Pavlov's House was a fortified apartment building which Red Army defenders held for 60 days against a heavy Wehrmacht offensive during the Battle of Stalingrad. The siege lasted from 27 September to 25 November 1942 and the Red Army managed to relieve it from the siege, it gained its popular name from Sergeant Yakov Pavlov, who commanded the platoon that seized the building and defended it during the long battle. The house was a four-story building in the center of Stalingrad, built perpendicular to the embankment of the river Volga and overseeing the "9th January Square", a large square named for Bloody Sunday. In late September 1942, between 30 and 50 soldiers of the 42nd Guards Regiment, 13th Guards Division secured the large apartment blocks from German control, following its reconnoiter by four soldiers four days prior which Yakov Pavlov himself led; the position was fortified under the command of Lieutenant Ivan F. Afanasiev, who ordered the men to lay land mines in all approaches to the square, barbed wire around the perimeter of the apartment block, to position multiple machine guns in the windows as well as a PTRS anti tank rifle.
The Soviets had large amounts of artillery support from the opposite side of the Volga. Supply and communication trenches were created leading from the rear of Pavlov’s House to the river bank of the Volga, which would receive supply from supply vessels which were barraged by German artillery when crossing the river; the strategic benefit of the house was. The tactical benefit of the house was its position on a cross-street, giving the defenders a 1 km line of sight to the north and west. After several days and resupply arrived for Pavlov's men, bringing the unit up to a 25-man understrength platoon and equipping the defenders with machine guns, anti-tank rifles, mortars. In keeping with Stalin's Order No. 227—"not one step back"—Sergeant Pavlov was ordered to fortify the building and defend it to the last bullet and the last man. Taking this advice to heart, Pavlov ordered the building to be surrounded with four layers of barbed wire and minefields, set up machine-gun posts in every available window facing the square.
In the early stages of the defense, Pavlov discovered that an anti-tank rifle—a PTRS-41—he had mounted on the roof was effective when used to ambush unsuspecting German tanks. For better internal communication, Pavlov's soldiers breached the walls in the basement and upper floors, dug a communications trench to Soviet positions outside. Supplies were brought in via the trench or by boats crossing the river, defying German air raids and shelling. Food and water was in short supply. Lacking beds, the soldiers tried to sleep on insulation wool torn off pipes but were subjected to harassing fire every night in order to try to break their resistance; the Germans attacked the building several times a day. Each time German infantry or tanks tried to cross the square and to close in on the house, Pavlov's men laid down a withering barrage of machine gun and AT rifle fire from the basement, the windows and the roof; the defenders—as well as civilians hiding in the basement—had held out during intensive fighting from 27 September to 25 November 1942, were relieved by counter-attacking Soviet forces.
Sources conflict on the date at which the siege began, the date at which the Soviet reinforcements reached the building and lifted the siege. "On September 27, a 30-man Russian platoon was ordered to retake a four-story apartment building the Germans had just captured..... until November 25, 1942" "the defenders of Pavlov's House who participated in it's defense from 26 September 1942 till 25 November 1942." "The defense of the house lasted for 58 days and nights." Pavlov's House became a symbol of the stubborn and dogged resistance of the Russian forces during the Battle of Stalingrad, which ended in a decisive victory for the Soviet forces after months of massive casualties on both sides. The inability of the German blitzkrieg to make headway against such grinding and self-sacrificial attrition warfare made the failure to capture Pavlov's House stand out as a symbol of resistance against a vastly superior force. Vasily Chuikov, commanding general of the Soviet forces in Stalingrad joked that the Germans lost more men trying to take Pavlov's House than they did taking Paris.
