Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
The Roman Republic was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. Roman society under the Republic was a cultural mix of Latin and Greek elements, visible in the Roman Pantheon, its political organisation was influenced by the Greek city states of Magna Graecia, with collective and annual magistracies, overseen by a senate. The top magistrates were the two consuls, who had an extensive range of executive, judicial and religious powers. Whilst there were elections each year, the Republic was not a democracy, but an oligarchy, as a small number of large families monopolised the main magistracies. Roman institutions underwent considerable changes throughout the Republic to adapt to the difficulties it faced, such as the creation of promagistracies to rule its conquered provinces, or the composition of the senate.
Unlike the Pax Romana of the Roman Empire, the Republic was in a state of quasi-perpetual war throughout its existence. Its first enemies were its Latin and Etruscan neighbours as well as the Gauls, who sacked the city in 387 BC; the Republic nonetheless demonstrated extreme resilience and always managed to overcome its losses, however catastrophic. After the Gallic Sack, Rome indeed conquered the whole Italian peninsula in a century, which turned the Republic into a major power in the Mediterranean; the Republic's greatest enemy was doubtless Carthage, against. The Punic general Hannibal famously invaded Italy by crossing the Alps and inflicted on Rome two devastating defeats at the Lake Trasimene and Cannae, but the Republic once again recovered and won the war thanks to Scipio Africanus at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC. With Carthage defeated, Rome became the dominant power of the ancient Mediterranean world, it embarked in a long series of difficult conquests, after having notably defeated Philip V and Perseus of Macedon, Antiochus III of the Seleucid Empire, the Lusitanian Viriathis, the Numidian Jugurtha, the great Pontic king Mithridates VI, the Gaul Vercingetorix, the Egyptian queen Cleopatra.
At home, the Republic experienced a long streak of social and political crises, which ended in several violent civil wars. At first, the Conflict of the Orders opposed the patricians, the closed oligarchic elite, to the far more numerous plebs, who achieved political equality in several steps during the 4th century BC; the vast conquests of the Republic disrupted its society, as the immense influx of slaves they brought enriched the aristocracy, but ruined the peasantry and urban workers. In order to solve this issue, several social reformers, known as the Populares, tried to pass agrarian laws, but the Gracchi brothers, Saturninus, or Clodius Pulcher were all murdered by their opponents, the Optimates, keepers of the traditional aristocratic order. Mass slavery caused three Servile Wars. In this context, the last decades of the Republic were marked by the rise of great generals, who exploited their military conquests and the factional situation in Rome to gain control of the political system.
Marius Sulla dominated in turn the Republic. These multiple tensions lead to a series of civil wars. Despite his victory and appointment as dictator for life, Caesar was murdered in 44 BC. Caesar's heir Octavian and lieutenant Mark Antony defeated Caesar's assassins Brutus and Cassius in 42 BC, but turned against each other; the final defeat of Mark Antony and his ally Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, the Senate's grant of extraordinary powers to Octavian as Augustus in 27 BC – which made him the first Roman emperor – thus ended the Republic. Since the foundation of Rome, its rulers had been monarchs, elected for life by the patrician noblemen who made up the Roman Senate; the last Roman king was Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. In the traditional histories, Tarquin was expelled in 509 because his son Sextus Tarquinius had raped the noblewoman Lucretia, who afterwards took her own life. Lucretia's father, her husband Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, Tarquin's nephew Lucius Junius Brutus mustered support from the Senate and army, forced Tarquin into exile in Etruria.
