Frederick William III of Prussia
Frederick William III was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. He ruled Prussia during the times of the Napoleonic Wars. Steering a careful course between France and her enemies, after a military defeat in 1806, he eventually and reluctantly joined the coalition against Napoleon in the Befreiungskriege. Following Napoleons defeat he was King of Prussia during the Congress of Vienna which assembled to settle the questions arising from the new. He was determined to unify the Protestant churches, to homogenize their liturgy, their organization, the long-term goal was to have fully centralized royal control of all the Protestant churches in the Prussian Union of churches. Frederick William was born in Potsdam in 1770 as the son of Frederick William II of Prussia and he was considered to be a shy and reserved boy, which became noticeable in his particularly reticent conversations distinguished by the lack of personal pronouns. This manner of speech came to be considered entirely appropriate for military officers.
As a child, Frederick Williams father had him handed over to tutors and he spent part of the time living at Paretz, the estate of the old soldier Count Hans von Blumenthal who was the governor of his brother Prince Heinrich. They thus grew up partly with the Counts son, who accompanied them on their Grand Tour in the 1780s, Frederick William was happy at Paretz, and for this reason in 1795 he bought it from his boyhood friend and turned it into an important royal country retreat. He was a boy, but he grew up pious. His tutors included the dramatist Johann Engel, as a soldier he received the usual training of a Prussian prince, obtained his lieutenancy in 1784, became a colonel in 1790, and took part in the campaigns against France of 1792–1794. On 24 December 1793, Frederick William married Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, in the Kronprinzenpalais in Berlin, Frederick William lived a civil life with a problem-free marriage, which did not change even when he became King of Prussia in 1797. His wife Louise was particularly loved by the Prussian people, which boosted the popularity of the whole House of Hohenzollern, Frederick William succeeded to the throne on 16 November 1797.
He became, in union, the sovereign prince of the Principality of Neuchâtel. He had the Hohenzollern determination to retain personal power but not the Hohenzollern genius for using it, too distrustful to delegate responsibility to his ministers, he lacked the will to strike out and follow a consistent course for himself. Disgusted with the moral debauchery of his fathers court, Frederick Williams first endeavor was to restore morality to his dynasty. He was quoted as saying the following, which demonstrated his sense of duty and peculiar manner of speech, Every civil servant has an obligation, to the sovereign. It can occur that the two are not compatible, the duty to the country is higher, at first Frederick William and his advisors attempted to pursue a policy of neutrality in the Napoleonic Wars
Bogislav Friedrich Emanuel von Tauentzien
Bogislav Friedrich Emanuel Graf Tauentzien von Wittenberg was a Prussian general of the Napoleonic Wars. Tauentzien was born in Potsdam in the Margraviate of Brandenburg as the son of Friedrich Bogislav von Tauentzien and he married Elisabeth von Amstedt, with whom he had one son and one daughter. The branch of the von Tauentzien family with the title of count ended with the 1854 death of Tauentziens son, Tauentzien entered the Prussian Army in 1775 and was granted the title of Graf on 5 August 1791. He became a royal aide-de-camp in 1793, he was entrusted with diplomatic missions until 1813. Tauentzien participated in the campaign of 1793 and was promoted to Oberst in 1795. He commanded a corps of Friedrich Ludwig zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen until the Saalburg in 1806. Shortly before the Battle of Saalfeld, a French corps under Marshal Bernadotte defeated Tauentziens detachment of 9,000 men at Schleiz, Tauentzien capably organized the retreat to Mittel-Pöllnitz so his troops could rejoin the main Prussian army.
At Jena, Tauentzien led the vanguard of the Hohenlohe Corps, scores of Prussian generals were dismissed after the defeat of Prussia in 1806-07, although Tauentzien was not. As Generalleutnant, he commanded the Brandenburg Brigade after the Treaties of Tilsit, in 1813 Tauentzien was named Military Governor between the Oder and the Vistula Rivers, and he succeeded in the siege of Stettin. As General der Infanterie, he commanded the IV, which consisted mostly of Landwehr, and participated in the battles of Großbeeren on 23 August and Dennewitz on 6 September. In October his troops left the safety of Dessau and crossed the Elbe. After the Battle of Leipzig, Tauentzien accepted the capitulation of Torgau on 26 December 1813, a street in Wittenberg was named Tauentzienstraße, but is now known as Dobschützstraße. On 24 May, Tauentzien recovered Magdeburg, armeekorps during the Hundred Days of Napoleon Bonaparte. The Battle of Waterloo had already occurred by the time his troops reached France, after the end of the war, he commanded the III.