Pavlov's "House" is still used as an apartment building today. There is an attached memorial constructed from bricks picked up after the battle on the East side facing the Volga. Pavlov was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union for his actions. A Russian TV documentary in 2009, Legendary Redoubt, on the Russian Channel One reported on Pavlov's House. According to the documentary, the house's defense was in fact led by Lieutenant Ivan F. Afanasiev; this report does not discount Pavlov's efforts, which led to his earning the Hero of the Soviet Union and those soldiers who took part in the defense, earning numerous decorations of their own. The last member of Pavlov's group, Kamoljon Turgunov from Turakurgan District, Namangan Province, Uzbekistan died on 16 March 2015, aged 93. Sihang Warehouse Pavlov's House - Stalingrad, September-November 1942 Map of Pavlov's House and the defenders of the house
David Jude Heyworth Law is an English actor. He has received nominations for two Academy Awards, two Screen Actors Guild Awards, four Golden Globe Awards, two British Academy Awards, winning one. In 2007, he received an Honorary César and was named a knight of the Order of Arts and Letters by the French government, in recognition of his contribution to World Cinema Arts. Law came to international attention for his role in Anthony Minghella's The Talented Mr. Ripley, for which he won the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role and was nominated for the Golden Globe Award and the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. In 2004, he received Academy Award, Golden Globe Award and British Academy Film Award nominations for his role in Anthony Minghella's epic war film Cold Mountain. Law's other notable films include Gattaca, Enemy at the Gates, Steven Spielberg's A. I. Artificial Intelligence, Road to Perdition, Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow, Mike Nichols' Closer, I Heart Huckabees, The Holiday, Repo Men, Martin Scorsese's Hugo, Joe Wright's Anna Karenina, Steven Soderbergh's Side Effects, Wes Anderson's The Grand Budapest Hotel and Paul Feig's Spy.
He portrayed Dr. Watson in Guy Ritchie's Sherlock Holmes and Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows. In 2017, he portrayed the fictional Pope Pius XIII in the HBO drama miniseries The Young Pope and in 2018 portrayed Albus Dumbledore in the Fantastic Beasts film series, he appeared in the 2019 Marvel Studios film Captain Marvel, which has grossed over $1 billion, becoming his highest grossing release. Law has had an accomplished career on stage, has received nominations for three Laurence Olivier Awards and two Tony Awards, he has performed in several West Broadway productions. Law was born in Lewisham, South London, the second child of junior and on, comprehensive school teachers Margaret Anne and Peter Robert Law, he has Natasha. Law was named after "a bit of both" the book Jude the Obscure and the Beatles song "Hey Jude", he grew up in Blackheath, an area in the Borough of Greenwich, was educated at John Ball Primary School in Blackheath and Kidbrooke School, before attending Alleyn's School. Law had his breakthrough with the British crime drama Shopping, which featured his future wife, Sadie Frost.
In 1997, he became more known with his role in the Oscar Wilde biopic Wilde. Law won the "Most Promising Newcomer" award from the Evening Standard British Film Awards for his role as Lord Alfred "Bosie" Douglas, the glamorous young lover of Stephen Fry's Wilde. In Andrew Niccol's science fiction film Gattaca, Law played the role of a disabled former swimming star living in a eugenics-obsessed dystopia. In Clint Eastwood's Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil, he played the role of the ill-fated sex-worker murdered by an art dealer portrayed by Kevin Spacey. In 1998, Jude Law played in'The Wisdom of Crocodiles'. For The Talented Mr. Ripley in 1999, Law learned to play the saxophone and earned an MTV Movie Award nomination with Matt Damon and Fiorello for performing the song "Tu vuò fà l'americano" by Renato Carosone and Nicola Salerno; the role earned him a BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role, as well as nominations for the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture and Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor.
In 2001, Law starred as Russian sniper Vasily Zaytsev in the film Enemy at the Gates, learned ballet dancing for the film A. I. Artificial Intelligence. In 2002, he played a mob hitman in Sam Mendes's 1930s period drama Road to Perdition. In 2003, he collaborated again with director Anthony Minghella, for Cold Mountain, earning Best Actor nominations from members of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the Hollywood Foreign Press Association and the British Academy of Film and Television Arts. Law, an admirer of Sir Laurence Olivier, suggested the actor's image be included in the 2004 film Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow. Using the science of computer graphics, footage of the young Olivier was merged into the film, playing Dr. Totenkopf, a mysterious scientific genius and supervillain. In 2004, Law portrayed the title character in Alfie, the remake of Bill Naughton's 1966 film, playing the role originated by Michael Caine. In 2006, he portrayed the role of Kate Winslet's single-parent brother in the film The Holiday, a modern-day American romantic comedy written and directed by Nancy Meyers.
