The Battle of Singapore known as the Fall of Singapore, was fought in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II when the Empire of Japan invaded the British stronghold of Singapore—nicknamed the "Gibraltar of the East". Singapore was the major British military base in South-East Asia and was the key to British imperial interwar defence planning for South-East Asia and the South-West Pacific; the fighting in Singapore lasted from 8 to 15 February 1942, after the two months during which Japanese forces had advanced down the Malayan Peninsula. The campaign, including the final battle, was a decisive Japanese victory, resulting in the Japanese capture of Singapore and the largest British surrender in history. About 80,000 British and Australian troops in Singapore became prisoners of war, joining 50,000 taken by the Japanese in the earlier Malayan Campaign; the British prime minister, Winston Churchill, called it the "worst disaster" in British military history. During 1940 and 1941, the Allies had imposed a trade embargo on Japan in response to its continued campaigns in China and its occupation of French Indochina.
The basic plan for taking Singapore was worked out in July 1940. Intelligence gained in late 1940 – early 1941 did not alter the basic plan, but confirmed it in the minds of Japanese decision makers. On 11 November 1940, the German raider Atlantis captured the British steamer Automedon in the Indian Ocean, carrying papers meant for Air Marshal Sir Robert Brooke-Popham, the British commander in the Far East, which included much information about the weakness of the Singapore base. In December 1940, the Germans handed over copies of the papers to the Japanese; the Japanese had broken the British Army's codes and in January 1941, the Second Department of the Imperial Army had interpreted and read a message from Singapore to London complaining in much detail about the weak state of "Fortress Singapore", a message, so frank in its admission of weakness that the Japanese at first suspected it was a British plant, believing that no officer would be so open in admitting weaknesses to his superiors, only believed it was genuine after cross-checking the message with the Automedon papers.
As Japan's oil reserves were depleted by the ongoing military operations in China as well as industrial consumption, in the latter half of 1941, the Japanese began preparing a military response to secure vital resources if diplomatic efforts to resolve the situation failed. As a part of this process, the Japanese planners determined a broad scheme of manoeuvre that incorporated simultaneous attacks on the territories of Britain, The Netherlands and the United States; this would see landings in Malaya and Hong Kong as part of a general move south to secure Singapore, connected to Malaya by the Johor–Singapore Causeway, an invasion of the oil-rich area of Borneo and Java in the Dutch East Indies. In addition, strikes would be made against the United States naval fleet at Pearl Harbor, as well as landings in the Philippines, attacks on Guam, Wake Island and the Gilbert Islands. Following these attacks, a period of consolidation was planned, after which the Japanese planners intended to build up the defences of the territory, captured by establishing a strong perimeter around it stretching from the India–Burma frontier through to Wake Island, traversing Malaya, the Dutch East Indies, New Guinea and New Britain, the Bismarck Archipelago, the Marshall and Gilbert Islands.
This perimeter would be used to block Allied attempts to regain the lost territory and defeat their will to fight. The Japanese 25th Army invaded from Indochina, moving into northern Malaya and Thailand by amphibious assault on 8 December 1941; this was simultaneous with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor which precipitated the United States entry into the war. Thailand resisted, but soon had to yield; the Japanese proceeded overland across the Thai–Malayan border to attack Malaya. At this time, the Japanese began bombing strategic sites in Singapore; the Japanese 25th Army was resisted in northern Malaya by III Corps of the British Indian Army. Although the 25th Army was outnumbered by Allied forces in Malaya and Singapore, the Allies did not take the initiative with their forces, while Japanese commanders concentrated their forces; the Japanese were superior in close air support, armour, co-ordination and experience. While conventional British military thinking was that the Japanese forces were inferior, characterised the Malayan jungles as "impassable", the Japanese were able to use it to their advantage to outflank hastily established defensive lines.
