever Franklin Morales before Jacoby Ellsbury bunted into a forceout at second. After Pedroia popped out, a balk moved Ellsbury to second. Ortiz's double and Ramirez's single scored a run each; the Red Sox walk before Drew's single scored another run. Ryan Speier relieved Morales and walked all three batters he faced to force in three more Boston runs. Matt Herges got Youkilis to fly out to right to end the inning. Though Herges and two relievers held Boston scoreless for the rest of the game, the Red Sox finished with thirteen runs, the most in a World Series Game 1, tied another record with nine extra base hits; the last 11 of the Red Sox runs came with two outs. The ceremonial first pitch was thrown by Andrew Madden, a 13-year-old heart transplant recipient, accompanied by Boston Red Sox Hall of Fame member Dwight Evans.

After the debacle of Game 1, Colorado appeared to return to form, scoring on a groundout by Todd Helton with runners on second and third in the first. However, this would be the only time the Rockies led in the series as postseason veteran Curt Schilling and Boston's bullpen allowed no other runs in the contest; the Red Sox tied the game in the fourth off of Ubaldo Jimenez on Jason Varitek's sacrifice fly with runners on second and third took the lead next inning on Mike Lowell's RBI double with runners on first and second. Matt Holliday had four of Colorado's five hits in Game 2, including a base hit off Papelbon with two outs in the eighth. Before throwing another pitch, Papelbon caught Holliday leaning too far off first base and picked him off—Papelbon's first career pickoff; this was the first World Series game played in Colorado. At 4 hours 19 minutes, it became the longest nine-inning game in World Series history until game five of 2017. Game 3 was the 600th World Series game played. Starting pitcher Daisuke Matsuzaka pitched five innings of scoreless ball and left in the sixth with no ru

Karl Bolle

Rittmeister Karl Bolle, Pour le Mérite, Military Merit Cross, Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, Friedrich Order, Iron Cross, was a fighter ace with 36 aerial victories during World War I. He became a Jagdstaffel commander during that war, an advisor to the Luftwaffe during World War II. Karl Bolle was born in Berlin on 20 June 1893, to a family owning a well-known dairy, he studied economics at The University of Oxford in 1912, was well known for his athletic prowess, playing ice hockey while there. He returned home to Germany to enlist as a leutnant in the 7th Cuirassiers "von Seydlitz" Regiment in 1913 as a one-year volunteer. At the start of World War I his regiment served on the Western Front, fighting in Belgium and the First Battle of the Marne, it was transferred to the Eastern Front. By the end of 1915, Bolle had won an award for bravery, the Iron Cross, Second Class and transferred to the Luftstreitkräfte, he undertook his initial training at Johannistal was forwarded to FEA 5 in Hannover, Germany.

He trained to become a fighter pilot at Valenciennes, France, at Jastaschule I. The standard German practice was to be trained at a Fliegerschule or an FEA and serve in a two-seater unit, in this case Kagohl IV, later transfer for training as a fighter pilot at a Jastaschule where they would be tutored by experts with frontline experience, they had access to captured British and French fighters to familiarize themselves with their opponent's aircraft. At any rate, upon completion, he was assigned to the bombing group Kagohl IV in July 1916. Bolle was wounded in 1916 in combat with five French fighters, he crash landed within friendly lines and despite his own injury dragged his injured observer safely out of the shell-fire directed at their downed aircraft. Upon his recovery, he had been assigned to Kampfstaffel 23 of KG IV, it was about this time that Bolle was awarded the Kingdom of Württemberg's 2nd Class Knight's Cross of the Friedrich Order. He was the only fighter ace to win this award. Bolle went to Jastaschule in early 1917.

He joined Jagdstaffel 28 in April 1917. While assigned as a non-flying adjutant, he began tutelage on the fighter pilot's craft with two aces, Karl Emil Schaefer and Otto Hartmann, as well as Bolle's friend, Max Ritter von Müller. In July he commenced operational flying with Jasta 28, his first victory was over an Airco DH.4 of 57 Squadron on 8 August 1917. He scored once more in August and victories in December 1917 and January 1918 made him an ace by 30 January, he was promoted to Oberleutnant and transferred to command Jasta 2 on 20 February 1918 at Marcke, France. This was the squadron that Oswald Boelcke had commanded as he invented the first fighter tactics and organization, it was being re-equipped with Fokker Dr. I triplanes as it was being incorporated into Jagdgeschwader 3, it was a dispirited squadron, having lost three consecutive Pour le Mérite holding commanding officers killed in action. Bolle was destined to be Jasta 2's final commander. Despite modest credentials, Bolle set his mark upon the squadron.

The Fokker Dr. I triplane supplied was a plane of limited speed but great climb rate, its slower speed made it more difficult to close to short distance for gunnery against faster fighters. Bolle's solution was the use of an Oigee telescopic sight for his guns, he painted distinctive white stripes on his upper wings, to denote his leadership role, along with a yellow fuselage band edged by black and white to honor his old cavalry regiment. Bolle's command of English turned out to be handy upon occasion, when he questioned downed British Empire fliers, he opened his tally with Jasta 2 on 25 April 1918, as part of a huge air offensive launched to support ground assault on Kemmel Ridge. He began a steady collection of single and double victories, with five in May, seven in June, nine in July, three in August. In August, 1918, when he had scored 28 victories, he received the Military Merit Cross, the Royal House Order of Hohenzollern. Bolle did not score again until 1 November. On 4 November, he downed four British fighters.

—two RAF SE.5as of 56 Squadron and two Sopwith Snipes of 4 AFC. The Snipes were flown by Lt. A. J. Palliser; these were Bolle's final victories. A week he and his pilots defiantly marked their Fokker D. VIIs with their names and victory scores before surrendering them into British hands at Nivelles, Belgium. Bolle's final score of 36 victories included a preponderance of wins over enemy fighters; the other 11 victories were two-seater reconnaissance, ground attack, bomber aircraft. More he led Jasta 2 through the intense battles of 1918 to the second highest victory total in the German Air Force, with a total of 336 victories to the Jasta. After war's end, he became a flying instructor, he became the Director of the Deutsche Verkehrsfliegerschule in the 1920s. Subsequently, he helped in the covert training of pilots for the Luftwaffe. During World War II, he served as an advisor with the Luftwaffe. Karl Bolle died in his native city of Berlin on 9 October 1955. Kingdom of Prussia's Pour le Mérite: 28 August 1918 Knight's Cross with Swords of the Royal House Order of Hohenzollern: August 1918 Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin's Military Merit Cross