Paik Sun-yup is a retired South Korean military officer. He served the latter during the Korean War. Paik is known for his service during the Korean War and for being the first four-star general in the history of the South Korean military, his brother, Paik In-yeop served in the Republic of Korea Army during the Korean War, commanding the 17th Independent Regiment at the Battle of Ongjin and again in the Inchon Landings. Paik was born in Kangsŏ-gun, South P'yŏngan the city of Nampo, on November 23, 1920, during a time when Korea was under Japanese rule, he was born the eldest of three siblings, with a younger sister and brother, being raised by a widowed mother. In 1925 the Paik family moved to Pyongyang where it lived under poor conditions in a single, rented room. Unable to feed her family, Paik's mother attempted to take the children and commit family suicide by jumping from the Taedong River bridge but was dissuaded from doing so by her older sister. Paik's mother and sister soon took jobs at a rubber factory to pay for his schooling.
He attended Mansu Primary School for four years before transferring to Yaksong Primary School. After, he spent five years in Pyongyang Normal School, training to be a teacher in 1939. Instead of getting into teaching, he entered Mukden Military Academy of Manchukuo. After graduation, he became an officer of the Manchukuo Imperial Army, served in the Gando Special Force, he engaged in guerrilla suppression work in Jiandao. He joined the Japanese campaign on northern China for ten months from 1944 to 1945 until its defeat by the Soviet Army. After the end of World War II he returned to Pyongyang but in December 1945 fled south since rising communists threatened his safety. In South Korea, he was commissioned as a first lieutenant in the Constabulary, the predecessor of the ROK Army, he was committed to build the army, crush communist guerrillas, purge the army of leftists. However, he did help Park Chung-hee, at the time tried as a communist, by persuading President Rhee to commute his sentence and have him released.
Paik got him reinstated into the army during the Korean War. When the fighting broke out on June 25, 1950, he was assigned to defend Seoul as the 1st Infantry Division's commanding officer, he retreated to South Gyeongsang but made an important contribution to the defense of the Pusan Perimeter to the victory at the village of Dabudong. On the move north, his 1st Division under the United States I Corps became the first to enter Pyongyang on October 19, he was one of the first officers to realize the Chinese entry into the war. He was plagued by a larger Chinese army. In April 1951, Paik was placed in command of the ROK I Corps in charge of eastern Korea, he soon found the South Korean military insufficiently trained. In July 1951, Paik was elected to represent the ROK military at the Kaesong Truce Talk but failed to attain results. In November, Task Force Paik was set up to destroy communist guerrillas on Jirisan; the campaign, known as Operation Rat Killer, was finished in March 1952. In recognition of the success, he was promoted to Lieutenant General and Task Force Paik was transformed to the new ROK II Corps.
He was appointed to Army Chief of Staff in July 1952. He devoted himself in building up the ROK Army. In January 1953, he was promoted to the rank of general in the ROK Army. Paik successively filled the positions of commander of the First Field Army, the Army Chief of Staff, the Chairman for the ROK Joint Chiefs of Staff until his retirement from the army in May 1960, he was aware of the political developments taking place in Korea at the time, but chose not to participate with either side. He was overseas, he was appointed as an ambassador to the Republic of China in 1960, to France in 1961, to Canada in 1965. From 1969 to 1971, he served as Minister of Transportation and launched the construction of the Seoul Metropolitan Subway. In 1970 he faced the hijacking of a Japan Airlines plane at Gimpo Airport by Japanese Red Army, he served as the presidents of two national policy companies in sequence. He participated in the construction of the War Memorial at Yongsan, which opened in 1990. Paik is the author of From Pusan to Panmunjom: Wartime Memoirs of the Republic of Korea's First Four-Star General.
List of Korea-related topics Military of South Korea Paik, Sun Yup, From Pusan to Panmunjom, Riverside, NJ: Brassey Inc. ISBN 0-02-881002-3 Media related to Paik Sun-yup at Wikimedia Commons
8th Cavalry Regiment
The 8th Cavalry Regiment is a regiment of the United States Army formed in 1866 during the American Indian Wars. The 8th Cavalry continued to serve under a number of designations, fighting in every other major US conflict since, except World War I, when it was not deployed to Europe because it was engaged in the Punitive Expedition in Mexico from 1916 to 1920, it is a component of the 1st Cavalry Division. The regiment was organized as horse cavalry in 1866 – a designation under US military doctrine that emphasized both light cavalry and dragoon-type mounted and dismounted fighting roles – until 1942, it served on foot during World War II and Korea, with some elements converting to airmobile infantry for Vietnam, while others were detached and assigned to West Germany as part of an armored task force to resist any potential Soviet incursion. It became a mechanized force in the 1970s, it has been brigaded or otherwise attached to various larger temporary and permanent Army commands throughout its history.
