John Pegram (general)
John Pegram was a career soldier from Virginia who served as an officer in the United States Army and as a brigadier general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. He became the first former U. S. Army officer to be captured in Confederate service in 1861 and was killed in action near the end of the war. John Pegram was born in Petersburg, the oldest son of third generation planter James West Pegram and his grandfather and namesake, John Pegram, had been a major general, commanding all Virginia forces during the War of 1812. His father, James Pegram, was a prominent attorney, militia brigadier general, however, in October 1844, James Pegram was killed in a steamboat accident on the Ohio River, leaving a widow, who had to open a girls school to support her five children. One of John Pegrams younger brothers was the future Confederate artillerist William Ransom Johnson Pegram and his great grandmothers half-brother was North Carolina senator Nathaniel Macon. Pegram was appointed to the United States Military Academy in 1850 and he graduated four years later, ranking tenth in his class, which included future generals J. E. B.
Stuart, Stephen D. Lee and Oliver O. Howard, Pegram was commissioned as a second lieutenant and assigned to the dragoons. He served at a variety of garrisons and outposts in the West, in January 1857, he was appointed Assistant Instructor of Cavalry at West Point. Pegram was granted a leave of absence in 1858–59 to travel to Europe to observe the Austro-Sardinian War, returning home, he was assigned in 1860 to duty on the frontier in the New Mexico Territory. In May 1861, when arrived that his native Virginia had seceded, Pegram resigned his lieutenants commission. In July 1–10 of 1861, he accepted a commission as a lieutenant colonel and was assigned command of the 20th Virginia Infantry. His regiment was part of the brigade of Brig. Gen. Robert S. Garnett, on July 11,1861, cut off from Garnetts main body during the Battle of Rich Mountain, Pegram controversially surrendered his entire regiment to the Federals. Thus John Pegram became the first former U. S. Army officer to be captured while in Confederate service and his men were paroled, but Pegram was imprisoned for six months in Fort Warren in Boston harbor.
In January 1862, Pegram was paroled in Baltimore, there, he met prominent socialite Hetty Cary, who became his fianceé. When finally exchanged, Pegram was promoted to colonel and became the Chief Engineer of the army of General Pierre G. T, beauregard and to Braxton Bragg. Within a short time, he was assigned as Chief of Staff for Maj. Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith, Pegram was promoted to brigadier general in November 1862 and given command of a cavalry brigade. His performance before the Battle of Stones River in December was criticized by his superiors for failing to provide intelligence on enemy movements. In March 1863, he led a raid into Kentucky that was defeated at the battle of Somerset and drew criticism from his subordinate officers
Lexington, Kentucky, in the American Civil War
Lexington, Kentucky was a city of importance during the American Civil War, with notable residents participating on both sides of the conflict. Among the well known of Lexingtons families were the Todds, Abraham Lincolns wife Mary Todd Lincoln was born there on December 13,1818. She left in 1839 from the home to live with her sister in Springfield, Illinois. She went back to Lexington in 1847 to introduce her family to Lincoln on their way to Washington, the Lincolns returned twice more to the city in 1849 and 1850, the latter to cope with the death of a son. The Todd family was split apart by the war, marys father Richard Smith Todd had fourteen children, of whom six chose the Union side, while eight others went for the Confederacy. Save for Levi Todd, the Todds that remained in Lexington during the war were pro-Confederate, affected were the Breckinridges and Clays. Robert J. Breckinridge was called the strongest and sturdiest champion of the Union south of the Ohio, Vice President of the United States under Lincolns predecessor James Buchanan, two of his sons, and a son-in law joined the Confederacy.
Of Henry Clay seven grandsons, three sided with the North, and four went for the South, the Morgans, on the other hand, were in one mind and were sympathetic to the Confederacy. Lexington was preparing for the war even before Lincolns election, when Kentucky governor Beriah Magoffin established pro-Southern Home Guards in March 1860, the Lexington Rifles were the first to join. When Lincoln was elected President, United States flag stopped being displayed in the city, the first conflict in Lexington took place in August 1861. Union cavalry arrived in the city on August 21, numbering 200, Lexington Home Guard with Confederate sympathies quickly arrived on the scene. Former United States Vice President John C, Breckinridge, a resident of the city, negotiated between the Union cavalry and Confederate home guard, allowing the cavalry to safely depart the city. On September 19 a strong Union force returned the city, with orders to disarm the home guard, Captain John Hunt Morgan led Confederate sympathizers from the city, to rendezvous with other Confederates by the Green River.