The Senate agreed to abolish kingship. Most of the king's former functions were transferred to two consuls, who were elected to office for a term of one year; each consul had the capacity to act as a check on his colleague, if necessary through the same power of veto that the kings had held. If a consul abused his powers in office, he could be prosecuted. Brutus and Collatinus became Republican Rome's first consuls. Despite Collatinus' role in the creation of the Republic, he belonged to the same family as the former king, was forced to abdicate his office and leave Rome, he was replaced as co-consul by Publius Valerius Publicola. Most modern scholarship describes these events as the quasi-mythological detailing of an aristocratic coup within Tarquin's own family, not a popular revolution, they fit a narrative of a personal vengeance against a tyrant leading to his overthrow, common among Greek cities and theorised by Aristotle
Titus Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus
Titus Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus was a famous politician and general of the Roman Republic. He had an outstanding career, being consul three times in 347, 344, 340 BC, dictator three times 353, 349, 320 BC, he was one of the early heroes of the Republic, alongside Cincinnatus, Cornelius Cossus, Furius Camillus, or Valerius Corvus. As a young military tribune, he defeated a giant Gaul in single combat in one of the most famous duels of the Republic, which earned him the cognomen Torquatus after the torque he took from the Gaul's body, he was known for his moral virtues his severity as he killed his own son after he had disobeyed his orders in a battle. His life was seen as a model for his descendants, who tried to emulate his heroic deeds centuries after his death, his father Lucius was appointed dictator in 363 BC in order to fulfil religious duties, but instead undertook preparations for war. This resulted in strong opposition from the plebeian tribunes and he was brought to trial at the beginning of the next year, after he had resigned the dictatorship.
Amongst the charges against him was that he had banished Titus from Rome on account of his speaking difficulties and made him work as a labourer. Upon hearing of these accusations against his father, Titus went to the home of the tribune Marcus Pomponius, where he was expected by the latter to provide further charges and was thus promptly admitted. However, once they were alone, he drew his hidden knife and threatened to stab the tribune unless he made a public oath not to hold an assembly to accuse Lucius Manlius, which Pomponius agreed to and duly performed. Titus Manlius' reputation grew on account of his filially pious actions, which helped him to be elected as a military tribune in the year. In 361 BC, Titus Manlius fought in the army of Titus Quinctius Poenus against the Gauls; when a Gaul of enormous size and strength challenged the Romans to single combat, Manlius accepted the challenge with the approval of Poenus after the rest of the army had held back from responding for a long period of time.
Despite being physically inferior, he killed the Gaul with blows to the belly and groin, after which he stripped the corpse of a torc and placed it around his own neck. From this, he gained the agnomen Torquatus, a title, passed down to his descendants. In 353 BC, he was named dictator and prepared to attack Caere, but they responded by sending envoys and were granted peace; the campaign was directed towards the Falisci, but the Roman army found on arrival that the Falisci had disappeared. They spared the cities before returning to Rome, he was appointed dictator again in 348 BC to oversee elections. A year he was elected to his first consulship, his second consulship came in 345 BC. In 340 BC, when Manlius was consul for the third time, Rome had leadership over the Latin League, it received a delegation from member states headed by Lucius Annius, demanding coequal status in Roman government, such as a place in the senate and a consulship, but Manlius, appealing to Jupiter, refused them. Roundly abusing the Roman Jupiter, Annius fell down the steps of senseless.
Manlius said. The Latin embassy required an escort of magistrates to leave Rome unmolested. Rome realigned itself with the Samnites against the Latins. During the conduct of the war and his co-consul, Publius Decius Mus, decided that the old military discipline would be reinstated, no man was allowed to leave his post, under penalty of death. Manlius's son, seeing an opportunity for glory, forgot this stricture, left his post with his friends, defeated several Latin skirmishers in battle. Having the spoils brought to him, the father cried out in a loud voice and called the legion to assemble. Berating his son, he handed him over for execution to the horror of all his men. Thus, "Manlian discipline."After Decius Mus sacrificed himself to achieve victory at the battle of Vesuvius, Manlius was able to crush the Latin allies and pursue them into Campania. He defeated them again at Trifanum, bringing the war to an end, returned to Rome, he was unable on account of ill health to conduct a further campaign against the Antiates and appointed Lucius Papirius Crassus as dictator to fulfil this role instead.
