Muntinlupa the City of Muntinlupa, or known as Muntinlupa City, is a 1st class urbanized city in Metro Manila, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 504,509 people. Classified as a urbanized city, it is bordered on the north by Taguig City, it is given the nickname "Emerald City" by the tourism establishment and known as the "Gateway to Calabarzon" as it is the southernmost city of the National Capital Region. Muntinlupa is known as the location of the national insular penitentiary, the New Bilibid Prison, where the country's most dangerous criminals were incarcerated, as well as the location of Ayala Alabang Village, one of the country's biggest and most expensive residential communities, where many of the wealthy and famous live. There are three plausible origins of the name of the city: First, is its association with the thin topsoil in the area. Based on the 1987 Philippine constitution, it is spelled as Muntinglupa, instead of Muntinlupa. 1601: Some 88 years after the arrival of Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan in the Visayas islands, the original lands constituting Muntinlupa could be deduced to have been friar lands administered by the Augustinians sold and assigned to the Sanctuary of Guadalupe.
1869: The lands were transferred to the state and large individual landholders. In an effort by the Spanish Government to bring under closer administrative control the people living in the contiguous sitios, as well as those in Alabang, Tunasan and Cupang, the municipality was created upon the recommendation of Don Eduardo de Canizares. August 6, 1898: The town supported the Philippine Revolution against the Spaniards and formally joined the revolutionary government headed by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo. June 1, 1901: The Philippine Commission promulgated Rizal Province on June 11, 1901 through Act 137. Muntinlupa becomes a district of Rizal. November 25, 1903: Under the American regime, Muntinlupa was incorporated under Act 1008 and included within the boundary of Laguna province under the municipality of Biñan. Muntinlupa residents protested this Executive Act, through their town head, Marcelo Fresnedi, filed a formal petition to the Governor for the return of the municipality to the province of Rizal.
March 22, 1905: Act 1308 paved the way for Muntinlupa's return to Rizal province to become a part of Taguig along with Pateros. January 1, 1918: Governor General Harrison's Executive Order 108, which grants the petition of residents for an independent status of their municipality, takes effect. Vidal Joaquin, a native of Alabang, served as the first appointed mayor in 1918-1919 followed by Primo Ticman, native of Poblacion 1919-1922 while the first elected mayor was Melencio Espeleta. January 22, 1941: The historic New Bilibid Prison, the national penitentiary, was established in the hills of Muntinlupa. November 7, 1975: Muntinlupa became a part of Metropolitan Manila by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 824 issued by President Ferdinand E. Marcos. June 13, 1986: Following the EDSA Revolution in February that year, President Corazón C. Aquino appoints Ignacio R. Bunye, Officer-In-Charge of Muntinlupa as part of a nationwide revamp of local government units. In the ratification of the 1987 Constitution, Muntinlupa together with Las Piñas formed one political district.
December 6, 1988: President Corazon C. Aquino by Proclamation 351 declares the 19th of December as "Municipality of Muntinlupa Day". February 16, 1995: House Bill No. 14401 converting the Municipality of Muntinlupa into a urbanized city was approved by the House of Representatives. On March 1, Muntinlupa becomes the 65th city in the Philippines as signed into law by President Fidel V. Ramos, its conversion into a urbanized city by virtue of Republic Act No. 7926. Per Section 62 of R. A. 7926 Muntinlupa and Las Piñas were to constitute separate congressional districts, with each district electing its separate representative in the 1998 elections. This separation was additionally confirmed in the city charter of Las Piñas, approved by plebiscite on 26 March 1997. June 30, 1998: Former mayor Ignacio Bunye elected and sworn as the first congressman representing the city while Manny Villar became the first congressman of Las Piñas. March 1, 2001: Republic Act 9191 declaring the First Day of March of every year as a Special Non-working Holiday in the City of Muntinlupa to be known as "The Muntinlupa City Charter Day" by virtue of Senate Bill No. 2165.