Prior to the Battle of Singapore the most resistance was met at the Battle of Muar, which involved the Australian 8th Division and the Indian 45th Brigade, as the British troops left in the city of Singapore were garrison troops. At the start of the campaign, the Allied forces had only 164 first-line aircraft on hand in Malaya and Singapore, the only fighter type was the obsolete Brewster 339E Buffalo; these aircraft were operated by two Royal Australian Air Force, two Royal Air Force, one Royal New Zealand Air Force squadron. Major shortcomings included a slow rate of climb and the aircraft's fuel system which required the pilot to hand pump fuel if flying above 6,000 feet. In contrast, the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force was more numerous and better trained than the second-hand assortment of untrained pilots and inferior allied equipment remaining in Malaya and Singapore, their fighter aircraft were superior to the Allied fighters, which helped the Japanese to gain air supremacy. Although outnumbered and outclassed, the Buffalos were able to provide some resistance
Alexis Taylor is a British musician, best known as the lead vocalist and keyboardist/guitarist of the band Hot Chip. He is the keyboardist in About Group and a solo artist. Taylor formed Hot Chip with Joe Goddard whilst at Elliot secondary school, London, his father was mother Greek. He studied English at Jesus College, Cambridge from 1999–2002, during which time Hot Chip played a variety of gigs at Cambridge's live music venues. In 2007, Taylor and Hot Chip produced a two-song album, Doubleshaw, as Booji Boy High under the pseudonyms Georgios Panayiotou and Mother Markzbow; the name Booji Boy comes from the character created by Devo. After the release of Hot Chip's second album, The Warning, Taylor released his first solo album, Rubbed Out, in 2008; the same year he formed the improvisational quartet About Group with Spring Heel Jack's John Coxon, pianist Pat Thomas and former This Heat drummer Charles Hayward. A solo EP, Nayim From the Halfway Line, was released on Domino Recording Company in 2012, in 2014 the same label released the album Await Barbarians.
In June 2016, Taylor released the follow-up album to Await Barbarians. An accompanying album, Listen With Piano, was released in March 2017, it features re-works of tracks from Piano with other musicians. In February 2018, Taylor announced Beautiful Thing; the album was produced by co-founder of DFA Records. 2008 - Rubbed Out - Treader 2014 - Await Barbarians - Domino 2016 - Piano - Moshi Moshi Records 2017 - Listen With Piano - Moshi Moshi Records 2018 - Beautiful Thing - Domino
Wendy Chung is an American clinical and molecular geneticist and physician. She directs the clinical genetics program at Columbia University and serves as the Kennedy Family Professor of Pediatrics, she is the author of 300 peer-reviewed articles and 50 chapters and has won several awards as a physician and professor. Chung helped to initiate a new form of newborn screening for spinal muscular atrophy, used nationally, was the plaintiff in the supreme court case which prevents patenting of genes, her research "relates to the molecular genetics of obesity and diabetes in rodents and humans, the genetic basis of congenital heart disease, arrhythmias, long QT Syndrome, pulmonary hypertension, congenital diaphragmatic hernias, cleft lip/cleft palate, mental retardation, inherited metabolic conditions and breast and pancreatic cancer susceptibility." Chung was raised in southern Florida. Her parents were involved in science and medicine: her father was an organic chemistry professor and her mother worked in a medical laboratory.
She was the first Miami-Dade County public high school student to win the Westinghouse Science Talent Search, the predecessor to the Regeneron Science Talent Search. In high school, Chung was a National Merit Scholar. Chung earned a bachelor's degree in biochemistry and economics at Cornell University, graduating in 1990, she earned a Ph. D. in genetics from Rockefeller University in 1996 and a M. D. from Cornell University Medical College in 1998. She was a graduate student of Dr. Rudy Leibel at Rockefeller, who described her as a "triple threat" due to her capability as an "equally gifted scientist and teacher." Chung completed an internship and fellowship at the New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University Medical Center. Both her internship and residency were focused in pediatrics, while her two fellowships were focused in Molecular Genetics and Clinical Genetics. Chung directs the Pediatric Heart Network Genetic Core, the Pediatric Neuromuscular Network Molecular Core, the New York Obesity Center Molecular Genetics Core and the Diabetes and Endocrine Research Center Molecular Genetics Core, among her positions.