Sacrifice to the state was one of the favourite themes of French Neoclassical painters at the end of the 18th century and during the French Revolution. The story of Torquatus' execution of his son was logically used by several of them. Stemma taken from Münzer until "A. Manlius Torquatus, d. 208", Mitchell, with corrections. All dates are BC. Manlia Titus Livius, History of Rome. Valerius Maximus, Factorum ac Dictorum Memorabilium. T. Robert S. Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic, American Philological Association, 1952–1986. Michael Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage, Cambridge University Press, 1974–2001. Jane F. Mitchell, "The Torquati", in Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, vol. 15, part 1, pp. 23–31. Friedrich Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families, translated by Thérèse Ridley, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999. August Pauly, Georg Wissowa, et alii, Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft, J. B. Metzler, Stuttgart. Robert Rosenblum, Transformations in Late Eighteenth Century Art, Princeton University Press, 1967.
Lily Ross Taylor and T. Robert S. Broughton, "The Order of the Two Consuls' Names in the Yearly Lists", Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome, 19, pp. 3-14. F. W. Walbank, A. E. Astin, M. W. Frederiksen, R. M. Ogilvie, The Cambridge Ancient Hist
The Latin League was an ancient confederation of about 30 villages and tribes in the region of Latium near the ancient city of Rome, organized for mutual defense. The term "Latin League" is one coined by modern historians with no precise Latin equivalent, it was created for protection against enemies from surrounding areas under the leadership of the city of Alba Longa. An incomplete fragment of an inscription recorded by Cato the Elder claims that at one time the league included Tusculum, Lanuvium, Cora, Tibur and Ardea. During the reign of Tarquinius Superbus, the Latins were persuaded to acknowledge the leadership of Rome; the treaty with Rome was renewed, it was agreed that the troops of the Latins would attend on an appointed day to form a united military force with the troops of Rome. That was done, Tarquin formed combined units of Roman and Latin troops; the early Roman Republic formed an alliance with the Latin League in 493 BC. According to Roman tradition, the treaty, the foedus Cassianum, followed a Roman victory over the league in the Battle of Lake Regillus.
It provided that both Rome and the Latin League would share loot from military conquests and that any military campaigns between the two would be led by Roman generals. The alliance helped repel attacks from such peoples as the Aequi and the Volsci, tribes of the Apennine Mountains, who were prevented from invading Latium by the blending of armies, it is still unclear if the Latins had accepted Rome as one into the League, or if the treaty had been signed as between Rome and the Latin League. During the Roman kingdom and the early-to-mid Roman republic there were numerous disputes between Rome and the Latins, which led to a number of wars between Rome and individual Latin cities and with the entire league; the increasing power of Rome led to its domination of the league. The renewal of the original treaty in 358 BC formally established Roman leadership and triggered the outbreak of the Latin War. Following the Roman victory, the league was dissolved. After 338 BC, the end of the Latin league, Rome renamed the cities municipia and established coloniae inside them.
This meant that the towns were now ruled by Rome and that the people living there were considered Roman colonists. Alba Longa, Aricia, Cora, Lavinium, Pometia and Tusculum
Caserta is the capital of the province of Caserta in the Campania region of Italy. It is an important agricultural and industrial comune and city. Caserta is located on the edge of the Campanian plain at the foot of the Campanian Subapennine mountain range; the city is best known for the Palace of Caserta. Modern Caserta was established around the defensive tower built in Lombard times by Pando, Prince of Capua. Pando destroyed the original city around 863; the tower is now part of the Palazzo della Prefettura, once the seat of the counts of Caserta, as well as a royal residence. The original population moved from Casertavecchia to the current site in the 16th century. Casertavecchia was built on the Roman town of Casa Irta, meaning "home village located above" and contracted as "Caserta"; the city and vicinity were the property of the Acquaviva family who, being pressed by huge debts, sold all the land to the royal family. The royal family selected Caserta for the construction of their new palace which, being inland, was seen as more defensible than the previous palace fronting the Bay of Naples.