Tauentzien died as Commander of Berlin, Tauentzienstraße in Berlin is named in his honor. Regarding personal names, Graf was a title before 1919, before the August 1919 abolition of nobility as a legal class, titles preceded the full name when given. Since 1919, these titles, along with any nobiliary prefix, can be used, but are regarded as a dependent part of the surname and all dependent parts of surnames are ignored in alphabetical sorting. Media related to Bogislav Friedrich Emanuel von Tauentzien at Wikimedia Commons
Kingdom of Prussia
It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1918. Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the kings of Prussia were from the House of Hohenzollern. Prussia was a power from the time it became a kingdom, through its predecessor, Brandenburg-Prussia. Prussia continued its rise to power under the guidance of Frederick II, more known as Frederick the Great. After the might of Prussia was revealed it was considered as a power among the German states. Throughout the next hundred years Prussia went on to win many battles and it was because of its power that Prussia continuously tried to unify all the German states under its rule. Attempts at creation of a federation remained unsuccessful and the German Confederation collapsed in 1866 when war ensued between its two most powerful states and Austria. The North German Confederation which lasted from 1867–1871, created a union between the Prussian-aligned states while Austria and most of Southern Germany remained independent.
The North German Confederation was seen as more of an alliance of military strength in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War, the German Empire lasted from 1871–1918 with the successful unification of all the German states under Prussian hegemony. This was due to the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, in 1871, Germany unified into a single country, minus Austria and Switzerland, with Prussia the dominant power. Prussia is considered the predecessor of the unified German Reich. The Kingdom left a significant cultural legacy, today notably promoted by the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation, in 1415 a Hohenzollern Burgrave came from the south to the March of Brandenburg and took control of the area as elector. In 1417 the Hohenzollern was made an elector of the Holy Roman Empire, after the Polish wars, the newly established Baltic towns of the German states including Prussia, suffered many economic setbacks. Many of the Prussian towns could not even afford to attend political meetings outside of Prussia, the towns were poverty stricken, with even the largest town, having to borrow money from elsewhere to pay for trade.
Poverty in these towns was partly caused by Prussias neighbors, who had established and developed such a monopoly on trading that these new towns simply could not compete and these issues led to feuds, trade competition and invasions. However, the fall of these gave rise to the nobility, separated the east and the west. It was clear in 1440 how different Brandenburg was from the other German territories, not only did it face partition from within but the threat of its neighbors. It prevented the issue of partition by enacting the Dispositio Achillea which instilled the principle of primogeniture to both the Brandenburg and Franconian territories, the second issue was solved through expansion
Battle of Prenzlau
In this action from the War of the Fourth Coalition, Hohenlohe surrendered his entire force to Murat after some fighting and a parley. Prenzlau is located about 90 kilometers north of Berlin in Brandenburg, Germany at the intersection of routes B109 and B198. After their catastrophic defeat at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt on 14 October, the Prussians crossed the Elbe near Magdeburg and marched northeast, trying to reach safety behind the Oder River. Part of Napoleons army thrust east to seize Berlin, while the rest followed the retreating Prussians, from Berlin, Murat moved north with his cavalry, trying to head off Hohenlohe. After several clashes on 26 and 27 October, Murat arrived at Prenzlau on the heels of Hohenlohes corps, fighting occurred in which several Prussian units were captured or cut to pieces. Murat bluffed the demoralized Hohenlohe into surrendering his entire corps by claiming that the Prussians were surrounded by overwhelming forces, in fact, apart from a brigade of infantry, only Murats cavalry were in the vicinity.