August 3, 2007: The city hall of Muntinlupa was damaged and abandoned due to a fire. The fire started from a slum area behind the city hall. All files, important documents and other references of Muntinlupa were burned, it is bordered on the north by Taguig. Muntinlupa’s terrain is flat to sloping towards the east along the lake. Gentle rolling hills occupy the western part of the city, with elevation increasing up to 60 meters and above towards its southwest portion. While majority of the land area in the city is urbanized, the NBP Re
Battle of Quingua
The Battle of Quingua was fought on April 23, 1899, in Quingua — now Plaridel, Philippines, during the Philippine–American War. The engagement was a two-part battle that started general Elwell S. Otis' Bulacan and Pampanga offensive a day early; the first phase was a brief victory for the young Filipino general Gregorio del Pilar when he stopped the advance of the American Cavalry led by Major J. Franklin Bell. In the second phase of the battle, Bell was reinforced by the 1st Nebraskan Infantry, who routed the Filipinos, but not before they repelled a cavalry charge that killed Colonel John M. Stotsenburg; the battle began when US Major Bell with the 4th Cavalry, while on a reconnaissance mission, came upon a strong Filipino position led by Colonel Pablo Tecson, a Revolutionary officer from San Miguel, Bulacan, under command of General Gregorio del Pilar. The Filipinos laid down heavy fire. After a short firefight, Bell recognized his position was badly exposed to the opposition, as a result his force risked defeat.
Bell sent for reinforcements, the 1st Nebraskans came to his aid under Colonel John M. Stotsenburg, while Irving Hale sent companies from the 51st Iowa as well as artillery from the Utah Battery. Once he arrived on the field, Stotsenburg led the Nebraskan Infantry, with a dozen or so Cavalrymen— in a charge on the enemy's position; the Filipinos opened fire. Stotsenberg was one of the first to fall, a bullet to the heart. Several of the Cavalrymen's mounts were slain; the Filipino soldiers sustained the heavy fire. The Nebraskans, only 200 in number, continued advancing under fire by the Filipino riflemen. Despite the accuracy and intensity of the riflemen's fire, the Nebraskan line continued to advance; the two forces clashed in close combat, but after an exhaustive battle, the Filipinos retreated. During the fight, Hale's brigade lost 44 men were wounded. Monument Tourism South Dakota's Participation in the Spanish–American War Eager, Frank D. Lt. Col. History of Operations of the First Nebraska Infantry in the Campaign in the Philippine Islands.
N.p. 1912. Pp-30-32 Pandia, Ralli "Campaigning in the Philippines, Part 1", Overland Monthly, page images at Making of America, University of Michigan Prentiss, A. ed. The History of the Utah Volunteers in the Spanish–American War and in the Philippine Islands. Salt Lake City, UT: W. F. Ford, Publisher. 1900. Pp-299-303 The Abridgment. Message from the President of the United States to the Two Houses of Congress at the Beginning of the First Session of the Fifty-sixth Congress with the Reports of the Heads of Departments and Selections from Accompanying Reports. 2 vols. Washington, D. C.: GPO, 1899-1900. Pp-2:972-73 War Department, Adjutant General’s Office. Correspondence relating to the War with Spain and Conditions Growing Out of the Same, Including the Insurrection in the Philippine Islands and the China relief Expedition, Between the Adjutant-General of the Army and Military Commanders in the United States, Porto Rico and the Philippine Islands, From April 15, 1898, to July 30, 1902, 2 vols. Washington, D.
C.: GPO, 1902. C.: Center of Military History United States Army, 1993. P-972 Memories of Two Wars: Cuban and Philippine Experiences, Frederick Funston. New York: C. Scribner's Publisher. 1911. P-268 Remembering my Lolo, Simon Ocampo Tecson: Leader in the Siege of Baler, Luis Zamora Tecson. Baliwag, Bulacan: MSV Printers & Publishing, Inc. 2011. Pp-105-107, 197
Battle of Paete
The Battle of Paete was a small battle fought between American forces, commanded by General Henry W. Lawton, Philippine nationalists on April 12, 1899, during the Philippine-American War. Upon capturing Santa Cruz and Pagsanjan, the American forces in Laguna launched another expedition to capture the town of Paete; the United States Army assembled a force of about 220 men to capture the town, began the march at 2:45 that afternoon. After about a one-hour march, the commander of the 1st North Dakota Volunteers, Major Fraine, ordered five men as scouts 100 yards ahead to locate the enemy positions, they soon spotted enemy breast works 150 yards in front of them, manned by 50 or so Filipino fighters. Major Fraine halted the command and sent a small squad consisting of one corporal and four privates to flank the Filipino positions; some Filipino troops were hidden in thick foliage flanking the road, they opened fire at close range on the small force dispatching them. Three of the squad members, including Corporal Isador Driscoll, were killed outright and another fell mortally wounded.
