The Union Army was the land force that fought for the Union during the American Civil War,1861 to 1865. It included the permanent regular army of the United States, which was augmented by numbers of temporary units consisting of volunteers as well as conscripts. The Union Army fought and eventually defeated the Confederate Army during the war, at least two and a half million men served in the Union Army, almost all were volunteers. About 360,000 Union soldiers died from all causes,280,000 were wounded and 200,000 deserted. When the American Civil War began in April 1861, there were only 16,000 men in the U. S. Army, and of these many Southern officers resigned and joined the Confederate army. The U. S. Army consisted of ten regiments of infantry, four of artillery, Lincolns call forced the border states to choose sides, and four seceded, making the Confederacy eleven states strong. The war proved to be longer and more extensive than anyone North or South had expected, the call for volunteers initially was easily met by patriotic Northerners and even immigrants who enlisted for a steady income and meals.
Over 10,000 Germans in New York and Pennsylvania immediately responded to Lincolns call, as more men were needed, the number of volunteers fell and both money bounties and forced conscription had to be turned to. Nevertheless, between April 1861 and April 1865, at least two and a million men served in the Union Army, of whom the majority were volunteers. It is a misconception that the South held an advantage because of the percentage of professional officers who resigned to join the Confederate army. At the start of the war, there were 824 graduates of the U. S, Military Academy on the active list, of these,296 resigned or were dismissed, and 184 of those became Confederate officers. Of the approximately 900 West Point graduates who were civilians,400 returned to the Union Army and 99 to the Confederate. Therefore, the ratio of Union to Confederate professional officers was 642 to 283, the South did have the advantage of other military colleges, such as The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute, but they produced fewer officers.
The Union Army was composed of numerous organizations, which were generally organized geographically, Military Division A collection of Departments reporting to one commander. Military Divisions were similar to the modern term Theater, and were modeled close to, though not synonymous with. Department An organization that covered a region, including responsibilities for the Federal installations therein. Those named for states usually referred to Southern states that had been occupied and it was more common to name departments for rivers or regions. District A subdivision of a Department, there were Subdistricts for smaller regions
Mounted infantry were infantry who rode horses instead of marching, but, as infantry does in general, fought on foot. In contrast, cavalry fought on horseback, the original dragoons were essentially mounted infantry. According to the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Mounted rifles are half cavalry, with motor vehicles having replaced horses for military transport, the motorized infantry are in some respects successors to mounted infantry. The origins of mounted infantry go back to at least the beginnings of organised warfare, with the weight of ancient bronze armour national champions would travel to battle on chariots before dismounting to fight. With the evolution of warfare, some hoplites would travel to battle on horseback. Early pre-Marian Roman military had units consisting of mounted infantry with units clinging to the saddles of the cavalry to take them to battle and dismounting to fight. Gallic and Germanic warbands were reported to use double-riders, with a second warrior joining a horseman only for a distance before dismounting to fight on foot.
The Han Dynasty extensively used mounted infantry in their campaigns against the Xiongnu confederation, during many of the Han campaigns, the vast majority of the army rode on horseback, either as mounted cavalry or mounted infantry who fought dismounted. Dragoons originally were mounted infantry, who were trained in horse riding as well as infantry fighting skills, usage altered over time and during the 18th century, dragoons evolved into conventional light cavalry units and personnel. Dragoon regiments were established in most European armies during the late 17th century, the name is possibly derived from a type of firearm carried by dragoons of the French Army. There is no distinction between the dragon and dragoon in French. The title has been retained in modern times by a number of armoured or ceremonial mounted regiments, with the invention of accurate and quick firing repeating rifles in the middle of the 19th century, cavalry started to become increasingly vulnerable. Many armies started to use troops which could fight on horseback or on foot as circumstances dictated.
The first mounted infantry units to be named as such were raised during the Mexican–American War and others followed, terms such as mounted rifles were often used. The French Foreign Legion used mule-mounted companies from the 1880s, each mule was shared by two legionnaires, who took turns riding it. This arrangement allowed faster and more prolonged marches that could cover 60 miles in one day, in the British Army, infantry units in some parts of the British Empire had a mounted platoon for scouting and skirmishing. In addition, many locally raised units such as the Ceylon Mounted Rifles, Cape Mounted Rifles, Natal Carbineers, in the Second Boer War, the British copied the Boers and raised large forces of their own mounted infantry. Among various ad hoc formations, the Imperial Yeomanry was raised from volunteers in Britain in 1900 and 1901, as part of the lessons learned from that war, British regular cavalry regiments were armed with the same rifle as the infantry and became well-trained in dismounted tactics
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth, originally a part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th most extensive and the 26th most populous of the 50 United States, Kentucky is known as the Bluegrass State, a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky. In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, the precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but likely based on an Iroquoian name meaning the meadow or the prairie. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South, a significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Midwest and the Southeast, West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, and Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more, Kentuckys northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. The official state borders are based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792, for instance, northbound travelers on U. S.41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the land border between Indiana and Kentucky. Kentucky has a part known as Kentucky Bend, at the far west corner of the state. It exists as an exclave surrounded completely by Missouri and Tennessee, Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee. The epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area, much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and very narrow hills.
The Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps, located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate. Temperatures in Kentucky usually range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the low of 23 °F. The average precipitation is 46 inches a year, Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28,1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19,1994, due to its location, Kentucky has a moderate humid subtropical climate, with abundant rainfall
Confederate States Army
The Confederate States Army was the military ground force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. S. Military Academy and colonel of a regiment during the Mexican War. In March 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress established a more permanent Confederate States Army, the better estimates of the number of individual Confederate soldiers are between 750,000 and 1,000,000 men. This does not include a number of slaves who were pressed into performing various tasks for the army, such as construction of fortifications. Since these figures include estimates of the number of individual soldiers who served at any time during the war. These numbers do not include men who served in Confederate naval forces, although most of the soldiers who fought in the American Civil War were volunteers, both sides by 1862 resorted to conscription, primarily as a means to force men to register and to volunteer. In the absence of records, estimates of the percentage of Confederate soldiers who were draftees are about double the 6 percent of Union soldiers who were conscripts.
Confederate casualty figures are incomplete and unreliable, one estimate of Confederate wounded, which is considered incomplete, is 194,026. These numbers do not include men who died from causes such as accidents. Other Confederate forces surrendered between April 16,1865 and June 28,1865, by the end of the war, more than 100,000 Confederate soldiers had deserted. The Confederacys government effectively dissolved when it fled Richmond in April, by the time Abraham Lincoln took office as President of the United States on March 4,1861, the seven seceding slave states had formed the Confederate States. The Confederacy seized federal property, including nearly all U. S. Army forts, Lincoln was determined to hold the forts remaining under U. S. control when he took office, especially Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. Under orders from Confederate President Jefferson Davis, C. S. troops under the command of General P. G. T, Beauregard bombarded Fort Sumter on April 12–13,1861, forcing its capitulation on April 14.
The Northern states were outraged by the Confederacys attack and demanded war and it rallied behind Lincolns call on April 15, for all the states to send troops to recapture the forts from the secessionists, to put down the rebellion and to preserve the Union intact. Four more slave states joined the Confederacy. The Confederate Congress provided for a Confederate army patterned after the United States Army and it was to consist of a large provisional force to exist only in time of war and a small permanent regular army. Although the two forces were to exist concurrently, very little was done to organize the Confederate regular army, the Provisional Army of the Confederate States began organizing on April 27. Virtually all regular and conscripted men preferred to enter this organization since officers could achieve a rank in the Provisional Army than they could in the Regular Army
Magoffin County, Kentucky
Magoffin County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,333, the county was formed in 1860 from Floyd and Morgan Counties and named for Beriah Magoffin who was Governor of Kentucky. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 309 square miles. It is watered by Licking River, Morgan County Johnson County Floyd County Knott County Breathitt County Wolfe County As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 13,333 people residing in the county. 98. 6% were White,0. 3% Native American,0. 1% Black or African American,0. 1% Asian,0. 2% of some other race and 0. 7% of two or more races. As of the census of 2000, there were 13,332 people,5,024 households, the population density was 43 per square mile. There were 5,447 housing units at a density of 18 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 99. 29% White,0. 15% Black or African American,0. 20% Native American,0. 08% Asian,0. 02% from other races,0. 42% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There is a significant Melungeon or Black-Dutch population in Magoffin County,21. 40% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 20% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was out with 26. 80% under the age of 18,10. 10% from 18 to 24,30. 20% from 25 to 44,22. 40% from 45 to 64. The median age was 34 years, for every 100 females there were 97.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.40 males, the median income for a household in the county was $19,421, and the median income for a family was $24,031. Males had an income of $27,745 versus $18,354 for females. The per capita income for the county was $10,685, about 31. 20% of families and 36. 60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 45. 90% of those under age 18 and 29. 10% of those age 65 or over. The last active mine in Magoffin County closed in 2015
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States, officially the Confederate States of America, commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was a breakaway country of 11 secessionist slave states existing from 1861 to 1865. It was never recognized as an Independent country, although it achieved belligerent status by Britain. A new Confederate government was established in February 1861 before Lincoln took office in March, after the Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The government of the United States rejected the claims of secession, the Civil War began with the April 12,1861, Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. In spring 1865, after four years of fighting which led to an estimated 620,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered. Jefferson Davis lamented that the Confederacy had disappeared in 1865, Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions from those states, while the legitimate governments of those two states retained formal adherence to the Union.
Also fighting for the Confederacy were two of the Five Civilized Tribes located in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona. Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of law, while Delaware, though of divided loyalty. A Unionist government in parts of Virginia organized the new state of West Virginia. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1,1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal, as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers, the most notable advance was Shermans March to the Sea in late 1864. Much of the Confederacys infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs, plantations in the path of Shermans forces were severely damaged. Internal movement became increasingly difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance.
Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Daviss administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, after four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. Shortly afterward, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant, President Davis was captured on May 10,1865, and jailed in preparation for a treason trial that was ultimately never held. The U. S. government began a process known as Reconstruction which attempted to resolve the political and constitutional issues of the Civil War. By 1877, the Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction in the former Confederate states, Confederate veterans had been temporarily disenfranchised by Reconstruction policy. The prewar South had many areas, the war left the entire region economically devastated by military action, ruined infrastructure
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Salyersville is a home rule-class city on the Licking River in Magoffin County, Kentucky, in the United States. It is the seat of its county, during the 2010 U. S. Census, its population was 1,883. Originally known as Praters Fort, the community had become Licking Station by the time of its first post office in 1839, in 1849, the post office was moved to the community at site of the present city and renamed Adamsville after local landowner William Uncle Billy Adams. In addition to his farmland, Adams operated a hotel, a gristmill, a tannery, in 1860, Magoffin Co. was formed from parts of the surrounding Floyd and Morgan counties. The post office changed the following year, during the Civil War, Salyersville fell on hard times. Because of its location in the Upper South and its history of settlement by migrants from Virginia, in 1864, Union forces defeated a Confederate raiding force in the Battle of Salyersville. Adams gave more land to the city in 1871 for the construction of a proper courthouse and it was completed in 1890 and stood for 67 years before burning to the ground in 1957.
Salyersvilles first high school, the Magoffin County Institute, was founded in 1908 by A. C. Harlowe, the Great Depression hit Salyersville hard, since such a high percentage of Salyersvilles citizens were laborers or farmers, who saw prices for crops fall from 40 to 60%. Nearby mining and logging operations closed or limited production when demand for their products fell sharply, in 1939, the Licking River crested over 25 feet, flooding most of downtown Salyersville and causing extensive property damage. In 1963, the Bert T. Combs Mountain Parkway is completed and it enabled more tourists to visit the area, and heritage tourism began to help Salyersville develop a changed economy. The first annual Magoffin County Founders Day Festival was held in 1978, in the winter of 1997, as part of Kentuckys elk restoration project, Salyersville became one of the locations selected for the release of elk into the wilderness area of its mountains. In 2002, the second Magoffin County court house was demolished, in its place, a new Justice Center was constructed, which opened in Spring 2006.
The new Justice Centers architecture plays tribute to Magoffin Countys original courthouse, as of 2006, Magoffin County remains one of the poorest counties in the United States. The county is the 42nd-poorest county by per capita income and the 24th-poorest county in the nation by median household income, on March 2,2012, Salyersville was hit by a tornado which caused extensive damage to the business center and many homes. The tornado killed two people and was rated an EF3 and this tornado was a separate storm that formed in Wolfe County, KY, and is not the tornado that previously hit West Liberty and Wellington. Kentucky Gov. Steve Beshear visited both cities on March 3 and toured the eastern part of the state after the tornado outbreak, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.1 square miles, all land. The climate in this area is characterized by high temperatures. The Köppen Climate System describes the weather as humid subtropical, as of the census of 2000, there were 1,604 people,646 households, and 414 families residing in the city
Paintsville is a home rule-class city along Paint Creek in Johnson County, Kentucky, in the United States. It is the seat of its county, the population was 3,459 during the 2010 U. S. Census. A Paint Lick Station was referred to in military dispatches as early as 1780. The site was named for Indian art painted on the trees near a local salt lick when the first white settlers arrived and was originally part of a 19. The trading post was purchased by the Carolinian Rev. Dalton Ray Chandler II in 1812, the town was formally established under that name in 1834, although the post office was probably named Paint Creek. It was incorporated as a city under its present name of Paintsville in 1843, the Civil War found Johnson County Fiscal Court passing an ordinance barring both Union and Confederate flags from being flown in its jurisdiction. This was quickly repealed when then-Col, james A. Garfield marched his brigade into the city. During the early Twentieth Century, Paintsville began to transform into a modern American city, in 1902, the citys first bank – First National – opened for business.
In 1906, the city received telephone service and, two later, all of its streets were paved. In 1912, Paintsville received electricity and natural gas services, in 1926, Paintsville residents received public water and the citys fire department was established. Since the 1990s, Paintsville has seen a loss of population, in part due to a downturn in the economy. Despite this, there have some business developments in the past few years. Paintsville has been in the process of revitalizing the area in order to rejuvenate its original business district. On June 9,2009, Paintsville became a wet city for the first time since March 14,1945, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.3 square miles, all of it land. Beginning in 1976, Paintsvilles main shopping district has gradually moved from Main Street to Mayo Plaza, stores such as Wal-Mart and Lowes opened in the plaza during the early 1990s. This proved to be too much competition for the family owned businesses in downtown causing them to close.
Today, downtown mostly serves as Paintsvilles financial district, but, in May 2009 Paintsville received a grant to redevelop Main Street in hopes of making it one of the citys popular shopping districts again. In recent years, Mayo Plaza has rapidly expanded, in the early 2000s, a new Wal-Mart Supercenter, a new Lowes, and multiple restaurants have opened