Equites cataphractarii, or cataphractarii, were the most armoured type of Roman cavalry in the Imperial Roman army and Late Roman army. The term derives from a Greek word, κατάφρακτος kataphraktos, meaning "covered over" or "completely covered". Armoured cataphract cavalry armed with a long lance, were adopted by the Roman army to counter Parthian troops of this kind on the eastern frontier and similar Sarmatian cavalry in on the Danubian frontier. In distinction to both Parthian and Sarmatian cataphracts, who represented a wealthy feudal or tribal elite equipped for war, Roman cataphracts had no social dimension, being composed of professional soldiers like any other troop type of the Roman army; the Romans used the terms contarii for lance-armed cavalry, clibanarii for armoured cavalry. It is uncertain whether these terms were used interchangeably with'cataphract', or whether they implied differences of equipment and role. Modelled on the cataphracts of Parthia, they were armoured from neck-to-toe by a variety of armour types including: scale armour and laminar armour.
A number of descriptions indicate. However, a graffito from the Roman frontier fortress of Dura Europos shows a cataphract wearing a conical helmet with a face-covering mail aventail, they were armed with a contus, a long lance held in both hands. However, the name of one unit, equites sagitarii clibanarii, implies that these troops carried bows instead of, or in addition to, the contus; as a secondary weapon they were armed with swords. In some cases, their horses were covered in scale armour also. Two iron and copper-alloy scale horse armours called'trappers' or'bards', still attached to fabric backings were discovered in a 3rd-century context at Dura Europos. One of the best descriptions of these cavalry to survive, was made by the Late Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus: “...among these were scattered cavalry with cuirasses, whom they call clibanarii, protected by coverings of iron breast-plates, girdled with belts of iron, so that you would fancy them statues polished by the hand of Praxiteles, rather than men.
And the light circular plates of iron which surrounded their bodies, covered all their limbs, were so well fitted to all their motions, that in whatever direction they had occasion to move, the joints of their iron clothing adapted themselves to any position.” Ammianus Also the emperor Julian the Apostate made a detailed description: "Your cavalry was unlimited in numbers and they all sat their horses like statues, while their limbs were fitted with armour that followed the outline of the human form. It covers the arms from wrist to elbow and thence to the shoulder, while a cuirass made of small pieces protects the shoulders and breast; the head and face are covered by a metal mask which makes its wearer look like a glittering statue, for not the thighs and legs and the ends of the feet lack this armour. It is attached to the cuirass by fine chain-armour like a web, so that no part of the body is visible and uncovered, for this woven covering protects the hands as well, is so flexible that the wearers can bend the fingers."
Julian, Orations I, Panegyric of Constantius, 37D Heavily armoured mounted on armoured horses and wielding a lance so long it required both hands, the cataphractarii were specialised for shock action. They have been likened to the tank of the Ancient World, their armour enabled them to attack enemy infantry and cavalry with confidence and ignore missile fire. However, the armour was heavy and both soldier and mount could tire in battle, therefore become vulnerable to counterattack. In particular, horse armour prevented the horse from cooling itself by sweating. Cataphracts needed to maintain a close and ordered formation to be effective and their flanks were vulnerable to attack. If their formation became broken, individual cataphracts could be attacked by lighter-armed troops with relative ease. At the Battle of Turin the emperor Constantine. Constantine's cavalry were equipped with iron-tipped clubs, ideal weapons for dealing with armoured foes, it was from the time of the emperor Hadrian that the first regular formations of Roman cataphractarii appear in the record.
However, the description by Josephus of armoured, contus-armed Roman cavalry in 67AD at the siege of Jotapata, during the reign of Vespasian, suggests that cataphracts may have been adopted by the Romans at an earlier date. The earliest known unit of equites cataphractarii, recorded in the early 2nd century, is the auxiliary cavalry regiment, Ala I Gallorum et Pannoniorum cataphractaria, stationed in Moesia Inferior; the deployment of this unit on the Danube front, rather than in the East, implies that the cataphractarii were aimed at countering the Sarmatian, rather than the Parthian threat. Cataphractarii regiments remained few in number in the army of the Principate, they became more numerous in the Late Roman army in the East. However, it should be noted that a number of the "eastern" units have Gaulish names, indicating their western origins. Nineteen units are recorded in the Notitia Dignitatum, of w
Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great known as Constantine I, was a Roman Emperor who ruled between 306 and 337 AD. Born in Naissus, in Dacia Ripensis, town now known as Niš, he was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman Army officer, his mother was Empress Helena. His father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under Emperors Diocletian and Galerius. In 305, Constantius was raised to the rank of Augustus, senior western emperor, Constantine was recalled west to campaign under his father in Britannia. Constantine was acclaimed as emperor by the army at Eboracum after his father's death in 306 AD, he emerged victorious in a series of civil wars against Emperors Maxentius and Licinius to become sole ruler of both west and east by 324 AD. As emperor, Constantine enacted administrative, financial and military reforms to strengthen the empire, he restructured the government, separating military authorities.