In the days afterward, the French cowed several more Prussian forces and fortresses into surrendering, finding its way to the northeast blocked, a second corps of retreating Prussians under Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher veered northwest toward Lübeck. On 8 October 1806, Napoleons 180, 000-strong army invaded the Electorate of Saxony through the Franconian Forest. His troops were massed in a batallion carré made up of three columns of two corps each, plus the Imperial Guard, the Cavalry Reserve, and a Bavarian contingent. Brunswick held a position at Erfurt in the center, Hohenlohe took station near Rudolstadt in the east, with General-Major Bogislav Friedrich Emanuel von Tauentzien at Hof. Eugene Frederick Henry, Duke of Württembergs Reserve lay far to the north at Magdeburg, Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bernadottes I Corps and Murats cavalry defeated Tauentziens division at the Battle of Schleiz. The next day, Marshal Jean Lannes V Corps mauled the 8, 300-man division of Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia at the Battle of Saalfeld, on 12 October, Napoleon wheeled his batallion carré to the left to engage his enemies in combat.
In the face of this menace, Brunswick elected to march the army north from Weimar to Merseburg. Rüchel was at Weimar, waiting for Saxe-Weimar to return with his division, the Prussian armies were beaten and driven from both battlefields. Brunswicks army lost 13,000 casualties and 115 artillery pieces, while the casualties of Hohenlohe, in Capitulation of Erfurt on 16 October, over 10,000 Prussians laid down their arms in the first of a series of shameful surrenders. The 12, 000-man corps of Saxe-Weimar and Winning missed Jena-Auerstedt and remained intact, shot through both eyes at Auerstadt, Brunswick died on 10 November at Altona near Hamburg. Dangerously wounded at Jena, Rüchel escaped to Poland and recovered and these columns were energetically pursued by Marshal Nicolas Soults IV Corps with General of Division Louis Michel Antoine Sahucs dragoons attached. On 17 October, Bernadotte inflicted heavy losses on Eugene of Württembergs Reserve at the Battle of Halle, by 20 October and the survivors of the Reserve reached Magdeburg
Battle of Friedland
Napoleon and the French obtained a decisive victory that routed much of the Russian army, which retreated chaotically over the Alle River by the end of the fighting. The battlefield is located in modern-day Kaliningrad Oblast, near the town of Pravdinsk, the engagement at Friedland was a strategic necessity after the Battle of Eylau earlier in 1807 had failed to yield a decisive verdict for either side. The battle began when Bennigsen noticed the seemingly isolated corps of Marshal Lannes at the town of Friedland, Lannes held his ground against determined Russian attacks until Napoleon could bring additional forces onto the field. By late afternoon, the French had amassed a force of 80,000 troops on the battlefield, relying on superior numbers, Napoleon concluded that the moment had come and ordered a massive assault against the Russian left flank. The sustained French attack pushed back the Russian army and pressed them against the river behind, unable to withstand the pressure, the Russians broke and started escaping across the Alle, where an unknown number of them died from drowning.
The Russian army suffered casualties at Friedland–losing over 40% of its soldiers on the battlefield. Napoleons overwhelming victory was enough to convince the Russian political establishment that peace was necessary, Friedland effectively ended the War of the Fourth Coalition, as Emperor Alexander I reluctantly entered peace negotiations with Napoleon. The lands lost by Prussia were converted into the new Kingdom of Westphalia, Tilsit gave France control of the Ionian Islands, a vital and strategic entry point into the Mediterranean Sea. Some historians regard the political settlements at Tilsit as the height of Napoleons empire because there was no longer any continental power challenging the French domination of Europe, prior to Friedland, Europe had become embroiled in the War of the Third Coalition in 1805. Following the French victory at the Battle of Austerlitz in December 1805, franco-Prussian tensions gradually increased after Austerlitz. Napoleon insisted that Prussia should join his economic blockade of Great Britain and this adversely affected the German merchant class.