After his appearances in a string of period dramas and science fiction films in the early to mid-2000s, Law said he found it tricky to approach the contemporary role in this film. Like Winslet, the actor stated, he felt more vulnerable about playing a character who fitted his own look and did not require an accent, a costume or a relocation. By the end of the year, Law was one of the Top Ten A-list of the most bankable film stars in Hollywood, according to the Ulmer Scale. Law is one of three actors who took over the role of actor Heath Ledger in Terry Gilliam's film The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus. Along with Law, actors Johnny Depp and Colin Farrell portray "three separate dimensions in the film." He appeared opposite Forest Whitaker in the dark science fiction comedy Repo Men and as Dr. Watson in Guy Ritchie's adaption of Sherlock Holmes, alongside Robert Downey, Jr. and Rachel McAdams, as well as the 2011 sequel, Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows
Jean-Jacques Annaud is a French film director and producer, best known for directing Quest for Fire, The Name of the Rose, The Bear, The Lover, Seven Years in Tibet, Enemy at the Gates and Wolf Totem. Annaud has received numerous awards for his work, including five César Awards, one David di Donatello Award, one National Academy of Cinema Award. Annaud's first film and White in Color, received an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Jean-Jacques Annaud was born on 1 October 1943 in Juvisy-sur-Orge, Essonne in France, he was educated at the technical school in Vaugirard, in 1964 graduated from the prestigious film school Institut des Hautes Études Cinématographiques in Paris. Annaud began his career by directing television advertisements in the late 1960s to early 1970s. In his first feature film and White in Color from 1976, he used personal experience obtained during his own military service in Cameroon; the film won an Academy Award for the Best Foreign Language Film. His third film Quest for Fire received two Césars for best director.
After a French film that becomes a cult classic in his homeland, he moves to Kenya and Canada to shoot Quest for Fire which brings him international recognition. He directs Sean Connery on the Italian sets and the German monasteries of The Name of the Rose, based on Umberto Eco’s eponymous novel.'The Name of the Rose, a film adaptation of Umberto Eco's popular novel of the same name. The film version, with a screenplay written by Andrew Birkin, won two BAFTA Film Awards and was the subject of another 14 wins & two nominations. Jean-Jacques Annaud spent four years preparing for the film, traveling throughout the United States as well as Europe, searching for the perfect cast and film set locations, he felt intrigued by the project, among other things because of a lifelong fascination with medieval churches and a great familiarity with Latin and Greek. He adapted The Bear’s P. O. V. in the heart of select locations of the Dolomites, Germany and Austria. He shoots, in Vietnam, the adaptation of Marguerite Duras’s autobiographical novel, The Lover, brilliantly recreating the atmosphere of colonial Indochina.
He sets back out to the Canadian Rockies and directs Wings of Courage, the first 3D fiction film made in Imax-3D. In 2000 he produced Running Free directed by Sergei Bodrov. Jean-Jacques Annaud worked with Brad Pitt as he directs Seven Years in Tibet. In 2001, he reunites Jude Law and Ed Harris in the hell of the famed battle of Stalingrad reconstructed in Germany. Soon after, he flies to the ruins of the temples of Angkor and gives life to Two Brothers, the shooting taking place in Cambodia and France; the filmmaker sets out to revive ancient Greece Arabia of the late ’30's, directing Antonio Banderas in Tunisia and Qatar in Black Gold. In 2015, he adapts Wolf Totem, a Chinese literary phenomenon shot in Inner Mongolia. A global triumph, this film wins the most prestigious Chinese awards and a dozen other trophies around the world. In 2018, Jean-Jacques Annaud directs in Canada Patrick Dempsey in his ten-part TV adaptation of Joël Dicker's best-seller The Truth about the Harry Quebert Affair to be released in 22 countries.
Jean-Jacques Annaud is a member of the prestigious Institut de France and received numerous distinctions: Film Award of the National French Academy, Knight of the National Order of Merit, Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters. Winner of the Charlemagne Medal for European Media, he has been internationally awarded and honoured. Academy Award 1976: Black and White in Color César Award 1982: Quest for Fire 1982: Quest for Fire 1987: The Name of the Rose 1988: The Bear 1988: The Bear 1992: The Lover David di Donatello 1987: The Name of the Rose European Film Academy Enemy at the Gates 1970: Special Effects Award at the 17th International Advertising Festival of Venice for the commercial spot Super Shell.' 1971: EuroTV Prize for the commercial spot Crunch.' 1973: Golden Lions at the 20th International Advertising Film Festival in Cannes for the spots Christofle – The Chinese and Comédie Materna. Silver Lions at the 20th International Advertising Festival for Le Diner and Travesti. Cinema Diploma at the 20th International Advertising Festival in Cannes for the Roll and Roll for Eram spot.