To combat inflation he introduced the solidus, a new gold coin that became the standard for Byzantine and European currencies for more than a thousand years. The Roman army was reorganised to consist of mobile field units and garrison soldiers capable of countering internal threats and barbarian invasions. Constantine pursued successful campaigns against the tribes on the Roman frontiers—the Franks, the Alamanni, the Goths, the Sarmatians—even resettling territories abandoned by his predecessors during the Crisis of the Third Century. Constantine was the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity. Although he lived much of his life as a pagan, as a catechumen, he joined the Christian faith on his deathbed, being baptised by Eusebius of Nicomedia, he played an influential role in the proclamation of the Edict of Milan in 313, which declared religious tolerance for Christianity in the Roman empire. He called the First Council of Nicaea in 325, which produced the statement of Christian belief known as the Nicene Creed.
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre was built on his orders at the purported site of Jesus' tomb in Jerusalem and became the holiest place in Christendom. The Papal claim to temporal power in the High Middle Ages was based on the forged Donation of Constantine, he has been referred to as the "First Christian Emperor", he did promote the Christian Church. Some modern scholars, debate his beliefs and his comprehension of the Christian faith itself; the age of Constantine marked a distinct epoch in the history of the Roman Empire. He renamed the city Constantinople after himself, it became the capital of the Empire for more than a thousand years, with the eastern Roman Empire now being referred to as the Byzantine Empire by historians. His more immediate political legacy was that he replaced Diocletian's tetrarchy with the principle of dynastic succession by leaving the empire to his sons, his reputation for centuries after his reign. The medieval church upheld him as a paragon of virtue, while secular rulers invoked him as a prototype, a point of reference, the symbol of imperial legitimacy and identity.
Beginning with the Renaissance, there were more critical appraisals of his reign, due to the rediscovery of anti-Constantinian sources. Trends in modern and recent scholarship have attempted to balance the extremes of previous scholarship. Constantine was a ruler of major importance, he has always been a controversial figure; the fluctuations in his reputation reflect the nature of the ancient sources for his reign. These are abundant and detailed, but they have been influenced by the official propaganda of the period and are one-sided; the nearest replacement is Eusebius's Vita Constantini—a mixture of eulogy and hagiography written between 335 AD and circa 339 AD—that extols Constantine's moral and religious virtues. The Vita creates a contentiously positive image of Constantine, modern historians have challenged its reliability; the fullest secular life of Constantine is the anonymous Origo Constantini, a work of uncertain date, which focuses on military and political events to the neglect of cultural and religious matters.
Lactantius' De Mortibus Persecutorum, a political Christian pamphlet on the reigns of Diocletian and the Tetrarchy, provides valuable but tendentious detail on Constantine's predecessors and early life. The ecclesiastical histories of Socrates and Theodoret describe the ecclesiastic disputes of Constantine's reign. Written during the reign of Theodosius II, a century after Constantine's reign, these ecclesiastic historians obscure the events and theologies of the Constantinian period through misdirection, misrepresentation, deliberate obscurity; the contemporary writings of the orthodox Christian Athanasius and the ecclesiastical history of the Arian Philostorgius survive, though their biases are no less firm. The epitomes of Aurelius Victor, Eutropius and the anonymous author of the Epitome de Caesaribus offer compressed secular political and military histories of the period. Although not Christian, the epitomes paint a favourable image of Constantine but omit reference to Constantine's religious policies.