Only one man was left after the volley, Private Thomas Sletteland, but he managed to drive back the nearest group of Filipinos, who tried seize the rifles of his fallen comrades. He was awarded the Medal of Honor for his role in this battle. Lawton deployed the majority of his men to attack and try and turn the flank of the enemy, which they were unable to do; the Americans attacking the front Filipino entrenchments were unable to move them from their position. The American artillery battery fired a few shrapnel rounds into the enemy positions, as the gunboat Laguna de Bay pelted the position with Gatling fire, which succeeded in dislodging the Filipinos. Facing superior numbers and firepower, the Filipinos abandoned their entrenchments and dispersed into the mountains. Lawton's force went on to occupy Paete with no further resistance. Lawton's official report reads: "With a view to securing a good place to re-embark the troops for the movement on Calamba, the North Dakota Battalion was sent from Longos shortly after noon the 12th instant to reconnoiter the town of Paete, located about four miles further north on the lake shore, where it could be reported a good landing place could be found.
After advancing about one mile the enemy was discovered entrenched across the road, opened fire from behind impenetrable undergrowth, on the mountain side. Major Fraine, promptly disposed his command to execute a flank movement on the enemy, who were pouring heavy fire into the advance guard, four of them were killed and three wounded, one mortally, of these, the latter and three killed belonged to a party of five flankers, sent up the hillside, their surviving comrade, Private Thomas Sletteland, Co. "C" 1st North Dakotas, remained with them and by his cool and unerring aim held the enemy back until reinforcements came. After carrying his wounded comrade to the rear, he assisted in recovering the bodies of the killed, he has been recommended for a medal of honor. At the first sound of firing, Lieut. William Brooke, 4th U. S. Infantry: Aid-de-camp, was sent to ascertain in the cause, he asked for reinforcements. The Artillery with its support, Co. "D" 14th infantry and the Sharpshooters were hastened forward under command of Major Weisenburger.
Boarding the gunboat "Laguna de Bay" a position was secured near the beach from which it was possible to aid the Artillery in shelling the enemy. After an engagement lasting about one hour the enemy dispersed; the command continued to and occupied Paete without further resistance." Campaigns of the Philippines Insurrection at the United States Army Center of Military History
Laguna de Bay
Laguna de Baý is the largest lake in the Philippines located east of Metro Manila between the provinces of Laguna to the south and Rizal to the north. The freshwater lake has a surface area of 911–949 km², with an average depth of about 2.8 metres and an elevation of about 1 metre above sea level. The lake is shaped with two peninsulas jutting out from the northern shore. Between these peninsulas, the middle lobe fills the large volcanic Laguna Caldera. In the middle of the lake is the large island of Talim, which falls under the jurisdiction of the towns of Binangonan and Cardona in Rizal province; the lake is one of the primary sources of freshwater fish in the country. Its water drains to Manila Bay via the Pasig River. Laguna de Bay means "Lagoon of Bay" for the lakeshore town of Bay, the former provincial capital of Laguna province. Alternate spellings of the town's name include "Bae" or "Ba-i", in the early colonial times, "Bayi" or "Vahi". Thus, the lake is sometimes spelled as "Laguna de Bae" or "Laguna de Ba-i" by the locals.
The town's name is believed to have come from the Tagalog word for "settlement", is related to the words for "house", "shore", "boundary", among others. The introduction of the English language during the American occupation of the Philippines, elicited confusion as the English word "bay", referring to another body of water, was mistakenly substituted to the town name that led to its mispronunciation. However, the word "Bay" in Laguna de Bay has always referred to the town; the Spanish word Laguna refers to not just lagoons but for freshwater lakes, aside from lago. Some examples of the worldwide usage of laguna for lakes include Laguna Chicabal in Guatemala, Laguna de Gallocanta in Spain, Laguna Catemaco in Mexico and Laguna de Leche, the largest lake in Cuba; the lake's alternate name, "Laguna Lake", refers to the Province of Laguna, the province at the southern shore of the lake. Laguna province, was named because of the large lake and was called La Laguna till the early 20th century. In the pre-Hispanic era, the lake was known as "Puliran Kasumuran", by "Pulilan".