First Prize from the Art Directors Club for the commercials Christofle – The Chinese. Clio Award for the commercial Christofle – The Chinese.' 1974: Silver Lions at the 21st International Advertising Festival in Cannes for the commercial Look Nevada.' 1977: First Prize from the Art Directors Club for Advert for the commercial Urgo.' 1977: Academy Award for Best Foreign Film for Black and White in Color released as La Victoire en chantant.' 1978: Second Prize from the Art Directors Club for Advert for the commercial Dunlopillo.' 1979: Best Commercial Award for TV for the spot “The Train” for
Sudden Strike is a series of real-time tactics video games set in World War II. The series is developed by Fireglow based in Russia and published by CDV software of Germany and has been re-published by ZOOM-Platform.com. The player selects a faction and gains control of many varied units such as infantry and artillery; the games focus on tactics, eschewing traditional real-time strategy resource gathering and base development. The original Sudden Strike, released in 2000, included three campaigns; the battles are presented in an isometric perspective with line-of-sight occlusions and practical cover. Sudden Strike helped pioneer the real-time tactics genre, building upon concepts established by Counter Action for DOS, published by Mindscape in 1996. Sudden Strike 2 was developed by Russian developer Fireglow and published by CDV and was released in 2002; the game has since undergone minor changes in its game engine and now features a higher resolution setting and other graphical changes. The campaign still involves a new country, Japan.
Sudden Strike 3 is the third title in the first to incorporate a 3D graphics engine. It was released in June 2010, it is a sequel to Sudden Strike 3 which brings back a few features from Sudden Strike 2. The user interface is reworked in order to make it easier for player to control units and realize their tactics in the game; the game was announced in August 2016 and is set to be released in the second quarter of 2017. It is developed by Kite Games and is set to be published by Kalypso Media for PlayStation 4 and PC. While the developers hope to remain true to the spirit of other games in the series, new skill trees and commander roles will be introduced as features. Stranger developed by Fireglow
Edward Allen Harris is an American actor, producer and screenwriter. His performances in Apollo 13, The Truman Show and The Hours earned him critical acclaim in addition to Academy Award nominations. Harris has appeared in several leading and supporting roles, such as in The Right Stuff, The Abyss, State of Grace, Glengarry Glen Ross, The Rock, Stepmom, A Beautiful Mind, Enemy at the Gates, A History of Violence, Gone Baby Gone and Mother!. In addition to directing Pollock, Harris directed the western Appaloosa. In television, Harris is notable for his roles as Miles Roby in the miniseries Empire Falls and as United States Senator John McCain in the television movie Game Change, the latter of which earned him the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Series, Miniseries or Television Film, he stars as the Man in Black in the HBO science fiction-western series Westworld, for which he earned a nomination for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series. Harris was born at the Englewood Hospital in Englewood, New Jersey, was raised in Tenafly, New Jersey, the son of Margaret, a travel agent, Robert L. "Bob" Harris, who sang with the Fred Waring chorus and worked at the bookstore of the Art Institute of Chicago.
He has two brothers and Robert. Harris was raised in a middle-class Presbyterian family, his parents were from Oklahoma. He graduated from Tenafly High School in 1969, where he played on the football team, serving as the team's captain in his senior year. A star athlete in high school, Harris competed in athletics at Columbia University in 1969; when his family moved to New Mexico two years Harris followed, having discovered his interest in acting in various theater plays. He enrolled at the University of Oklahoma to study drama. After several successful roles in local theaters, he moved to Los Angeles and enrolled at the California Institute of the Arts, where he spent two years and graduated with a Bachelor of Fine Arts in 1975. Harris began his career on the stage. In 1976, he played an FBI agent in the world premiere of Thomas Rickman's play, Baalam at the Pasadena Repertory Theatre located at the historic The Hotel Carver, he followed that at the Pasadena Repertory Theatre in 1976 playing Lot in the West Coast premiere of Tennessee Williams's play Kingdom of Earth.