She holds board certifications in Clinical Genetics and Genomics. Chung's areas of expertise include neurodevelopment disorders, clinical genetics, developmental disorder, precision medicine, birth defects, breast cancer, cancer genetics, cleft palate with cleft lip, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, congenital heart disease, genetic counseling, inborn metabolism disorder, inherited arrhythmias, obesity, pancreatic cancer, pediatric seizures, pulmonary hypertension, rare cancer syndromes, arrhythmia and spinal muscular atrophy. Chung was named one of New York Magazine's "best doctors" and one of America's "top doctors" by Castle Connolly Medical Ltd. in a survey conducted when more than 250,000 "leading doctors" were asked to "name America's best physicians in various specialties." Chung was an original plaintiff in the Supreme Court case which overturned that ability to patent genes, Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, Inc.. Chung became a plaintiff with the ACLU after approaching both the NIH and Congress as she believed that the patenting of genes restricted access and quality of care the patients are eligible to receive.
The court sided with the Association for Molecular Pathology unanimously, determined that as genes are natural, they are not able to be patented. Chung believes that these decisions will allow patients to receive all the information resulting from genome sequencing, allowing testing for specific diseases - such as the test for breast cancer - thus enabling patients to know more about their own health. Chung directs the Pediatric Heart Network Genetic Core, the Pediatric Neuromuscular Network Molecular Core, the New York Obesity Center Molecular Genetics Core and the Diabetes and Endocrine Research Center Molecular Genetics Core, among her positions at Columbia University and the Simons Foundation. Chung is a Kennedy Family Professor of Pediatrics at Columbia University and directs their clinical genetics program, she has received the Presidential Award for Outstanding Teaching from Columbia in recognition of her teaching and mentoring of students. Chung directs the fellowship program in Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics at Columbia University, supervises medical education in human genetics at Columbia University Medical School, is the director of the Clinical Cancer Genetics program and the Discover program.
Chung directs clinical research at the Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative]] and leads both the Simons Foundation Powering Research through Knowledge. In these endeavors, Chung works to manage research programs, evaluate new treatments and medications, develop novel outcome measures for evaluation of the new treatments. Furthermore, she seeks to identify gene associations with autism and the specific clinical features which may characterize particular gene associations. Alongside her research endeavors, Chung works with the families involved in the project to create community and help them to understand autism and its causes more completely. Throughout her career, Chung's research to the genetic basi
Steven Schussler is a developer of theme restaurants and the creator of the Rainforest Cafe. He has created and owns T-Rex Cafe, Yak & Yeti Restaurant, Betty & Joe's, Hot Dog Hall of Fame, Galaxy Drive In, Backfire Barbeque. Schussler is the author of It’s a Jungle in There, a book chronicling his experience building businesses and providing advice to aspiring entrepreneurs. In 2010 Schussler published It's a Jungle in There: Inspiring Lessons, Hard-Won Insights, Other Acts of Entrepreneurial Daring, a book intended as inspiration to other entrepreneurs, donated proceeds to Smile Network International; the restaurants are decorated to depict some features of a rainforest, including plant growth, waterfalls, animatronic robots of animals and insects. Large marine aquariums are common in most restaurants. Automated water sprinklers and synchronized lights set to specific patterns are featured. A simulated thunderstorm occurs every thirty minutes, utilizing simulated rain as well as flashing lights and high-powered subwoofers for lightning and thunder.