The lake is incorrectly called "Laguna Bay," including in government websites. The middle part of Laguna de Bay between Mount Sembrano and Talim Island, is the Laguna Caldera believed to have been formed by two major volcanic eruptions, around 1 million and 27,000–29,000 years ago. Remnants of its volcanic history are shown by the presence of series of maars around the area of Tadlac Lake and Mayondon hill in Los Baños, another maar at the southern end of Talim Island, a solfataric field in Jala Jala. Laguna de Bay is a large shallow freshwater body in the heart of Luzon Island with an aggregate area of about 911 km2 and a shoreline of 220 km, it is considered to be the third largest inland body of water in Southeast Asia after Tonle Sap in Cambodia and Lake Toba in Sumatra, Indonesia. Laguna de Bay is bordered by the province of Laguna in the east and southwest, the province of Rizal in the north to northeast, Metropolitan Manila in the northwest; the lake has an average depth of 2.8 metres and its excess water is discharged through the Pasig River.
The lake is fed by 45,000 km2 of its 21 major tributaries. Among these are the Pagsanjan River, the source of 35% of the Lake's water, the Santa Cruz River, the source of 15% of the Lake's water, the Balanak River, the Marikina River, the Mangangate River, the Tunasan River, the San Pedro River, the Cabuyao River, the San Cristobal River, the San Juan River, the Bay and Maitem rivers in Bay, the Molawin and Pele rivers in Los Baños, the Pangil River, the Tanay River, the Morong River, the Siniloan River and the Sapang Baho River; the lake is a multipurpose resource. In order to reduce the flooding in Manila along the Pasig River, during heavy rains, the peak water flows of the Marikina River are diverted via the Manggahan Floodway to Laguna de Bay, which serves as a temporary reservoir. In case the water level on the lake is higher than the Marikina River, the flow on the floodway is reversed, both Marikina River and the lake drain through Pasig River to Manila Bay; the lake has been used as a navigation lane for passenger boats since the Spanish colonial era.
It is used as a source of water for the Kalayaan Pumped-Storage Hydroelectric Project in Kalayaan, Laguna. Other uses include fishery, recreation, food support for the growing duck industry, irrigation and a "virtual" cistern for domestic and industrial effluents; because of its importance in the development of the Laguna de Bay Region, unlike other lakes in the country, its water quality and general condition are monitored. This important water resource has been affected by development pressures like population growth, rapid industrialization, resources allocation. Known lake islands include Talim, the largest and most populated island on the lake. At least 18 fish species are known f
Battle of Manila (1899)
The Battle of Manila, the first and largest battle of the Philippine–American War, was fought on February 4–5, 1899, between 19,000 American soldiers and 15,000 Filipino armed militiamen. Armed conflict broke out when American troops, under orders to turn away insurgents from their encampment, fired upon an encroaching group of Filipinos. Philippine President Emilio Aguinaldo attempted to broker a ceasefire, but American General Elwell Stephen Otis rejected it and fighting escalated the next day, it ended in an American victory. After the surrender of Manila to American forces by the Spanish in 1898, General Aguinaldo demanded occupation of a line of blockhouses on the Zapote Line, the Spanish defensive perimeter. General Otis refused this, but said that he would not object unless overruled by higher authority, it was estimated at the time that there were about 20,000 Filipino troops surrounding Manila, with their distribution and exact composition only known. U. S. Army forces numbered 20,000 enlisted men.
Of these, some 8,000 were deployed in 11,000 in a defensive line inside the Zapote line. The remaining American troops were in transports off Iloilo. Sources agree that the first shots were fired by Private William Walter Grayson, an Englishman who had migrated to America c. 1890, had enlisted as a volunteer soldier in Lincoln, Nebraska, in May 1898, a month after the Spanish–American War erupted, had deployed with his unit to the Philippines in June 1898. Grayson's unit, the First Nebraska Volunteer Infantry under Colonel John M. Stotsenburg, had been encamped in Santa Mesa, since December 5, 1898. During the time of their encampment, there had been incidents on and around the San Juan Bridge, located just to the east of their encampment area. On the morning of February 4, Stotsenburg said, "Your orders are to hold the village. If any armed men come into our lines order them out. If they persist in coming, summon enough men to arrest them. In case an advance in force is made, fall back to the pipeline outpost and resist occupation of the village by all means in your power, calling on these headquarters for assistance."