The Panegyrici Latini, a collection of panegyrics
The Clibanarii or Klibanophoroi were a Sassanid Persian, late Roman and Byzantine military unit of armored heavy cavalry. Similar to the cataphracti, the horsemen themselves and their horses were armoured. There are several theories to the origins of this name, one being that the men were nicknamed "camp oven bearers" or that the name is derived from Persian word griwbanwar or griva-pana-bara meaning "neck-guard wearer"; the Clibanarii cavalry of Shapur II is described by Greek historian Ammianus Marcellinus, a Roman staff officer who served in the army of Constantius II in Gaul and Persia, fought against the Persians under Julian the Apostate, took part in the retreat of his successor Jovian, as: "All the companies were clad in iron, all parts of their bodies were covered with thick plates, so fitted that the stiff-joints conformed with those of their limbs. Of these some who were armed with pikes, stood so motionless that you would have thought them held fast by clamps of bronze. "The Persians opposed us serried bands of mail-clad horsemen in such close order that the gleam of moving bodies covered with fitting plates of iron dazzled the eyes of those who looked upon them, while the whole throng of horses was protected by coverings of leather."
Cataphract Heavy cavalry Notitia Dignitatum Hugh Elton, Warfare in Roman Europe Cataphracts and Siegecraft - Roman and Sasanid military organisation
The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome; the Roman Empire was ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and Ravenna, an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Roman Senate sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople; the fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages. The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict.
In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC; the following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus making him the first emperor; the first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West.
Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD; the Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453. Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, architecture, philosophy and forms of government in the territory it governed Europe; the Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of republics such as the United States and France; the corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian peninsula until the 3rd century BC, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves and provinces administered by military commanders, it was ruled, not by annually elected magistrates in conjunction with the senate. For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which led to rule by emperors.
The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which means "command". Successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator, this is the origin of the word emperor since this title was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession. Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts and civil wars from the late second century BC onward, while extending its power beyond Italy; this was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was perpetual dictator before being assassinated; the faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, ending the Final War of the Roman Republic. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citi
Maxentius was Roman Emperor from 306 to 312. He was the son-in-law of Emperor Galerius; the latter part of his reign was preoccupied with civil war, allying with Maximinus II against Licinius and Constantine. The latter defeated him at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312, where Maxentius, with his army in flight, purportedly perished by drowning in the Tiber river. Maxentius' exact date of birth is unknown, he was the son of his wife Eutropia. As his father became emperor in 285, he was regarded as crown prince who would follow his father on the throne, he seems not to have served, however, in any important military or administrative position during the reign of Diocletian and his father. The exact date of his marriage to Valeria Maximilla, daughter of Galerius, is unknown, he had Valerius Romulus and an unknown one. In 305, Diocletian and Maximian abdicated, the former caesares Constantius and Galerius became Augusti. Although two sons of emperors were available and Maxentius, they were passed over for the new tetrarchy, Severus and Maximinus Daia were appointed Caesars.
Lactantius' Epitome states that Galerius hated Maxentius and used his influence with Diocletian to see that Maxentius was ignored in the succession. Maxentius retired to an estate some miles from Rome; when Constantius died in 306, his son Constantine was crowned emperor on July 25 and subsequently accepted by Galerius into the tetrarchy as Caesar. This set the precedent for Maxentius' accession in the same year; when rumours reached the capital that the emperors tried to subject the Roman population to the capitation tax, like every other city of the empire, wanted to dissolve the remains of the Praetorian Guard which were still stationed at Rome, riots broke out. A group of officers of the city's garrisons turned to Maxentius to accept the imperial purple judging that the official recognition, granted to Constantine would not be withheld from Maxentius, son of an emperor as well. Maxentius accepted the honour, promised donations to the city's troops, was publicly acclaimed emperor on October 28, 306.
The usurpation went without bloodshed. The conspirators turned to Maximian as well, who had retired to a palace in Lucania, but he declined to resume power for the time being. Maxentius managed to be recognized as emperor in central and southern Italy, the islands of Corsica and Sardinia and Sicily, the African provinces. Northern Italy remained under the control of the western Augustus Severus, who resided in Mediolanum. Maxentius refrained from using the titles Augustus or Caesar at first and styled himself princeps invictus, in the hope of obtaining recognition of his reign by the senior emperor Galerius. However, the latter refused to do so. Apart from his alleged antipathy towards Maxentius, Galerius wanted to deter others from following the examples of Constantine and Maxentius and declaring themselves emperors. Constantine controlled his father's army and territories, Galerius could pretend that his accession was part of the regular succession in the tetrarchy, but neither was the case with Maxentius: he would be the fifth emperor, he had only few troops at his command.