The restaurants are partitioned into several rooms by means of rain curtains that fall into basins running along the tops of partition walls and booths. The staff of Rainforest Cafe are named in accordance to the "Safari" theme. Servers are called Safari Guides, Hosts/Hostesses are Tour Guides, Retail Sales Associates are Pathfinders, Bartenders are Navigators, Bussers are Safari Assistants and kitchen staff are named Trailblazers; the animatronic figures are manufactured by UCFab International, LLC of Apopka, Florida, USA. The star ceilings are designed and manufactured by Fiber Optic Systems Inc, located in Whitehouse Station, New Jersey. Rainforest Cafe restaurants have a Retail Village, rainforest themed merchandise is sold. Rainforest Café website T-Rex Cafe website Backfire Barbeque website Betty and Joe's website Hot Dog Hall of Fame website Galaxy Drive In website Schussler Creative, Inc. website
Albert Frederik Aalbers was a Dutch architect who created elegant villas and office buildings in Bandung, Indonesia under Dutch colonial rule in the 1930s. Albert Aalbers worked in the Netherlands between 1924 and 1930 and migrated to the Dutch Indies after which he returned to the Netherlands in 1942 due to World War II and political circumstances following Indonesian independence. During his stay in Bandung, in a period when the city was dubbed the city of architecture laboratory, a number of his buildings were considered architectural masterpieces. Aalbers' style was inspired by modernist Le Corbusier. In Bandung, the DENIS bank in Braga Street and the Savoy Homann Hotel in Asia-Afrika Street, still carry Aalber's ocean wave ornamentation. Born on 13 December 1897 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, Albert Aalbers was the youngest son of Theo Aalbers and Johanna Buis. Between 1910 and 1918, Aalbers studied architecture at the Rotterdam Academy of Visual Arts and Techniques. At that time Dutch architecture was influenced by the expressionist movement due to popular expressionist artists, including the painter Willem de Kooning who studied in the same school.
In 1923, Albert Aalbers and his brother, established the Gebroeder Aalbers architecture office in Rotterdam. Their projects ranged from offices to villas; the famous American architect, Frank Lloyd Wright, influenced their works. 1926 was a difficult time for the Aalbers brother during which they filed for bankruptcy and closed down their office. His brother migrated to the Dutch Indies—the Netherlands colony—while Albert remained to try his luck again by opening an office in Hengelo, in the east of the Netherlands, he married the couple migrated to the Dutch Indies. At the beginning of their stay, Albert Aalbers worked in a contractor's office owned by J. Bennink in Sukabumi, West Java. In 1930 the Aalbers family moved to Bandung, a few kilometers east of Sukabumi. At that time, the Dutch East Indies government was planning to move the colonial capital from Batavia to Bandung; the plan was never realized although it transformed Bandung into a city of new European ambience, including its built environment.
Several Dutch architects, including Thomas Karsten, Henri Maclaine-Pont, J Gerber and C. P. W. Schoemaker, were involved designing and renovating buildings throughout the city. Aalbers saw this as a good opportunity and he started to work as a freelance architect in the city, he and his friend, Rijk de Waal, opened a new firm, the Aalbers en De Waal. In 1935 the Aalbers en De Waal office received a contract to design an office building for the DENIS Bank. Aalbers used steel materials for the building structure and concrete floors, but he designed the horizontal side with smooth curves as if the materials were made from plastic; as a point of visual contrast, Aalbers put a lift tower in the middle of the building, higher than the six rounded platforms. This articulation point of vertical tower against the horizontal smoothness provides an impression of disrupting the elasticity. Rounded façades with purely decorative non-functional elements are similar to the Amsterdam School style, but Aalbers was a follower of the International style or modernist architecture that believed form should follow function and eschew such decoration.
One pioneer of modernist architecture, Le Corbusier, famous for facades of open space, inspired Aalbers in his designs for the interior of the DENIS bank. The ground floor contains a staircase with glass window leading to a public place, while the second floor is used as offices with large terraces facing Naripan street; the DENIS bank design was appreciated after which their office received another contract in 1936 to redesign the famous hotel in Bandung, the Savoy Homann Hotel. The hotel had been the major accommodation for the wealthy. F Van Es Jr. the hotel owner, asked Aalbers to renovate the hotel with a similar elastic impression as in the DENIS bank. The ocean wave facade and the vertical tower in the middle thus decorate the hotel's exterior, while Aalbers kept the colonial classical style for the interior; the hotel became internationally renowned. Several Hollywood artists have stayed in the hotel, including Mary Pickford. On the recommendation of Van Es Jr. Aalbers' office received more contracts to design hotels.