Napoleon aimed to win the war by destroying the Prussian armies before the Russians could arrive,180,000 French troops began to cross the Franconian forest on October 2,1806, deployed in a bataillon-carré system designed to meet threats from any possible direction. On October 14 the French won decisively at the large double-battle of Jena-Auerstedt, a famous pursuit followed, and by the end of the campaign the Prussians had lost 25,000 killed and wounded,140,000 prisoners, and more than 2,000 cannon. A few Prussian units managed to cross the Oder River into Poland, Russia now had to face France alone. By November 18 French forces under Louis Nicolas Davout had covered half the distance to Warsaw, Augereaus men had neared Bromberg, when the French arrived in Poland, the local people hailed them as liberators. The Russian general Bennigsen worried that French forces might cut him off from Buxhoevdens army, so he abandoned Warsaw, on November 28,1806, French troops under Murat entered Warsaw.
The French pursued the fleeing Russians and a significant battle developed around Pułtusk on December 26. The result remained in doubt, but Bennigsen wrote to the Tsar that he had defeated 60,000 French troops, at this point, Marshal Ney began to extend his forces to procure food supplies
Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic)
The Kingdom of Italy was a French client state founded in Northern Italy by Napoleon I, fully influenced by revolutionary France, that ended with his defeat and fall. Napoleon I was crowned at the Duomo di Milano, Milan on May 26 and his title was Emperor of the French and King of Italy, showing the importance of this Italian Kingdom for him. Even though the republican Constitution was never abolished, a series of Constitutional Statutes completely altered it. The second one, dating from March 29, and regulated the regency, the Great Officials of the kingdom, the Consulta, Legislative Council, and Speakers, were all merged in a Council of State, whose opinions became only optional and not binding for the king. The Legislative Body, the old parliament, remained in theory, but it never summoned after 1805, the fourth Statute, decided on February 16,1806, indicated Beauharnais as the heir to the throne. The seventh Statute, on September 21, created a new nobility of dukes and barons, the eighth, in 1812, a Court of Accounts was added.
The Duchy of Guastalla was annexed on May 24, with the Convention of Fontainebleau with Austria of October 10,1807, Italy ceded Monfalcone to Austria and gained Gradisca, putting the new border on the Isonzo River. The conquered Republic of Ragusa was annexed in spring 1808 by general Marmont and that was the only time in modern history that Ragusa was united to Italy. On April 2,1808, following the dissolution of the Papal States, at its maximum extent, the Kingdom had 6,700,000 inhabitants and was composed by 2,155 communes. Small changes to the borders between Italy and France in Garfagnana and Friuli came in act on August 5,1811, in practice, the Kingdom was a dependency of the French Empire. The Kingdom served as a theater in Napoleons operations against Austria during the wars of the various coalitions, trading with the United Kingdom was forbidden. The kingdom was given a new currency, replacing the local coins circulating in the country, the Italian lira, of the same size, weight. Mintage being decided by Napoleon with a decree on March 21,1806.
The monetary unit was the silver lira, which was 5 grams heavy, there were multiples of £2 and £5, and precious coins of £20 and £40. The army of the kingdom, inserted into the Grande Armée, in the course of its existence from 1805 to 1814 the Kingdom of Italy provided Napoleon I with roughly around 200,000 soldiers. In 1805 Italian troops served on duty along the English Channel, during 1806-1807 they took part in the sieges of Kolberg and Danzig. From 1808 to 1813 whole Italian divisions served in Spain, especially distinguishing themselves under Suchet at Tarragona and Saguntum. In 1809, Eugènes Army of Italy formed the wing of Napoleon Is invasion of the Austrian Empire, winning a considerable victory at Raab
Battle of Mohrungen
The French pushed back the main Russian force, but a cavalry raid on the French supply train caused Bernadotte to call off his attacks. After driving off the cavalry, Bernadotte withdrew and the town was occupied by the army of General Levin August, the fighting took place in and around Morąg in northern Poland, which in 1807 was the East Prussian town of Mohrungen. The action was part of the War of the Fourth Coalition in the Napoleonic Wars, after demolishing the army of the Kingdom of Prussia in a whirlwind campaign in October and November 1806, Napoleons Grande Armée seized Warsaw. After two bitterly fought actions against the Russian army, the French emperor decided to place his troops into winter quarters, however, in wintry weather, the Russian commander moved north into East Prussia and struck west at Napoleons left flank. As one of Bennigsens columns advanced west it encountered forces under Bernadotte, the Russian advance was nearly at an end as Napoleon gathered strength for a powerful counterstroke.