Galerius reckoned that it would be not too difficult to quell the usurpation, early in 307, the Augustus Severus marched on Rome with a large army. The majority of this army consisted of soldiers who had fought under Maxentius' father Maximian for years, as Severus reached Rome, the majority of his army went over to Maxentius, rightful heir of their former commander, who dealt out a large amount of money; when Maximian himself left his retreat and returned to Rome to assume the imperial office once again and support his son, Severus with the rest of his army retreated to Ravenna. Shortly after, he surrendered to Maximian. After the defeat of Severus, Maxentius took possession of northern Italy up to the Alps and the Istrian peninsula to the east, assumed the title of Augustus, which had become vacant with the surrender of Severus; the joint rule of Maxentius and Maximian in Rome was tested further when Galerius himself marched to Italy in the summer of 307 with an larger army. While negotiating with the invader, Maxentius could repeat what he did to Severus: by the promise of large sums of money, the authority of Maximian, many soldiers of Galerius defected to him.
Galerius was forced plundering Italy on his way. Some time during the invasion, Severus was put to death by Maxentius at Tres Tabernae near Rome. After the failed campaign of Galerius, Maxentius' reign over Italy and Africa was established. Beginning in 307 he tried to arrange friendly contacts with Constantine, in the summer of that year, Maximian travelled to Gaul, where Constantine married his daughter Fausta and was in turn appointed Augustus by the senior emperor. However, Constantine tried to avoid breaking with Galerius, did not support Maxentius during the invasion. In 308 April, Maximian tried to depose his son in an assembly of soldiers in Rome. In the conference of C
Mont Cenis is a massif and pass in Savoie, which forms the limit between the Cottian and Graian Alps. The pass connects Val-Cenis in France in the northwest with Susa in Italy in the southeast. In the Middle Ages, pilgrims passing through Moncenisio and Susa Valley came to Turin along a road called the Via Francigena, with a final destination of Rome, it was one of the most used Alpine passes from the Middle Ages to the nineteenth century. The pass was part of the border between the two countries from the annexation of Savoy to the Second French Empire in 1861 until the 1947 Treaty of Paris, but is now located in France; the treaty allowed Savoy to retrieve its political boundaries. It has been part of Route nationale 6. A road over the pass was built between 1810 by Napoleon; the Mont Cenis Pass Railway was opened alongside the road in 1868, but was dismantled in 1871, on the opening of the Fréjus Rail Tunnel. It was the first railway based on the Fell mountain railway system and was worked by English engine-drivers.
The Fréjus Rail Tunnel acquired the alternative, geographically incorrect, name of Mont Cenis Tunnel because the traffic which used the Mont Cenis Pass was transferred to it. This tunnel is 27.4 km 17 miles southwest of the pass, below the Col du Fréjus. From Chambéry the line runs up the Isère valley, but soon bears through that of the Arc or the Maurienne past Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne to Modane; the tunnel is 13 km in length, leads to Bardonecchia, some way below which, at Oulx the line joins the road from the Col de Montgenèvre. Thence the valley of the Dora Riparia is followed to Turin; the carriage road mounts the Arc valley for 25.7 km / 16 mi from Modane to Lanslebourg, whence it is 12.9 km / 8 mi to the hospice, a little way beyond the summit of the pass. The descent lies through the Cenis valley to Susa. To the southwest of the Mont Cenis is the Little Mont Cenis which leads from the summit plateau of the main pass to the Etache valley on the French slope and so to Bramans in the Arc valley.
This pass was crossed in 1689 by the Vaudois, is believed by some authors to have been the pass used by Hannibal to cross the Alps. The term "Mont Cenis" could derive from mont des cendres. According to tradition, following a forest fire, a great quantity of ashes accumulated on the ground, thus the name; the path of ashes was found during the building work of the route. Being a pass in the Alps, the Mont Cenis was used in several notable incidents in history. One example is the descent of Constantine I to Italy, it was the site of a military victory by the French Army of the Alps, led by General-in-Chief Alex Dumas over Piedmontese forces in April 1794, a victory that enabled the French Army of Italy to invade and conquer the Italian peninsula. It was the principal route for crossing the Alps between Italy until the 19th century, it was used as the main passage by which Charlemagne crossed with his army to invade Lombardy in 773, by Napoleon I. When the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont ceded Savoy to France, in 1860, the Mont Cenis became a frontier pass, a part of Savoy was left on the Italian side.