In a report that day, Lt. Burt D. Wheedon wrote, "On the morning of February 4 the insurgents ordered our men to move out of town, upon their refusal to do so the former said that they would bring a body of men and drive them back when night came." Lt. Wheedon took charge of an outpost on Santol road at seven in the evening and, at 7:30, orders were given saying, "No armed insurgents to enter the town or vicinity... Halt all armed persons who attempted to advance from the direction of the insurgents' lines which lie between blockhouses 6 and 7 and the San Juan Bridge and order them back to their lines. If they refused to go, to arrest them if possible, or if this was impossible, to fire upon them... Patrol each of the roads leading to Blockhouses 6 and 7 for 100 yards every half hour.". At about 8 pm on February 4, 1899, along with Private Orville Miller and one other man advanced from Santol towards Blockhouse 7 encountering four armed men after about five minutes of patrolling. According to Grayson's account, he and Miller called "Halt!" and, when the four men responded by cocking their rifles, they fired at them and retreated to Santol.
Personal accounts by Grayson claim that he "dropped" two and Miller one, but neither American nor Filipino official reports mention anyone being hit. Some sources assert. A marker which had stood on that site was ordered moved to Santa Mesa in 2003 by Ambeth Ocampo chairman of the National Historical Commission of the Philippines, after research by Dr. Benito Legarda concluded that the shot was fired somewhere between Blockhouse 7 and Barrio Santol on the connecting road, now Sociego. Aguinaldo was away in Malolos; that same night, a Filipino captain in Manila wired him in Malolos, stating that the Americans had started the hostilities. Aguinaldo wanted to avoid open conflict with the Americans while maintaining his position of leadership with his nationalist followers; the next day Aguinaldo sent an emissary to General Otis to mediate, saying "the firing on our side the night before had been against my order."Otis, confident that a military campaign against Aguinaldo would be swift, was a veteran of the American Indian Wars and reacted much as he might have to his Sioux opponents decades before: "Fighting having begun, must go on to the grim end."Aguinaldo reassured his followers with a pledge to fight if forced by the Americans, whom he had come to fear as new oppressors come to replace the Spanish.
"It is my duty to maintain the integrity of our national honor, that of the army so unjustly attacked by those, who posing as our friends, attempt to dominate us in place of the Spaniards. "Therefore, for the defense of the nation entrusted to me, I hereby order and command: Peace and friendly relations between the Philippine Republic and the American army of occupation are broken—and the latter will be treated as enemies with the limits prescribed by the laws of War." Caught off guard by the sudden outburst, the Filipinos remained in their trenches and exchanged fire with the Americans. A Filipino battalion mounted a charge against the 3rd U. S. Artillery, routed a company of American soldiers, succeed
Second Battle of Caloocan
The Second Battle of Caloocan, alternately called the Second Battle of Manila, was fought from February 22 to 24, 1899, in Caloocan during the Philippine–American War. The battle featured a Filipino counterattack aimed at gaining Manila from the Americans; this counterattack failed to regain Manila because of lack of coordination among Filipino units and lack of artillery support. The Philippine–American War began on February 4, 1899, with the culmination of the Battle of Manila. On February 10, Filipino forces regrouped in Caloocan and fought again with the American forces at the first Battle of Caloocan; the Americans won both engagements, but Elwell S. Otis had Arthur MacArthur, Jr. wait before attacking Malolos. Noticing that the Americans had halted their offensive to reorganize, the Filipino forces, now under the command of General Antonio Luna, began finalizing their plans to counterattack. Apolinario Mabini, the political philosopher, highlighted the need to prepare to ensure the success of the operation, stating that the battle's outcome would determine the fate of the Philippine Republic.