After the Battle of Czarnowo on 23 December 1806 and the battles of Pułtusk and Gołymin on 26 December. Emperor Napoleon wanted time to reorganize the Grande Armées logistical arrangements after their autumn campaign. In addition, his veteran French troops had expressed displeasure at having to fight in Poland during the winter weather. In late 1806, Field Marshal Mikhail Kamenskys Russian army in Poland constituted two major wings under Generals Bennigsen and Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoeveden. The initial strength of Bennigsens force, before the December battles, was 49,000 infantry,11,000 regular cavalry,4,000 cossacks,2,700 artillerymen,900 pioneers, and 276 guns. Of these, from 55,000 to 60,000 were able to take the field, Buxhöwdens four divisions fought at the Battle of Austerlitz on 2 December 1805 and had not made up all the losses suffered at that engagement. Consequently, his troops numbered only 29,000 infantry,7,000 cavalry,1,200 gunners, not counting garrisons, the Prussians could put only 6,000 men into the field in that month.
In 1806, the Russian field army consisted of 18 divisions, since the foot batteries contained 14 guns apiece and the horse batteries 12 guns, each Russian division nominally controlled as many as 82 field pieces. Typically, the batteries were made up of eight 12-pound cannons, four heavy howitzers. The light batteries had the establishment except that they substituted 6- for 12-pound cannons. Horse batteries were entirely formed from 6-pound cannons and worn out in body and mind, the 75-year-old Marshal Kamensky exhibited clear signs that he was no longer fit to command. Around the time Pułtusk was fought, Kamensky left the front, the next day, he appeared in the streets of Grodno without his shirt on and called for a surgeon. Pointing out his wounds, he demanded that the doctor give him a written statement that he was no longer able to serve
War of the Third Coalition
The War of the Third Coalition was a European conflict spanning the years 1803 to 1806. During the war and its client states under Napoleon I, defeated an alliance, from 1803–05, Britain stood under constant threat of a French invasion. The Royal Navy, secured mastery of the seas, the Third Coalition itself came to full fruition in 1804–05 as Napoleons actions in Italy and Germany spurred Austria and Russia into joining Britain against France. Victory at Austerlitz permitted the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine, a collection of German states intended as a buffer zone between France and central Europe. As a direct consequence of events, the Holy Roman Empire ceased to exist when, in 1806, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicated the Imperial throne, emerging as Francis I. These achievements, did not establish a peace on the continent. Austerlitz had driven neither Russia nor Britain, whose armies protected Sicily from a French invasion, Prussian worries about growing French influence in Central Europe sparked the War of the Fourth Coalition in 1806.
Europe had been embroiled in the French Revolutionary Wars since 1792, after five years of war, the French Republic subdued the armies of the First Coalition in 1797. A Second Coalition was formed in 1798, but this too was defeated by 1801, in March 1802, France and Britain agreed to end hostilities under the Treaty of Amiens. For the first time in ten years all of Europe was at peace, many problems persisted between the two sides making implementation of the treaty increasingly difficult. Bonaparte was angry that British troops had not evacuated the island of Malta, the tension only worsened when Bonaparte sent an expeditionary force to re-establish control over Haiti. Prolonged intransigence on these issues led Britain to declare war on France on 18 May 1803, Bonaparte had already revived plans for an invasion of England in March 1803. Bonapartes expeditionary army was destroyed by disease in Haiti, and subsequently swayed the First Consul to abandon his plans to rebuild Frances New World empire, without sufficient revenues from sugar colonies in the Caribbean, the vast territory of Louisiana in North America had little value to him.