It was therefore fortified as a protection against an invasion of the Val di Susa route towards Turin. In 1874-1880 the Italian Regio Esercito built three stone forts: Fort Cassa, Fort Varisello and Fort Roncia, supported by several batteries and fortifications, such as those at top of Mont Malamot. Two further armored batteries, La Court and Paradiso, were added in the early 20th century, while the Fascist government built here part of its underground Alpine Wall. All these fortifications are now in French territory after the boundaries revision in 1947 allowing Savoy to get its historical territory back; the pass of Mont Cenis has been featured 5 times in the Tour de France. It has been classified hors-catégorie since 1999. For the 5 years that the pass was on the Tour, the following cyclists have crossed the pass in the lead: 1949 - Giuseppe Tacca, France 1956 - Federico Bahamontes, Spain 1961 - Emmanuel Busto, France 1992 - Claudio Chiappucci, Italy 1999 - Dimitri Konyshev, RussiaIn the 2013 Giro d'Italia, the pass was featured in the 15th stage on May 19, 2013.
Jardin botanique de Mont Cenis, an alpine botanical garden List of highest paved roads in Europe List of mountain passes This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Mont Cenis". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. P. 762. Val Cenis official website Profile on climbbybike.com Both Sides: Cycling Map and Photos Géologie aux alentours du col du Mont-Cenis Montcenis Comment en 1812 le pape Pie VII faillit mourir à l'hospice du Mont-Cenis. Chemin de Fer du Mont-Cenis Lac du Mont-Cenis Col du Petit Mont-Cenis Mont Cenis on Google Maps
Battle of Cibalae
The Battle of Cibalae was fought on October 8, 314, between the two Roman emperors Constantine I and Licinius. The site of the battle was 350 kilometers within the territory of Licinius. Constantine won a resounding victory, despite being outnumbered; the hostilities were prompted by Constantine's appointment of his brother-in-law, Bassianus, as his Caesar. Bassianus was discovered to be intriguing against Constantine at the prodding of his own brother Senecio, a close associate of Licinius; when Constantine demanded that Licinius hand over Senecio, Licinius refused. Constantine marched against Licinius; the date of Valens' elevation as emperor occurred after the Battle of Cibalae. The opposing armies met on the plain between the rivers Drave near the town of Cibalae; the battle lasted all day. The battle opened with Constantine's forces arrayed in a defile adjacent to mountain slopes; the army of Licinius was stationed on lower ground nearer the town of Cibalae, Licinius took care to secure his flanks.
As the infantry of Constantine needed to move forward through broken ground the cavalry was thrown out ahead, to act as a screen. Constantine moved his formation down on to the more open ground and advanced against the awaiting Licinians Following a period of skirmishing and intense missile fire at a distance, the opposing main bodies of infantry met in close combat. A fierce hand-to-hand fight ensued; this battle of attrition was ended, late in the day, when Constantine led a cavalry charge from the right wing of his army. The charge was decisive, Licinius' ranks were broken; as many as 20,000 of Licinius' troops were killed in the hard-fought battle. The surviving cavalry of the defeated army accompanied Licinius when he fled the field under the cover of darkness. Following the battle Licinius was forced to flee to Sirmium, after collecting his family and treasury, to Thrace. Peace negotiations were initiated. A further battle was fought, the Battle of Mardia, which proved to be indecisive. Heavy losses were suffered by both sides.
Following the battle, in expectation of Licinius retreating on Byzantium, Constantine advanced in the direction of this city. However, Licinius had withdrawn northwards and this placed him across Constantine's lines of communication, Constantine lost much of his baggage to Licinius. A treaty highly-favorable to Constantine was subsequently negotiated. Licinius deposed and executed his erstwhile co-emperor Valens. Grant, The Emperor Constantine, London. ISBN 0-7538-0528-6 Lieu, S. N. C and Montserrat, D. From Constantine to Julian, London. ISBN 0-415-09336-8 Odahl, C. M. Constantine and the Christian Empire, Routledge 2004. ISBN 0-415-17485-6 Potter, David S; the Roman Empire at Bay AD 180–395, Routledge, 2004. ISBN 0-415-10058-5 Stephenson, P. Constantine: Unconquered Emperor, Christian Victor, London. Taylor, D. Roman Empire at War: A Compendium of Roman Battles from 31 B. C. to A. D. 565, Pen and Sword, Barnsley