The Union force would make the city a stronghold, and established a prison, the Confederates would return to the city following the Battle of Richmond. The residents of Lexington cheered the Confederates, prompting Smith to cable the Confederate government, following the Battle of Perryville, the Confederates left the city on October 8, with Union forces returning on October 16. However, on October 18 Morgan had returned to Lexington and captured Union Major Charles B. Seidel at Ashland, Morgan reequipped his men, destroyed the military supplies of the city, and left. However, during the firefight, the Confederates had managed to fire on other Confederates. Wash Morgan was taken to the Morgan family home of Hopemont to die, in the first three months of 1863, war refugees sympathetic to the Union arrived in the city
Second Battle of Charleston Harbor
After being repulsed twice trying to take Fort Wagner by storm, Maj. Gen. Quincy Adams Gillmore decided on a less costly approach and began laying siege to the fort. In the days following the second battle of Fort Wagner. Union gunners made use of a new piece of artillery known as the Requa gun—25 rifle barrels mounted on a field carriage, while sappers dug zig-zag trenches toward Fort Wagner a second novelty was used—the calcium floodlight. The ground the Union sappers were digging through was shallow sand with a muddy base, the trenching efforts began to accidentally uncover Union dead from the previous assaults on Fort Wagner. Disease and bad water plagued soldiers on both sides, the Union army maintained a constant rotation of soldiers to man the forward trenches of the grand guard. During the evening of August 16 a Confederate artillery shell burst through the serving as the headquarters for Colonel Joshua B. Howell, commanding officer of the guard that evening. A shell fragment struck Colonel Howell wounding him severely in the head, despite Howells quick recovery the incident prompted the Union commander to exclusively use veteran troops in the forward trenches.
Confederates kept a constant rotation of soldiers through Fort Wagner, during the night rowboats would bring fresh troops from the mainland to replace the garrison. Even though they had won a victory at Fort Wagner the Confederates fully expected the campaign to continue. Having a large garrison to draw from Gen. P. G. T, Beauregard was prepared to continue the campaign. Immediately in command of Confederate forces surrounding Charleston was former army officer. Ripleys forces were spread throughout fortifications surrounding Charleston Harbor and included a division of local South Carolina militia and Admiral John A. Dahlgren requested reinforcements from General-in-Chief Henry Halleck. Halleck was reluctant but nevertheless a division from the Army of the Potomac was transferred to the south under George H. Gordon, despite the marshy conditions on Morris Island, Union forces had constructed powerful batteries to combat Fort Wagner. These batteries were often named in honor of leaders such as Batteries Strong, Kearny.
Others were named for high ranking officers such as Batteries Rosecrans. Inside Fort Wagner only one 10-inch Columbiad faced seaward and the few guns were in poor condition. During Colonel Lawrence M. Keitts tenure in command of the Confederate garrison he established stations on Fort Wagners west wall to coordinate with Confederate batteries on James Island
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States, officially the Confederate States of America, commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was a breakaway country of 11 secessionist slave states existing from 1861 to 1865. It was never recognized as an Independent country, although it achieved belligerent status by Britain. A new Confederate government was established in February 1861 before Lincoln took office in March, after the Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The government of the United States rejected the claims of secession, the Civil War began with the April 12,1861, Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. In spring 1865, after four years of fighting which led to an estimated 620,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered. Jefferson Davis lamented that the Confederacy had disappeared in 1865, Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions from those states, while the legitimate governments of those two states retained formal adherence to the Union.
Also fighting for the Confederacy were two of the Five Civilized Tribes located in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona. Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of law, while Delaware, though of divided loyalty. A Unionist government in parts of Virginia organized the new state of West Virginia. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1,1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal, as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers, the most notable advance was Shermans March to the Sea in late 1864. Much of the Confederacys infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs, plantations in the path of Shermans forces were severely damaged. Internal movement became increasingly difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance.
Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Daviss administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, after four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. Shortly afterward, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant, President Davis was captured on May 10,1865, and jailed in preparation for a treason trial that was ultimately never held. The U. S. government began a process known as Reconstruction which attempted to resolve the political and constitutional issues of the Civil War. By 1877, the Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction in the former Confederate states, Confederate veterans had been temporarily disenfranchised by Reconstruction policy. The prewar South had many areas, the war left the entire region economically devastated by military action, ruined infrastructure
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Battle of Lucas Bend
The Battle of Lucas Bend took place on January 11,1862 near Lucas Bend, four miles north of Columbus on Mississippi River in Kentucky as it lay at the time of the American Civil War. The Essex, under Commander William D. Porter, and the St Louis forced the Confederate ships to fall back after an hour of skirmishing during which the Union commander was wounded. They retreated to the safety of a nearby Confederate battery at Columbus, the term timberclad is usually reserved for the Union ships Lexington and Conestoga which had heavy timber attached as armor. Most Confederate gunboats used cotton bales as their armor, see battle of Plum Run where Confederate timberclads fought well against the ironclads. The USS Essex had been constructed in 1856 and she was a 1000-ton river gunboat, converted from her original role as a timberclad ferry named New Era. She was armed with one 32-pounder cannon, three 11-inch Dahlgren smooth bores, one 10-inch Dahlgren smoothbore and a 12-pounder howitzer, the USS St Louis was a City class ironclad built in 1861 at Carondelet, Missouri.
She was armed with three 8-inch smoothbores, four 42-pounder rifles, six 32-pounder rifles and one 12-pounder rifle at the time of her service at Lucas Bend. Both ships were sent to Cairo, early in the Civil War as part of troop transports moving the army into Tennessee. Illinois, a Union state which contributed 250,000 men to the Union Army, a figure surpassed by only New York and Ohio, was a key theater. Cairo, at the confluence between the Mississippi and Ohio rivers, was a key supply point and headquarters for Flag Officer Andrew Hull Foote and it was defended by Fort Defiance. The Confederate Ivy was launched in 1845 as a privately owned commercial vessel originally named Roger Williams, originally based in New Orleans following her commission in 1861, she was armed with one 8-inch smoothbore cannon and one 32-pounder rifle. The CSS Jackson was another privately owned vessel built in 1849 before being acquired in May 1861 by the Confederacy and she was armed with two 32-pounder guns, and was ordered to Columbus on June 6,1861, to join Hollins in the defence of the Mississippi River.
She had already seen action against the USS Conestoga on the river, the floating battery New Orleans had been towed up from her namesake city in Louisiana. Lastly, the General Polk was a former side-wheel river steamer named either Ed Howard or Howard and she was built in 1852, and the Confederacy bought her in 1861. She was the vessel from which Hollins commanded the Confederates during the battle, the Union vessels arrived in October 1861, venturing up the Cumberland River, a tributary of the Ohio, on October 30. The Essex underwent her conversion to an ironclad warship in nearby dockyards. Their path was blocked for part of the night by a steamer which had run aground north of Cairo, William Porter moving off-route to investigate two suspicious, but revealed to be legitimate, boats moored on the riverside. Lucas Bend was simply a bend or meander in the Mississippi River roughly four miles north of Columbus and seven miles west of Arlington, Kentucky
Lexington, consolidated with Fayette County, is the second-largest city in Kentucky and the 61st largest in the United States. Known as the Horse Capital of the World, it is the heart of the states Bluegrass region, with a mayor-alderman form of government, it is one of two cities in Kentucky designated by the state as first-class, the other is the states largest city of Louisville. In the 2016 U. S. Census Estimate, the population was 318,449, anchoring a metropolitan area of 506,751 people. Lexington ranks tenth among US cities in college education rate, with 39. 5% of residents having at least a bachelors degree and this area of fertile soil and abundant wildlife was long occupied by varying tribes of Native Americans. European explorers began to trade with them but settlers did not come in force until the late 18th century, Lexington was founded by European Americans in June 1775, in what was considered Fincastle County, Virginia,17 years before Kentucky became a state. A party of frontiersmen, led by William McConnell, camped on the Middle Fork of Elkhorn Creek at the site of the present-day McConnell Springs, upon hearing of the colonists victory in the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19,1775, they named their campsite Lexington.