Though Spain had not yet completed the transfer of Louisiana to France per the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso, the Louisiana Purchase Treaty was signed on 30 April 1803. Despite issuing orders that the over 60 million francs were to be spent on the construction of five new canals in France, Bonaparte spent the whole amount on his planned invasion of England. The execution of Enghien shocked the aristocrats of Europe, who remembered the bloodletting of the Revolution. The statement is sometimes attributed to French diplomat Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord. Sometimes the quote is given as, It was worse than a crime, pitt scored a significant coup by securing a burgeoning rival as an ally
Siege of Stralsund (1807)
On the first try, Marshal Édouard Adolphe Casimir Joseph Mortier blockaded the city for two months before he was called elsewhere. In his absence, the Swedes drove back the inferior blockading force, after Mortier returned and pushed Essens troops back in turn, the two sides quickly concluded an armistice. The truce was repudiated by King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden, whereupon Marshal Guillaume Marie Anne Brune led 40,000 French, Spanish and Dutch soldiers against the fortress. Fearfully outnumbered, the Swedes abandoned the Baltic Sea port of Stralsund to the Franco-Allies in this action during the War of the Fourth Coalition, as a consequence, Sweden lost the nearby island of Rügen. Sweden was established in Stralsund since the Battle of Stralsund, by the Peace of Westphalia and the Treaty of Stettin, the duchy was partitioned into a Swedish part, including Stralsund, and a Brandenburg-Prussian part. After minor losses in the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Swedish Pomerania was reduced to the north of the Peene river with Greifswald, Stralsund.
When Napoleon Bonaparte started to expand eastwards in the Napoleonic Wars, in 1805, Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden entered the War of the Third Coalition on the anti-French side, primarily to strip Napoleons ally Denmark of Norway. His Norwegian ambitions were thwarted by several military and diplomatic setbacks, Stralsund, a port in Swedish Pomerania, was defended by the Swedish governor Hans von Essen. On 28 January, French forces commanded by Marshal Mortier crossed the Peene River in an attempt to impose a blockade on Stralsund, to the east, General of Division Charles Louis Dieudonné Grandjeans division crossed the Peene at Anklam, driving back the Swedish outposts. To the west, General of Division Pierre Louis Dupas division crossed the stream unopposed near Demmin, on the 29th, Mortiers two divisions appeared before the port and on 30 January began the blockade. For the next two months, the two fought a number of skirmishes as the French strengthened their lines of investment. Without control of the island of Rügen, the French were unable to interrupt Stralsunds sea communications and were harassed by Swedish gunboats.
During the blockade, one French cavalry and three regiments were taken from Mortier to fight against the Russians in Poland and replaced by troops from the Kingdom of Holland. On 29 March, Mortier received orders to leave Grandjeans division to maintain the blockade, after Mortier left, Essen drove Grandjeans outnumbered troops from their lines. Grandjean fell back to Anklam where he was attacked again on 3 April and forced to retreat southeast to the fortress of Stettin on the Oder, arriving there on the 7th. Mortier retraced his steps and by 13 April had assembled 12,000 to 13,000 men at Stettin, in very wet weather, Mortier began pressing Essen back to Anklam. On 16 April, Mortier defeated the Swedes in the Battle of Belling, the next day, Essen retreated to the north bank of the Peene. Beginning on 18 April, the French and Swedish forces arranged the truce of Schlatkow, anxious to employ Mortiers men against the Russians and Prussians, Napoleon had authorized the marshal to make a truce with the Swedes
War of the Fourth Coalition
The Fourth Coalition against Napoleons French Empire was defeated in a war spanning 1806–1807. Coalition partners included Prussia, Saxony, several members of the coalition had previously been fighting France as part of the Third Coalition, and there was no intervening period of general peace. On 9 October 1806, Prussia joined a coalition, fearing the rise in French power after the defeat of Austria. Prussia and Russia mobilized for a campaign, and Prussian troops massed in Saxony. Napoleon decisively defeated the Prussians in a campaign that culminated at the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt on 14 October 1806. French forces under Napoleon occupied Prussia, pursued the remnants of the shattered Prussian Army and they advanced all the way to East Prussia and the Russian frontier, where they fought an inconclusive battle against the Russians at the Battle of Eylau on 7–8 February 1807. Napoleons advance on the Russian frontier was briefly checked during the spring as he revitalized his army, Russian forces were finally crushed by the French at the Battle of Friedland on 14 June 1807, and three days Russia asked for a truce.