It is a component of the 1st Cavalry Division, a major subordinate command of the US Third Mobile Armored Corps comprising a 19,000 soldier, heavy armored division stationed at Ft. Hood, Texas; as one of the two "on-call" heavy contingency force divisions of the Army, the First Team has an on-order mission to deploy by sea, air or land to any part of the world on a short notice. The 8th Cavalry Regiment was constituted 28 July 1866 and was organized as a regiment on 21 September 1866 at Camp Reynolds, Angel Island, California; the enlisted soldiers were "composed chiefly of men enlisted on the Pacific Coast, included many of the class styled'Forty-niners'. Many of them were wild characters who enlisted in the same spirit of adventure which led them to the frontier, had difficulty in adapting themselves to the conformity of a military life." Many desertions followed, the number reaching 41% by the end of 1867. The officers assigned to the regiment were all veterans of the Civil War. John Irvin Gregg was its first colonel, with Thomas Devin as lieutenant colonel.
The Eighth Cavalry would serve on the frontier throughout the late 19th century. The 8th was engaged in trying to control various Native American tribes and bands in Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas in the Indian Wars between 1867 and 1888. Two years after the capture of Geronimo, they were transferred to South Dakota and North Dakota where they participated in several actions. From December 1866 companies of the 8th Cavalry were involved in the Snake War, replacing California and Oregon Volunteer companies, fighting the Snakes in Nevada and Oregon during the American Civil War. Many of the 8th's soldiers were experienced frontier soldiers, serving with California Volunteer units fighting Indians during the Civil War and had reenlisted with the U. S. Army following the disbanding of their Volunteer units. From December 1867 to January 1868, the headquarters was moved from Camp Whipple, AZ, to Churchill Barracks, NV. In May, headquarters was moved to Camp Halleck, where it remained till 5 May 1870, when it was again moved to Fort Union, New Mexico.
The several troops took stations at Fort Union, Fort Craig, Fort Selden, Fort Wingate, Fort Bascom, Fort Stanton, in New Mexico, Fort Garland, in the Colorado Territory. The duties during this period were of continuous field service by troops or detachments, scouting for Apaches and Navajo, furnishing guards and escorts. During active combat against the Chiricahua Apaches headed by Cochise, during a battle at Rocky Mesa in the Chiricahua Mountains on 20 October 1869, the following were awarded the Medal of Honor for gallantry in an engagement against a group of Apache warriors subsequent to attacks by this group on a stagecoach and a crew of cowboys: From October 1870 to July 1874, Troops "C", "G", "I" and "K" of the 8th Cavalry were stationed at Fort Selden, New Mexico, a territorial fort established on the Rio Grande at the present site of Radium Springs, New Mexico, their primary mission was to protect the settlers and travelers of the Mesilla Valley and San Augustin Pass from the Mescalero Apaches and other bands.
The location of the fort was an ancient Indian campground and a crossing point for Spanish caravans headed across the Jornada del Muerto. In conjunction with the encampment at Fort Selden, Regimental Headquarters and three companies of the 8th Cavalry were assigned to Fort Union, New Mexico, under the command of Major William Redwood Price. A campaign was organized to enter the Llano Estacado, the Staked Plains area of the Texas Panhandle, a favorite haunt of bands of Comanches and Kiowas. Departing into the field in August 1874, the 8th Cavalry campaigned into the early months of 1875 before the Southern Plains were considered free of the Indian threat and Fort Union settled into a period of reservation watching, holding its troops in readiness for future troubles; the regiment remained in New Mexico performing the same duties until July, 1875, when it marched to Texas. The 8th periodically was engaged in the Apache Wars in southern New Mexico. A. B. Wells with lt. F. E. Phelps, by capt. S. B. Young with lt.