Luna's headquarters was established in Polo, operations for the counterattack were prepared there. The troops directly under his command were organized into three brigades; the West Brigade was under General Pantaleon Garcia, the Center Brigade was under General Mariano Llanera, the East Brigade was under Colonel Maximino Hizon. The plan envisioned by Luna and his army staff was to effect a union of forces from the north and south of Manila with the sandatahanes or bolomen inside the city; the other forces that were to attack with Luna's troops were the men of General Licerio Gerónimo from the east, the men of Generals Pío del Pilar and Miguel Malvar from the south. Luna requested the battle-hardened Tinio Brigade in Northern Luzon, under the command of Manuel Tinio, it had more than 1,900 soldiers. However, Aguinaldo gave only ambiguous answers; the total Filipino force amounted between 5,000 men. The defending American force had 15,000 to 20,000 men in its suburbs. At 9 pm on February 22, fire broke out at the brothel in Santa Cruz, followed by another in Tondo, Manila.
The fires signaled the beginning of the Filipino counterattack. Around 9 pm, Aguinaldo received a telegram concerning the fire; the local firefighters refused to act, so the Americans used European volunteers, supported by the Provost Guard and the 13th Minnesota, 2nd Oregon, the 23rd Infantry in Tondo, when 500 Filipinos troops occupied the northern part of the city. Panicked refugees fled from the flames in Tondo and as the market in Binondo caught fire after midnight; as a result, it took three hours for the fires to be brought under control. At around 10 pm, armed Filipinos under Colonel Francisco Roman entered Tondo and confronted the surprised American troops. Confusion, did not rest on the American side alone; the Filipinos succumbed to indecision. Colonel Lucio Lucas, under Luna's direct command, had responded after hearing the signal for attack, his objective was to march into the Meisic police station, which the Americans had turned into a barracks. However, en route Lucas' troops were met by a large American contingent at Azcarraga Street.
Thinking of retreat, Lucas had reconsidered the belief that it was better to die fighting than die burning. The houses at their rear were on fire, so he ordered his men to attack the Americans with only daggers in their hands. In the ensuing fight three Filipinos and eight Americans were killed. During the course of the battle, Luna did his best to keep personal participation in the field. At dawn of February 23, the Filipinos opened their attack by firing their cannons against the Americans. Luna managed to secure a Krupp Rifled breech loader to provide artillery support for his men. However, while the advancing Filipinos attempted to break the American line in Caloocan, the Americans were able to coordinate their positions with the USS Monadnock; the ship's twin turrets fired 10-inch shells that set fire to a number of Filipino houses that broke up the Filipino attack, forcing them to fall back to take cover. This setback was made worse by the poor coordination between the regular Filipino army and the sandatahanes.
A lack of ammunition had affected some units, including the troops under Colonel Roman. Garcia's troops had reached the planned points of occupation in Manila, at that point he believed that Manila would soon fly the Filipino flag. At that point, Filipino fortunes wavered. Two companies, totaling about 400 men, of the Pampanga troops under Major Canlas made a rapid advance and placed La Loma under siege; when the Pampanga troops ran out of ammunition, four companies of Kawit troops were ordered to link up with the Pamapanga troops and launch a joint attack on the Americans entrenched in La Loma. The Kawit commander, Captain Janolino, did not obey the order stating that he would only obey orders from President Aguinaldo; as a result, the battle in that sector was lost, this incident was singled out by both Luna and General Ambrosio Flores, Luna's assistant as Director of War, as being the main factor in denying the Filipinos victory that day. By the end of February 23, the Filipinos had managed to secure Sampaloc and Tondo.
The Kawit Battalion under Captain Pedro Janolino had secured Meisic and American troops in Caloocan, numbering around 6,000, were under siege by Filipino troops under Llanera and Garcia. The next day, the Filipinos fought more fiercely than they had the day before; the continued fighting aroused concern amon
Battle of Tirad Pass
The Battle of Tirad Pass, sometimes referred to as the "Philippine Thermopylae", was a battle in the Philippine–American War fought on December 2, 1899, in northern Luzon in the Philippines, in which a 60-man Filipino rear guard commanded by Brigadier General Gregorio del Pilar succumbed to more than 500 Americans of the 33rd Volunteer Infantry Regiment under Major Peyton C. March, while delaying the American advance to ensure that President Emilio Aguinaldo and his troops escaped; the retreat of Aguinaldo from Bayambang, through the mountainous terrain began on November 13, 1899, after he had disbanded the regular Filipino army into guerrilla units. On November 23, Aguinaldo's party reached the pass, it was to be protected by a rear guard under General Gregorio del Pilar, who noticed the advantageous terrain of Tirad Pass, hunkered down to defend it while Aguinaldo escaped through the mountains. The hand-picked force of Filipinos, the remaining contingent of the late Antonio Luna's army, constructed several sets of trenches and stone barricades on both shoulders of the pass, as well as on top of its 4,500-foot height.