It was the first of what would be many American places to be named after the Massachusetts town, the risk of Indian attacks delayed permanent settlement for four years. In 1779, during the American Revolutionary War, Col. Robert Patterson and 25 companions came from Fort Harrod and they built cabins and a stockade, establishing a settlement known as Bryan Station. In 1780, Lexington was made the seat of Virginias newly organized Fayette County, colonists defended it against a British and allied Shawnee attack in 1782, during the last part of the American Revolutionary War. The town was chartered on May 6,1782, by an act of the Virginia General Assembly, the First African Baptist Church was founded c. 1790 by Peter Durrett, a Baptist preacher and slave held by Joseph Craig. Durrett helped guide The Travelling Church, a migration of several hundred pioneers led by the preacher Lewis Craig and Captain William Ellis from Orange County. It is the oldest black Baptist congregation in Kentucky and the third oldest in the United States, I would suppose it contains about five hundred dwelling houses, many of them elegant and three stories high.
The country around Lexington for many miles in every direction, is equal in beauty and fertility to anything the imagination can paint and is already in a state of cultivation. Residents have fondly continued to refer to Lexington as The Athens of the West since Espys poem dedicated to the city, in the early 19th century, planter John Wesley Hunt became the first millionaire west of the Alleghenies. London Ferrill, second preacher of First African Baptist, was one of three clergy who stayed in the city to serve the suffering victims, additional cholera outbreaks occurred in 1848–49 and the early 1850s. Cholera was spread by using contaminated water supplies, but its transmission was not understood in those years. Often the wealthier people would flee town for outlying areas to try to avoid the spread of disease, planters held slaves for use as field hands, laborers and domestic servants. In the city, slaves worked primarily as servants and artisans, although they worked with merchants, shippers
Somerset is a home rule-class city in Pulaski County, United States. The city population was 11,196 according to the 2010 census, Somerset was first settled in 1798 by Thomas Hansford and received its name from Somerset County, New Jersey, where some of the early settlers had formerly lived. Somerset became the Pulaski County seat in 1802, and it was incorporated as a city in 1887, a significant Civil War battle was fought in January 1862, at Mill Springs about 8 miles west of Somerset, and a museum is at the site. A smaller battle was fought nearby at Duttons Hill in 1863, Somerset is located at 37°4′59″N 84°36′34″W, and the downtown part of the city is at an elevation of around 750–800 feet above sea level. Thus, the area shows significant variations in landforms and scenery, nearby Lake Cumberland is one of the largest man-made lakes in the world. Somerset is near Cumberland Falls and the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, its industries are, in part, due to its scenic. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 11.3 square miles.
The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers, according to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Somerset has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated Cfa on climate maps. Somersets climate is warm during summer temperatures tend to be in the 80s. The warmest month of the year is July with a daily maximum temperature of 86 °F. The coldest month of the year is January with a minimum temperature of 25.10 °F. The annual average precipitation at Somerset is 51.08 inches, rainfall is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year. The wettest month of the year is May with a rainfall of 5.17 inches. Snowfall typically occurs between the months of December and February, though on record as early as November and as late as April, the major demographic differences between the city and the micropolitan area relate to income, housing composition and age. Much of the Somerset area housing growth in the last 20 years is decidedly lake-oriented, as of the census of 2000, there were 11,352 people,4,831 households, and 2,845 families residing within the City of Somerset.