From the mid 1970s to the mid 1980s, Harris found steady work on television. He had a role in one episode of Gibbsville, in one episode of Delvecchio, in one episode of The Rockford Files, in one episode of David Cassidy - Man Undercover, two episodes of The Seekers, one episode of Barnaby Jones, one episode of Paris, three episodes of Lou Grant, one episode of CHiPs, one episode of Hart to Hart, one episode of Cassie & Co. and one episode of American Playhouse. Harris' first film role came in 1978 with a minor part in the suspense film Coma, starring Michael Douglas, his first major role in a film came two years with Borderline, in which he starred alongside Charles Bronson. In 1981, Harris played the lead, William "Billy" Davis, a king of a motorcycle riding renaissance-fair troupe, in Knightriders; the following year, he has a small role as Hank Blaine in Creepshow, directed by George A. Romero. In 1983, Harris became well known after portraying astronaut John Glenn in The Right Stuff. In 1984, he co starred in the Robert Benton directed drama film Places in the Heart.
In 1984 he co-starred along with Goldie Hawn and Kurt Russell in the Jonathan Demme directed World War II biopic Swing Shift and in 1985 played abusive husband Charlie Dick to Jessica Lange's Patsy Cline in the HBO film Sweet Dreams In 1986, he received a Tony Award nomination in the Best Actor in a Play category for his role in George Furth's Precious Sons. He won the Theatre World Award and Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Actor in a Play for his performance. Harris portrayed William Walker, a 19th-century American who appointed himself President of Nicaragua, in Walker; that same year, he played Harry Nash in the HBO television thriller film The Last Innocent Man. In 1988, he acted in Agnieszka Holland's To Kill a Priest, starring Christopher Lambert, based on Jerzy Popiełuszko and his murder under the Polish communist regime, it was well received by critics. In 1989, his role as David "Dave" Flannigan in Jacknife earned him his first Golden Globe Award nomination, for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture.
In 1989, he portrayed Virgil "Bud" Brigman in the sci fi film The Abyss, directed by James Cameron. In 1992, Harris co starred as Dave Moss in the drama film Glengarry Glen Ross, based on the play of the same name by David Mamet, he won the Valladolid International Film Festival Award for Best Actor for his performance in the film. He next appeared in the films The Firm and Needful Things, before portraying the lead role of Kyle Bodine in the neo noir film China Moon. In 1995, Harris portrayed Watergate figure E. Howard Hunt in the Oliver Stone biopic Nixon, received his first Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor nomination for his performance as NASA Apollo Mission Control Director Gene Kranz in Apollo 13. In 1996, Harris starred in and executive produced the television adaptation of Riders of the Purple Sage; that same year, he returned to Broadway as Major Steve Arnold in the
The World at War
The World at War is a 26-episode British television documentary series chronicling the events of the Second World War. It was at the time of its completion in 1973, at a cost of £900,000, the most expensive factual series made, it was produced by Jeremy Isaacs, narrated by Laurence Olivier and included music composed by Carl Davis. The book, The World at War, published the same year, was written by Mark Arnold-Forster to accompany the TV series; the World at War attracted widespread acclaim and is now regarded as a landmark in British television history. The producer Jeremy Isaacs was considered ahead of his time in resurrecting studies of military history. Among many other aspects, the series focused on a portrayal of the experience of the conflict: of how life and death throughout the war years affected soldiers and airmen, concentration camp inmates and other victims of the war; the World at War was commissioned by Thames Television in 1969. It took four years to produce at a cost of £900,000.