Meanwhile, during early November, Major March had been given the task of pursuing Aguinaldo. By November 30, March and his men, in haste to catch the Philippine president, marched through Candon, Santo Tomas, La Union and Salcedo, Ilocos Sur, he and his men found out that Aguinaldo had passed through Salcedo five days and that fueled the Americans' march to Concepcion, a town overlooked by the steep pass, which they reached by December 1. March had no clear idea of the size of Aguinaldo's rear guard, but he had calculated it to be no more than 150 men. At about 6:30 in the morning of December 2, the Americans advanced up the trail but were met with a steady volley of fire, resulting in them only being able to climb around 300 feet; the Americans took cover in the zigzag trail. Texan sharpshooters stationed themselves on a hill overlooking the trenches and proceeded to whittle down the Philippine rear guard with measured volleys; the Filipinos continued to hold their ground, utilizing focused volley fire that repelled other advances by the Americans.
Therefore, March sent elements of their force with an Igorot villager named Januario Galut to determine the Filipino positions and outflank the defenders. While the flanking movement was still in progress, three American soldiers rushed to the battlefield but found themselves receiving Filipino fire. Two died. More than five hours after the battle began, the Americans began to feel the scorching heat of the midday sun and decided to rest for a while amidst the rocks; that day, the search party had succeeded their task, the Americans fell upon the rear of the outnumbered defenders, defeating them. Over the course of the battle, 52 of the 60 Filipinos were killed. Among the dead was General del Pilar, shot through the neck at the height or end of the struggle; the Americans lost 9 wounded, most of which resulted from the repelled frontal assault. Despite nearly total annihilation, the Filipinos under Del Pilar held off the Americans long enough for Aguinaldo to escape. Upon receiving word of the battle outcome in nearby Cervantes, Ilocos Sur and his party resumed their retreat into the mountains of what was Bontoc province, pursued by March and his men.
March broke off the pursuit on March 7. On September 6, 1900, Aguinaldo reached Palanan, where he would continue to lead the guerrilla campaign he had begun on November 13, 1899, he was captured there on March 1901 by men of General Frederick Funston. According to Filipino writer and historian Nick Joaquin however, the main objective of the Americans was not to pursue Aguinaldo but to keep him away from linking up with the elite Tinio Brigade, under the command of Manuel Tinio. In his critical book of essays "A Question of Heroes" he notes that Tirad Pass was an "exercise in futility" in that it only allowed Aguinaldo to "run to nowhere". Del Pilar's diary was recovered among the possessions looted by the victorious Americans, who had stripped him bare of his military decorations, his uniform and his personal belongings, leaving him, as the eyewitness, correspondent Richard Henry Little wrote, "We carved not a line and we raised not a stone, But we left him alone with his glory"; the exact wording of its poignant final entry, written on the night of December 1, differs somewhat between sources quoting it.
Two versions are: The General has given me the pick of all the men that can be spared and ordered me to defend the Pass. I realize, and yet I feel. What I do is done for my beloved country. No sacrifice can be too great; the General has ordered me to defend this Pass. I am aware. I feel that this is the most glorious moment of my life. I am doing everything for my beloved country. There is no greater sacrifice. Del Pilar's corpse lay unburied for three days. American officer Lieutenant Dennis Quinlan, with a group of Igorots buried his body and left a plaque, "Gen. Gregorio del Pilar, Died December 2, 1899, Commanding Aguinaldo's Rear Guard, An Officer and a Gentleman." In honor of Del Pilar's heroism, the Philippine Military Academy was named Fort Del Pilar and a