At the end of World War II, the royal palace served as the seat of the Supreme Allied Commander. The first Allied war trial took place here in 1945. Pope Francis visited Caserta on Monday, 28 June 2014, together with a friend named Giovanni Traettino who pastors an evangelical, charismatic/Pentecostal Protestant church; the Pope apologized for the complicity of some Catholics in the persecution of Protestant Pentecostals during the fascist regime in Italy. Caserta is located 40 kilometres north of Naples, its municipality borders with Capua, Casapulla, Castel Morrone, Limatola, Marcianise, San Felice a Cancello, San Marco Evangelista, San Nicola la Strada, San Prisco, Sant'Agata de' Goti, Santa Maria Capua Vetere and Valle di Maddaloni. Casertavecchia is the ancient centre of former bishopric seat. San Leucio resort, seat of famous Royal silk workshops included in the World Heritage List. Vaccheria, which housed the stable of the Royal cattle. Falciano is a former bishop seat. Piedimonte di Casolla has an ancient Benedictine abbey, built over a Roman temple dedicated to Diana.
Other "Frazioni": Aldifreda, Casola, Centurano, Garzano, Pozzovetere, Sala di Caserta, San Benedetto, San Clemente, Santa Barbara, Tredici, Tuoro. Caserta's main attraction is its Royal Palace; the royal palace was designed in the 18th century by the Italian architect Luigi Vanvitelli, recalling Versailles, as a residence for the Bourbon kings of Naples and Sicily. As one of the most visited monuments in Italy, the palace has more than 1200 rooms, decorated in various styles, it has been the set for several famous movies such as Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace, Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones, Angels & Demons and Mission: Impossible III. The park is 2 miles long and contains many waterfalls and gardens, as well as a famous English garden. Palazzo Vecchio, a construction of the 14th century renovated by Luigi Vanvitelli as provisional residence for the royal court; the Cathedral. The Aqueduct of Vanvitelli. Piazza Matteotti Grave is one of oldest piazzas the city, it is called by Casertani "Piazza Mercato" because there is the daily market in a structure inaugurated in 2008.
Piazza Vanvitelli is the main piazza in the city. The piazza once included Palazzo Castropignano but this was subsequently replaced by a modern palace in the early 1960s; the seat of the municipality of Caserta, Palazzo Acquaviva lies within this piazza as well as the offices of Questura and Prefettura of the Province of Caserta and various banks, shops and bars. At the center of it there is a statue of Luigi Vanvitelli, the architect who designed the Royal Palace of Caserta; the city has some experience in hosting major international sports events such as the EuroBasket 1969. It is home to Italy's 1991 basketball champion. Caserta railway station is a hub for regional and national traffic, represents an important interchange linking Rome and Naples to Bari; the nearest airport is Naples-Capodichino, located about 30 kilometres south. Caserta is the starting point of the A30 motorway to Salerno and is served by two exits of A1 motorway: Caserta Nord and Caserta Sud. Caserta is twinned with: Pitești, Romania Aley, Lebanon Italian writer Maria Valtorta Air power theorist Giulio Douhet.
English cricketer Hedley Verity is buried there, having died in a Caserta hospital on 31 July 1943 of wounds sustained in the World War II Allied invasion of Sicily. Fictional character Jennifer Melfi of The Sopranos said her family was from Caserta Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli Casertana F. C. Città di Caserta Official website
Titus Livius – rendered as Livy in English – was a Roman historian. He wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people – Ab Urbe Condita Libri – covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditional foundation in 753 BC through the reign of Augustus in Livy's own lifetime, he was on familiar terms with members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and in friendship with Augustus, whose young grandnephew, the future emperor Claudius, he exhorted to take up the writing of history. Livy was born in Patavium in northern Italy, now modern Padua. There is a debate about the year of his birth- either in 64 BC, or more in 59 BC. At the time of his birth, his home city of Patavium was the second wealthiest on the Italian peninsula, the largest in the province of Cisalpine Gaul. Cisalpine Gaul was merged in Italia during his lifetime and its inhabitants were given Roman citizenship by Julius Caesar. In his works, Livy expressed his deep affection and pride for Patavium, the city was well known for its conservative values in morality and politics.