The population density for the city proper was 1,007.1 persons per square mile, there were 5,428 housing units at an average density of 481.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94. 16% White,3. 66% Black,0. 18% Native American,0. 71% Asian,0. 26% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 99% of the population. 37. 8% of all households were made up of individuals,18. 4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.13 and the average family size was 2.80
Battle of the Cumberland Gap (1863)
The September 7–9,1863 fall of the Cumberland Gap was a victory for Union forces under the command of Ambrose Burnside during his campaign for Knoxville. The bloodless engagement cost the Confederates 2,300 men and control of the Cumberland Gap, major General Ambrose Burnside, commander of the Department and Army of the Ohio, began to advance against Knoxville, Tennessee. Burnside left Cincinnati, Ohio in mid-August 1863, the direct route ran through the Confederate-held Cumberland Gap. Burnside had been delayed in earlier attempts to move out against Knoxville, DeCourcy had previously led a brigade in the 1862 operations against the Cumberland Gap under George W. Morgan. Despite this, Burnside made an advance on Knoxville. Many of the Confederates in eastern Tennessee had been withdrawn for the upcoming Battle of Chickamauga, having successfully occupied Knoxville on September 2, Burnside could now return his attention to the Cumberland Gap. Frazer and his 2, 300-man garrison had little combat experience, Frazers men supplemented this by digging their own trenches.
DeCourcys brigade threatened the Confederates from the north, but his brigade alone was not enough to force Frazer out of the gap, Burnside dispatched a second brigade under Brigadier General James M. Shackelford. Shackelford approached from the south and, on September 7, asked for Frazers surrender, there were still not enough Union troops to convince Frazer to surrender. An ineffectual exchange of artillery followed but that evening Union soldier captured Gap Springs, on September 8 Burnside personally left Knoxville with a brigade under Colonel Samuel A. Gilbert and marched 60 miles in just over a day. Meanwhile, both DeCourcy and Shackelford sent messages demanding surrender, attempting to buy time, Frazer met with the two Union commanders separately, but rejected surrender demands from both. Around 10,00 a. m. on September 9, the large Union force, little combat experience and low morale all factored into Frazers decision to surrender. Around 3,00 p. m. Frazer agreed to a surrender of all the Confederates guarding the Cumberland Gap.
This was the last major operation against the Cumberland Gap and it would remain in Union hands for the rest of the war. List of battles fought in Kentucky Eicher, John H. & Eicher, David J. Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press,2001, korn and the Editors of Time-Life Books. The Fight for Chattanooga, Chickamauga to Missionary Ridge, official Records of the War of the Rebellion
Pewee Valley Confederate Cemetery
Pewee Valley Confederate Cemetery is the site of the old Kentucky Confederate Home. It is the cemetery for Confederate veterans,313 in total. In May 1871, several citizens of Pewee Valley, twenty miles northeast of Louisville, Kentucky. By August 1871 the land was purchased, the following spring, in 1872, the cemetery was organized and plants were placed to beautify the area. When they were finished, they asked for a charter from the Kentucky state government, close to the cemetery, the Villa Ridge Inn was built in 1889. The site was a summer resort was to be popular with Louisville entrepreneurs. However, despite being a $90,000 construction with majestic architecture, between the Inns closure and 1902, it had temporarily become a private high school, the successor to the Kentucky College for Young Ladies. When the approval for the Confederate home was gained in 1904, in 1902 the Kentucky state assembly unanimously approved the building of a veterans home specifically for Confederate veterans of the American Civil War by the cemetery.
After Youngs group acquired $16,000, the legislation was approved, the cemetery was established shortly after the hospital was opened, with the special monument built soon afterwards. The total area of the home and cemetery was 11,275 square feet, many of the veterans once served under John Hunt Morgan. A fire on March 25,1920 destroyed the building, as well as an infirmary ward. Fortunately, no lives were lost, and the rest of the facility was enough to house those residents still using the home. Eventually, the number of veterans who could be served dwindled, all that remains of the hospital is its main gate, which was moved to become the entrance arch for the cemetery one mile away, and part of the walkway from the house to the railroad. A sign is placed along the pathway to mark it, the source of fresh water for the facility, a reservoir, was filled in during the 1990s. The monument is unique for Kentucky Civil War monuments in that it is built of zinc, another oddity is that the obelisk and base are separated by an inscripted Gothic altar that acts as an arch on the face of the monument.
Confederate flags are crafted upon the monument