At the time this was a record for a British television series. It was first shown in 1973 on ITV; the series featured interviews with major members of the Allied and Axis campaigns, including eyewitness accounts from civilians, enlisted men and politicians. Among these were Sir Max Aitken, Mark Clark, Jock Colville, Karl Dönitz, James "Jimmy" Doolittle, Lawrence Durrell, Lord Eden of Avon, Mitsuo Fuchida, Adolf Galland, Minoru Genda, W. Averell Harriman, Sir Arthur Harris, Alger Hiss, Brian Horrocks, Traudl Junge, Toshikazu Kase, Curtis LeMay, Hasso von Manteuffel, Bill Mauldin, John J. McCloy, Lord Mountbatten of Burma, J. B. Priestley, Albert Speer, James Stewart, Charles Sweeney, Paul Tibbets, Walter Warlimont, historian Stephen Ambrose. In the programme The Making of "The World at War", included in the DVD set, Jeremy Isaacs explains that priority was given to interviews with surviving aides and assistants rather than recognised figures; the most difficult person to locate and persuade to be interviewed was Heinrich Himmler's adjutant Karl Wolff.
During the interview he admitted to witnessing a large-scale execution in Himmler's presence. Isaacs expressed satisfaction with the content of the series, noting that if it had been unclassified knowledge at the time of production, he would have added references to British codebreaking efforts. In a list of the 100 Greatest British Television Programmes compiled by the British Film Institute during 2000, voted for by industry professionals, The World at War ranked 19th; the series was transmitted on the ITV network in the United Kingdom between 31 October 1973 and 8 May 1974, has subsequently been shown around the world. It was first shown in the US in syndication on various stations in 1974. WOR in New York aired the series in the mid-1970s, although episodes were edited both for graphic content and to include sufficient commercial breaks. PBS station WNET in New York broadcast the series unedited and in its entirety in 1982 as did WGBH in the late 1980s; the Danish channel DR1 first broadcast the series from August 1976 to February 1977 and it was repeated again on DR2 in December 2006 and January 2007.
The History Channel in Japan began screening the series in its entirety in April 2007. It repeated the entire series again in August 2011; the Military History Channel in the UK broadcast the series over the weekend of 14 and 15 November 2009. The Military Channel in the United States aired the series in January 2010, has shown it since. BBC Two in the UK transmitted a repeat run of the series starting on 5 September 1994 at teatime. In 2011, the British channel Yesterday started a showing of the series and it has been shown continuously to this day at various times; the series was shown in full on SABC in South Africa in 1976, one of the first documentary series broadcast after the launch of the first television service in South Africa in Jan 1976. Each episode was 52 minutes excluding commercials; the Genocide episode was screened uninterrupted. The series has 26 episodes. Producer Jeremy Isaacs asked Noble Frankland director of the Imperial War Museum, to list fifteen main campaigns of the war and devoted one episode to each.
The remaining eleven episodes are devoted to other matters, such as the rise of the Third Reich, home life in Britain and Germany, the experience of occupation in the Netherlands, the Nazis' use of genocide. Episode 1 begins with a cold open describing the massacre at the French village of Oradour-sur-Glane by the Waffen SS; the same event is referenced again at the end of Episode 26, while the Dona nobis pacem from the Missa Sancti Nicolai, composed by Joseph Haydn, can be heard. The series ends with Laurence Olivier saying "Remember"; some footage and interviews which were not used in the original series were made into additional hour or half-hour documentaries narrated by Eric Porter. These were released as a bonus to the VHS version and are included in the DVD set of the series, first released in 2001. "The Making of the Series: The World at War" "Secretary to Hitler – Traudl Junge" "From War to Peace – Professor Stephen Ambrose" "Warrior – Reflections of Men at War" "Hitler's Germany: The People's Community" "Hitler's Germany: Total War" "The Two Deaths of Adolf Hitler" "The Final Solution: Part One" "The Final Solution: Part Two" "Making of the Series - A 30th Anniversary Retrospective" "Experiences of War" "Restoring the World at War" The original book The World at War, which accompanied the series, was written by Mark Arnold-Forster in 1973.
In October 2
Avalon Hill Games Inc. is a game company that specializes in wargames and strategic board games. Its logo contains its initials "AH", the company is now referred to by this abbreviation. Before its takeover by Hasbro, it was known as The Avalon Hill Game Company and the initials TAHGC, it has published miniature wargaming rules, role-playing games and sports simulations. It is now a subsidiary of the game company Wizards of the Coast, itself a subsidiary of Hasbro. Avalon Hill pioneered many of the concepts of modern recreational wargaming; these include elements such as the use of a hexagonal grid overlaid on a flat folding board, zones of control, stacking of multiple units at a location, an odds-based combat results table, terrain effects on movement, troop strength and board games based upon historical events. Complex games could and did take days or weeks, AH set up a system for people to play games by mail. Avalon Hill was started in 1952 in Baltimore, Maryland by Charles S. Roberts under the name of "The Avalon Game Company" for the publication of his game Tactics, considered the first of a new type of board game, the wargame.