"He was by nature a recluse, mild in averse to violence. The governor of Cisalpine Gaul at the time, Asinius Pollio, tried to sway Patavium into supporting Marcus Antonius, the leader of one of the warring factions; the wealthy citizens of Patavium refused to contribute money and arms to Asinius Pollio, went into hiding. Pollio attempted to bribe the slaves of those wealthy citizens to expose the whereabouts of their masters, it is therefore that the Roman civil wars prevented Livy from pursuing a higher education in Rome or going on a tour of Greece, common for adolescent males of the nobility at the time. Many years Asinius Pollio derisively commented on Livy's "patavinity", saying that Livy's Latin showed certain "provincialisms" frowned on at Rome. Pollio's dig may have been the result of bad feelings he harboured toward the city of Patavium from his experiences there during the civil wars. Livy went to Rome in the 30s BC, it is that he spent a large amount of time in the city after this, although it may not have been his primary home.
During his time in Rome, he held a government position. His writings contain elementary mistakes on military matters, indicating that he never served in the Roman army. However, he was educated in rhetoric, it seems that Livy had the financial resources and means to live an independent life, though the origin of that wealth is unknown. He devoted a large part of his life to his writings, which he was able to do because of his financial freedom. Livy was known to give recitations to small audiences, but he was not heard of to engage in declamation a common pastime, he was familiar with the imperial family. Augustus was considered by Romans to have been the greatest Roman emperor, benefiting Livy's reputation long after his death. Suetonius described how Livy encouraged the future emperor Claudius, born in 10 BC, to write historiographical works during his childhood. Livy's most famous work was his history of Rome. In it he narrates a complete history of the city of Rome, from its foundation to the death of Augustus.
Because he was writing under the reign of Augustus, Livy's history emphasizes the great triumphs of Rome. He wrote his history with embellished accounts of Roman heroism in order to promote the new type of government implemented by Augustus when he became emperor. In Livy's preface to his history, he said that he did not care whether his personal fame remained in darkness, as long as his work helped to "preserve the memory of the deeds of the world’s preeminent nation"; because Livy was writing about events that had occurred hundreds of years earlier, the historical value of his work was questionable, although many Romans came to believe his account to be true. Livy had at least one daughter and one son, he produced other works, including an essay in the form of a letter to his son, numerous dialogues, most modelled on similar works by Cicero. Titus Livius died in his home city of Patavium in either AD 12 or 17. Livy's only surviving work is the "History of Rome", his career from his mid-life 32, until he left Rome for Padua in old age in the reign of Tiberius after the death of Augustus.
When he began this work he was past his youth. Seneca the Younger gives brief mention that he was known as an orator and philosopher and had written some treatises in those fields from a historical point of view. Livy's History of Rome was in high demand from the time it was published and remained so during the early years of the empire. Pliny the Younger reported that Livy's celebrity was so widespread, a man from Cadiz travelled to Rome and back for the sole purpose of meeting him. Livy's work was a source for the works of Aurelius Victor, Eutropius, Florus, Granius Licinianus and Orosius. Julius Obsequens used Livy, or a source with access to Livy, to compose his De Prodigiis, an account of supernatural e
Samnium is a Latin exonym for a region of Southern Italy anciently inhabited by the Samnites. Their own endonyms were Safineis for the people; the language of these endonyms and of the population was the Oscan language. However, not all the Samnites spoke Oscan, not all the Oscan-speakers lived in Samnium; the ancient geographers were unable to relay a precise definition of Samnium's borders. Moreover, the areas it included vary depending on the time period considered; the main configurations are the borders it had during the floruit of the Oscan speakers, from about 600 BC to about 290 BC, when it was absorbed by the Roman Republic. This originary Samnium should not be confused with the territory of the same name. Rome's first Emperor, divided Italy into 11 regions. Although these entities only served administrative purposes, were identified with the sole numeral, by scholarly convention the Regio IV has been dubbed "Samnium". Ancient Samnium had been split up into three of the Augustan regions.