John L. Bullis, trespassed the Rio Grande border running after Alsate's band in the Sierra Madera del Carmen, killing or wounding some Apaches, destroying the camp and catching some horses and mules. Young
Peng Dehuai was a prominent Chinese Communist military leader, who served as China's Defense Minister from 1954 to 1959. Peng was born into a poor peasant family, received several years of primary education before his family's poverty forced him to suspend his education at the age of ten, to work for several years as a manual laborer; when he was sixteen, Peng became a professional soldier. Over the next ten years Peng served in the armies of several Hunan-based warlord armies, raising himself from the rank of private second class to major. In 1926 Peng's forces joined the Kuomintang, Peng was first introduced to communism. Peng participated in the Northern Expedition, supported Wang Jingwei's attempt to form a left-leaning Kuomintang government based in Wuhan. After Wang was defeated, Peng rejoined Chiang Kai-shek's forces before joining the Chinese Communist Party, allying himself with Mao Zedong and Zhu De. Peng was one of the most senior generals who defended the Jiangxi Soviet from Chiang's attempts to capture it, his successes were rivaled only by Lin Biao.
Peng participated in the Long March, supported Mao Zedong at the Zunyi Conference, critical to Mao's rise to power. During the 1937–1945 Second Sino-Japanese War, Peng was one of the strongest supporters of pursuing a ceasefire with the Kuomintang in order to concentrate China's collective resources on resisting the Japanese Empire. Peng was the senior commander in the combined Kuomintang-Communist efforts to resist the Japanese occupation of Shanxi in 1937. In 1940, Peng conducted the Hundred Regiments Offensive, a massive Communist effort to disrupt Japanese logistical networks across northern China; the Hundred Regiments Offensive was modestly successful, but political disputes within the Communist Party led to Peng being recalled to Yan'an, he spent the rest of the war without an active command. After the Japanese surrendered, in 1945, Peng was given command of Communist forces in Northwest China, he was the most senior commander responsible for defending the Communist leadership in Shaanxi from Kuomintang forces, saving Mao from being captured at least once.
Peng defeated the Kuomintang in Northwest China, captured huge amounts of military supplies, incorporated the huge area, including Xinjiang, into the People's Republic of China. Peng was one of the few senior military leaders who supported Mao's suggestions to involve China directly in the 1950–1953 Korean War, he served as the direct commander of the Chinese People's Volunteer Army for the first half of the war. Peng's experiences in the Korean War convinced him that the Chinese military had to become more professional and well-equipped in order to prepare itself for the conditions of modern technical warfare; because the Soviet Union was the only communist country equipped with a modern, professional army, Peng attempted to reform China's military on the Soviet model over the next several years, making the army less political and more professional. Peng resisted Mao's attempts to develop a personality cult throughout the 1950s; the rivalry between Peng and Mao culminated in an open confrontation between the two at the 1959 Lushan Conference.
Mao won this confrontation, labeled Peng as a leader of an "anti-Party clique", purged Peng from all influential positions for the rest of his life. Peng lived in virtual obscurity until 1965, when the reformers Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping supported Peng's limited return to government, developing military industries in Southwest China. In 1966, following the advent of the Cultural Revolution, Peng was arrested by Red Guards. From 1966–1970, radical factions within the Communist Party, led by Lin Biao and Mao's wife, Jiang Qing, singled out Peng for national persecution, Peng was publicly humiliated in numerous large-scale struggle sessions and subjected to physical and psychological torture in organized efforts to force Peng to confess his "crimes" against Mao Zedong and the Communist Party. In 1970 Peng was formally tried and sentenced to life imprisonment, he died in prison in 1974. After Mao died in 1976, Peng's old ally, Deng Xiaoping, emerged as China's paramount leader. Deng led an effort to formally rehabilitate people, unjustly persecuted during the Cultural Revolution, Peng was one of the first leaders to be posthumously rehabilitated, in 1978.
In modern China, Peng is considered one of the most successful and respected generals in the history of the Chinese Communist Party. Peng was born in 1898 in the village of Xiangtan County, Hunan, his personal name at birth was "Dehua". Peng's family lived in a thatched-straw hut and owned 1.5 acres of irrigated land, on which the family grew bamboo, sweet potatoes, tea and various vegetables. His father operated a bean curd shop; the income from the land and shop supported an extended family of eight people, including Peng, his three brothers, his parents, his grandmother, a grand-uncle. Peng's grand-uncle had joined and fought for the Taiping rebellion, used to tell Peng about the old Taiping ideals: that everyone should have enough food to eat, that women should not bind their feet, that land should be redistributed equally. Peng described his own class background as "lower-middle peasant". From 1905–1907, Peng was enrolled in a traditional Confucian primary school. In 1908 Peng attended a modern primary school.