By the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, France made peace with Russia, these acquisitions were incorporated into his brother Jérôme Bonapartes new Kingdom of Westphalia, and established the Duchy of Warsaw. The end of the war saw Napoleon master of almost all of western and central continental Europe, except for Spain, Austria, despite the end of the Fourth Coalition, Britain remained at war with France. Hostilities on land resumed in 1807 when a Franco-Spanish force invaded Britains ally Portugal, a further Fifth Coalition would be assembled when Austria re-joined the conflict in 1809. The Fourth Coalition of Prussia, Saxony, despite the death of William Pitt in January 1806, Britain and the new Whig administration remained committed to checking the growing power of France. Peace overtures between the two early in the new year proved ineffectual due to the still unresolved issues that had led to the breakdown of the Peace of Amiens. One point of contention was the fate of Hanover, a German electorate in personal union with the British monarchy that had been occupied by France since 1803, dispute over this state would eventually become a casus belli for both Britain and Prussia against France.
This issue dragged Sweden into the war, whose forces had deployed there as part of the effort to liberate Hanover during the war of the previous coalition. The path to war seemed inevitable after French forces ejected the Swedish troops in April 1806, there was an escalation in the ongoing economic warfare between the two powers. With Britain still retaining its dominance of the seas, Napoleon looked to break this dominance with his issuance of the Berlin Decree, Britain retaliated with its Orders in Council several months later. In the meantime, Russia spent most of 1806 still licking its wounds from the years campaign. Napoleon had hoped to establish peace with Russia and a peace treaty was signed in July 1806, but this was vetoed by Tsar Alexander I
Dresden is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. It is situated in a valley on the River Elbe, near the border with the Czech Republic, Dresden has a long history as the capital and royal residence for the Electors and Kings of Saxony, who for centuries furnished the city with cultural and artistic splendour. The city was known as the Jewel Box, because of its baroque, the controversial American and British bombing of Dresden in World War II towards the end of the war killed approximately 25,000, many of whom were civilians, and destroyed the entire city centre. After the war restoration work has helped to reconstruct parts of the inner city, including the Katholische Hofkirche, the Zwinger. Since German reunification in 1990 Dresden is again a cultural and political centre of Germany, the Dresden University of Technology is one of the 10 largest universities in Germany and part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative.
The economy of Dresden and its agglomeration is one of the most dynamic in Germany and it is dominated by high-tech branches, often called as “Silicon Saxony”. The city is one of the most visited in Germany with 4,3 million overnight stays per year. The royal buildings are among the most impressive buildings in Europe, main sights are the nearby National Park of Saxon Switzerland, the Ore Mountains and the countryside around Elbe Valley and Moritzburg Castle. The most prominent building in the city of Dresden is the Frauenkirche, built in the 18th century, the church was destroyed during World War II. The remaining ruins were left for 50 years as a war memorial, the church was rebuilt from 1994 to 2005. Although Dresden is a relatively recent city of Germanic origin followed by settlement of Slavic people, Dresdens founding and early growth is associated with the eastward expansion of Germanic peoples, mining in the nearby Ore Mountains, and the establishment of the Margraviate of Meissen. Its name etymologically derives from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the forest, Dresden evolved into the capital of Saxony.
Around the late 12th century, a Slavic settlement called Drežďany had developed on the southern bank, another settlement existed on the northern bank, but its Slavic name is unknown. It was known as Antiqua Dresdin by 1350, and as Altendresden, Margrave of Meissen, chose Dresden as his interim residence in 1206, as documented in a record calling the place Civitas Dresdene. After 1270, Dresden became the capital of the margraviate and it was given to Friedrich Clem after death of Henry the Illustrious in 1288. It was taken by the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1316 and was restored to the Wettin dynasty after the death of Valdemar the Great in 1319, from 1485, it was the seat of the dukes of Saxony, and from 1547 the electors as well. The Elector and ruler of Saxony Frederick Augustus I became King Augustus II the Strong of Poland in personal union and he gathered many of the best musicians and painters from all over Europe to the newly named Royal-Polish Residential City of Dresden. His reign marked the beginning of Dresdens emergence as a leading European city for technology, during the reign of Kings Augustus II the Strong and Augustus III of Poland the Zwinger Royal Palace, the Hofkirche and the Frauenkirche were built