Modern Italian language has borrowed the name "Sannio" to indicate only a small portion of what it once was - informally, the Province of Benevento only. Etymologically the name Samnium is recognized to be a form of the name of the Sabines, who were Umbrians. From Safinim, Sabinus and Samnis an Indo-European root can be extracted, *sabh-, which becomes Sab- in Latino-Faliscan and Saf- in Osco-Umbrian: Sabini and *Safineis; the eponymous god of the Sabines, seems to support this view. The Greek terms and Saunitis, remain outside the group. Nothing is known of their origin. At some point in prehistory, a population speaking a common language extended over both Samnium and Umbria. Salmon conjectures that it was common Italic and puts forward a date of 600 BC, after which the common language began to dialectize; this date does not correspond to any historical or archaeological evidence. The linguist, Julius Pokorny, carries the etymology somewhat further back. Conjecturing that the -a- was altered from an -o- during some prehistoric residence in Illyria he derives the names from an o-grade extension *swo-bho- of an extended e-grade *swe-bho- of the possessive adjective, *swe-, of the reflexive pronoun, *se-, "oneself".
The result is a set of Indo-European tribal names: Semnones, Suiones. The general concept is "our own kith and kin," Pokorny's "von eigener Art," "Gesamtheit der eigenen Leute," "Liebe," "Sippegenossen," "Sippenangehörigen," and the like. Samnium lay on the Apennine area; the principal cities of the region were Bovaiamom, renamed Bovianum by Latins and Maleventum, renamed Beneventum by the Romans. For most of their history the Samnites were landlocked, but during a brief period they controlled parts of both coasts of the Italian peninsula; the Samnites were composed of at least four tribes: the Pentri, the Caraceni, the Caudini and the Hirpini. They may have been joined by the Frentani; the federal capital of the League they formed was Bovianum, except for a short period between the 4th and 3rd centuries BC, when it was Aquilonia, destroyed by the Romans in 293 BC, whose probable location today is modern Agnone, in Molise. The earliest written record of the people is a treaty with the Romans from 354 BC, which set their border at the Liris River.
Shortly thereafter the Samnite Wars broke out. By 290 BC, the Romans were able to break the Samnites' power after some hard-fought battles; the Samnites were one of the Italian peoples that allied with King Pyrrhus of Epirus during the Pyrrhic War. After Pyrrhus left for Sicily, the Romans invaded Samnium and were crushed at the Battle of the Cranita hills, but after the defeat of Pyrrhus, the Samnites could not resist on their own and surrendered to Rome; some of the Samnites joined and aided Hannibal during the Second Punic War. The Samnites and several other Italic people rebelled against Rome and started the Social War, after Romans refused to grant them Roman Citizenship; the war lasted three years, resulted in a Roman victory. However and other Italic tribes were granted Roman citizenship, to avoid another war; the Samnites supported the Marian party in the civil war against Lucius Cornelius Sulla, by 82 BC, the Roman dictator Sulla conducted an ethnic cleansing campaign against this most stubborn and persistent of Rome's adversaries and forced the remnant to disperse.
So great was the destruction brought upon them that it was recorded that "some of their cities have now dwindled into villages, some indeed being deserted." After this the Samnites were assimilated into the Roman society. Gaius Pontius ca. 320s BC Gellius Egnatius ca. 296 BC Gaius Papius Mutilus 90-89 with: Ponti