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
Battle of Haman
The Battle of Haman was one engagement in the larger Battle of Pusan Perimeter between United Nations and North Korean forces early in the Korean War from August 31 to September 19, 1950, in the vicinity of Haman County in South Korea. The engagement ended in a victory for the United Nations after large numbers of United States and Republic of Korea troops repelled a strong North Korean attack on the town of Haman. Operating in defense of Masan during the Battle of Masan, the US Army's 24th Infantry Regiment was stretched along a long line on a ridge to the west of the town, at Haman; when the North Korean People's Army 6th Division attacked the town, the US troops fought to repel their advance in a weeklong battle in which the 24th Infantry performed poorly, other US reinforcements were brought in to assist in fighting off the attack. The battle remained bitterly deadlocked long enough for another UN force to counterattack at Inchon, forcing the North Korean Army to retreat from Masan. Following the June 25, 1950, outbreak of the Korean War after the invasion of the Republic of Korea by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the United Nations voted to commit troops to the conflict in support of South Korea.
The United States, as a member of the UN, committed ground forces to the Korean peninsula with the goals of repelling the North Korean invasion and preventing South Korea from collapsing. By 1950, US forces in the Far East had been decreasing since the end of World War II, five years earlier, at the time the closest forces were the US 24th Infantry Division, headquartered in Japan; the division was understrength, most of its equipment was antiquated due to reductions in military spending. Regardless, the 24th was ordered to South Korea. However, it faced numerous disadvantages; the forces were poorly equipped. Headquarters Company, supporting platoon elements were much smaller than regulation stated, making them less effective. Most of the soldiers of the division had no combat experience and used to the luxuries of life in occupied Japan. Only one third of the officers in the Task Force had combat experience from World War II, only one in six enlisted soldiers had combat experience. Many of them volunteered to join the task force.
The soldiers were each equipped with two days of C-rations. The 24th Infantry Division was the first US unit sent into Korea with the mission to take the initial "shock" of North Korean advances, delaying much larger North Korean units for several weeks to buy time to allow reinforcements to arrive, such as the 1st Cavalry and the 7th and 25th Infantry Divisions. Advance elements of the 24th Infantry were badly defeated in the Battle of Osan on July 5, the first encounter between American and North Korean forces. For the first month after the defeat of Task Force Smith, the 24th Infantry was defeated and forced south by superior North Korean numbers and equipment; the regiments of the 24th Infantry were systematically pushed south in engagements around Chochiwon and Pyongtaek. They made a final stand in the Battle of Taejon, where they were completely destroyed, but their resistance kept the North Koreans from advancing until July 20. By that time, the number of Eighth Army front-line combat troops was equal to number of North Korean forces attacking the region, with new UN units arriving every day.
With Taejon captured, North Korean forces began surrounding the Pusan Perimeter from all sides in an attempt to envelop it. The 4th and 6th North Korean Infantry Divisions advanced south in a wide flanking maneuver; the two divisions attempted to penetrate the UN's left flank, but became dispersed in the process. They advanced on UN positions with armor and superior numbers pushing back US and South Korean forces. American forces were defeated before halting the North Korean advance in a series of engagements in the southern section of the country. Forces of the 3rd Battalion, 29th Infantry Regiment, newly arrived in the country, were wiped out at Hadong in a coordinated ambush by North Korean forces on July 27, opening a pass into the Pusan Perimeter. Soon after, North Korean forces took Chinju to the west, pushing back the US 19th Infantry Regiment and leaving routes to the perimeter open for more North Korean attacks. US formations were subsequently able to defeat and push back the North Koreans on the flank in the Battle of the Notch on August 2.
Suffering mounting losses, the KPA force in the west withdrew for several days to reequip and receive reinforcements. This granted both sides a reprieve to prepare for the attack on the Pusan Perimeter. Eighth Army commander Lieutenant General Walton Walker ordered the US 25th Infantry Division, under Major General William B. Kean, to take up defensive positions on the Pusan Perimeter southern flank west of Masan. By August 15, the 25th Infantry Division had moved into these positions. Rough terrain west of Masan limited the choice of the positions; the mountain group west of Masan was the first defensible ground east of the Chinju pass. The 2,000-foot mountain ridges of Sobuk-san dominated the area and protected the road from Komam-ni to Haman to Chindong-ni, the only means of north–south communication west of Masan. To the north, from the Masan–Chinju highway to the Nam River, there were several defensible positions; the best one was the high ground near Chungam-ni, which controlled the important road junction connecting the Masan road with the one over the Nam River to Uiryong.
It was essential for the 25th Infantry Division's right flank connect with the left flank of the 24th Inf