Roberts sold Tactics on a mail order basis from his home in the Avalon neighborhood of Baltimore. Following the success of Tactics, Roberts changed the name upon incorporation from "The Avalon Game Company" to "Avalon Hill" in 1958 because of an argument with another company; the number of games released per year was erratic until 1964 as the company released anywhere from 1 to 7 games.5-8The first game published by the company under the name of "Avalon Hill" was the second edition of Tactics, titled Tactics II, published in 1958. AH published two other games that year and the railroad game Dispatcher. In 1959, Roberts moved Avalon into an office space on Gay Street in Baltimore and took on its first outside designed game, Verdict, by two corporate lawyers. After another office move, in August 1960 Thomas N. Shaw, a high school friend of Roberts, was hired to design games.6In 1960, Avalon published the first dice-less sports game in Football Strategy designed by Thomas N. Shaw, followed by two sister games, Baseball Strategy and Basketball Strategy.
Of this sports strategy line, the football and baseball versions were privately published by Shaw in 1959.7 With a recession occurring, debt began to pile up starting in 1961. Avalon launched a pre-school children's line in 1963 with four games, What Time Is It?, Doll House and Trucks, Boats & Planes, which flopped. Roberts gave up and planned to file bankruptcy on December 13, 1963.p7 Instead his creditors, Monarch Office Services and J. E. Smith & Co. took over. Monarch had printed all but the boxes, which were done by J. E. Smith; the company was reorganized by retaining only one staff member, moved, cut costs and appointed J. E. Sparling as president.p7,8 In 1964, AH set a two-game per year release schedule.5-8Avalon Hill published Blitzkrieg in 1965. This game was an abstract combat game, featuring some neutral countries. Many rules variants were created for Blitzkrieg; the company published simulations of actual battles and campaigns, such as Midway, Afrika Korps, The Battle of the Bulge. Avalon Hill published PanzerBlitz in 1970, designed for the company by Jim Dunnigan's Simulations Publications, Inc. on a royalty basis from SPI's Tac Force 3 game.p9 Monarch bought out J.
E. Smith & Co. Avalon Hill's co-owner, on November 30, 1971, thus the company became a division of a renamed Monarch Office Services, Monarch Avalon.p10The company acquired several successful games including Acquire, TwixT and Feudal from the purchase of 3M Games in February 1976.p5,12 Sports Illustrated line of sports games were purchased in December 1976. Both lines increased the retail outlets; the Aladdin Industries game line was another acquisition in March 1977. With the SI line, the company started a sports game division in May 1977 with Bruce Milligan hired to head the division and launch All Star Replay sport games magazine. While from the 3M line, Facts in Five became its top selling game.p5,12During the 1970s, the company's golden years, Avalon Hill published a number of popular games such as Outdoor Survival, Panzer Blitz, Squad Leader, the Statis Pro sports line. Avalon Hill purchased many games from smaller companies and republished them. Heritage Models sold AH its Battleline Publications in October 1979.p5,15 Much of the Battleline line, including Wooden Ships and Iron Men and Machiavelli, was republished by Avalon Hill, along with the popular Diplomacy.
AH acquired Jedko Games' The Russian Campaign and War at Sea, Hartland Trefoil's Civilization. 1830 was developed by Avalon Hill, but based on Francis Tresham's 1829. The company entered the role-playing game market by publishing Powers and Perils in 1983 and Lords of Creation in 1984; the licenses to RuneQuest and the board games White Bear & Red Moon and Elric, were acquired in a complex agreement in 1983 with Chaosium, Avalon Hill published the 3rd Edition in 1984. None of these role-playing games achieved the popularity of the long-established competitor, Dungeons & Dragons. Avalon Hill became an early publisher of computer games in 1980 with its video game division Microcomputer Games, adapting some of its boardgame titles to various computer platforms on several data formats. Sales of these products were decent, but the only outstanding success was Achtung Spitfire!, published relat