He renovated the hotel lobby of the Grand Hotel Lembang at Lembang, a hillside village north of Bandung. He designed a new hotel, the Grand Hotel Ngamplang at Garut, a resort hotel in the middle of the Pangalengan tea plantation in the south of Bandung. Apart from designing office and hotel, Aalbers was known for his unique villa designs, he designed three identical villas at Juanda Street, known as "the locomotive", in 1937, which were built as a promotion for the new residential area in the north of Bandung. A unique character inside each of the villa is a stair room as an entrance to the asymmetric villa. During his period in Bandung between 1931–1942, Aalbers designed twelve identical villas at the Pager Gunung Street, fourteen houses at Haji Hasan Street and the three-colors villa at Juanda Street; the Three-colors Villa was his last work in Indonesia. The Netherlands was on the brink of World War II and the Dutch Indies was occupied by Imperial Japan; the Japanese Occupation Army sent Aalbers and his family to the Dutch inte
Bentalls is a British department store chain with a branch in Kingston upon Thames. The well regarded'county' department store began as a drapery shop, founded by Frank Bentall in 1867; the company was listed on the London Stock Exchange, but since 2001 has been owned by the private Fenwick group. Bentalls was established in 1867 by Frank Bentall who purchased a drapery shop in Kingston upon Thames; the principal buildings of the Kingston store were completed in 1935 to a design by architect Maurice Webb and inspired by Wren's design for Hampton Court. The fine stonework on the façade was the work of Eric Gill. Between 1935 and 1976 it was the UK's largest department store outside central London, it became a Grade II listed building in 2011. The facade of the original store has been retained as part of the Bentall Centre shopping development, opened in 1992, in which the principal Bentalls store is now located; the store occupied buildings covering the entire site of the development. The company was floated on the London Stock Exchange in 1946, but the Bentall family retained a controlling interest.
Under the association with Frank Bentall's grandson Rowan Bentall, Chairman between 1968-1978, the company expanded and opened further stores in Bracknell, Ealing, Royal Tunbridge Wells and Worthing. As a result, the group's turnover more than doubled from £14.5 million to £35.1 million. The company subsequently opened a store in Bristol and closed the stores in Chatham and Royal Tunbridge Wells. In 2000, the chain rejected a £27 million offer from its rival Allders. In January 2001, Bentalls sold their loss-making Bristol store to rival House of Fraser for £16.35 million. In June of that year, the family-owned rival department store chain Fenwick purchased Bentalls for £70.8 million. The Bentall family's shareholding at the time was 38%, with Frank Bentall's great grandson Edward Bentall being the Chairman; the company's turnover was £108.2 million. The chain consisted of six stores, in: Bracknell, Kingston upon Thames, Lakeside and Worthing. Fenwick subsequently closed the Lakeside store and sold the leases of the Bentalls sites in Ealing and Worthing to the Bournemouth based Beales group.
However, it retained the successful stores in Kingston upon Bracknell. The Bracknell branch which opened in April 1973 has closed down and has re-branded as Fenwick as of September 2017. Kingston is one of the largest retail centres in the south-east and Bentalls itself is popular among many shoppers. In the days approaching Christmas, Bentalls Kingston is said to take over £1 million per day. Bracknell Bristol Chatham Ealing Kingston Lakeside Royal Tunbridge Wells Tonbridge Worthing Singer Dusty Springfield once worked at Bentalls in Ealing and singer Petula Clark gave her first public performance as a child at Bentalls in Kingston upon Thames. Bentalls is mentioned by the character Chubb in the Anthony Blunt episode of the stage play Single Spies by Alan Bennett. Bentalls features in the Ladybird Books People at Work series, appearing in In A Big Store Bentalls Wood Street entrance features in the Ladybird Books People at Work series " The Police". A night time scene where two police constables are arresting.
Bentalls Department Stores Fenwick Department Stores