Battle of Gergovia
The Battle of Gergovia took place in 52 BC in Gaul at Gergovia, the chief oppidum of the Arverni. The battle was fought between a Roman Republican army, led by proconsul Julius Caesar, and Gallic forces led by Vercingetorix, who was the Arverni chieftain. The site is identified with Merdogne, now called Gergovie, a located on a hill within the town of La Roche-Blanche, near Clermont-Ferrand. Some walls and earthworks still survive from the pre-Roman Iron Age, the battle is well known in France, as exemplified in the popular French comic Asterix, where the battle is referenced, specifically in the book Asterix and the Class Act. As with much of the history of Gaul, the knowledge of the war comes principally from Julius Caesars Commentaries on the Gallic War. Vercingetorix had earlier expelled from Gergovia. In winter 53 BC, whilst Caesar was gathering his forces for a strike against the Gauls, leaving two legions and all his baggage train behind in Agedincum, Caesar led the remaining legions to Gergovias aid.
His sieges of Vellaunodunum and Noviodunum en route caused Vercingetorix to lift his siege and march to meet Caesar in open battle at Noviodunum, Caesar besieged and captured Avaricum and resupplied there. Caesar set out in the direction of Gergovia, which Vercingetorix was probably able to once he had divined his direction. The heights of Gergovia itself stand twelve hundred feet above the plain that they overlook and it is a plateau that is a mile and a half long by a third of a mile wide. It was a place to hold, as there was only one way in. It was a reasonably easy guess to make, realizing Vercingetorixs plan, Caesar resolved to trick him and cross under his very nose. Caesar one night camped near the town of Varennes, where there had previously been a bridge before Vercingetorix had destroyed it and that night, he divided his force into two parts, one part being 2/3rds of the force, the other being 1/3rd of the force. However, the force he ordered to march in 6 corps. He ordered it to continue its march south, duped, took the bait and followed this part of the force.
Caesar, with the two legions present at Varennes, speedily rebuilt the bridge that had been present there. He sent for the force, which during that next day stole a march on Vercingetorix, and completed a junction with the original force. Realizing that he had been duped, Vercingetorix set out south, realizing its mountainous location made a frontal assault risky, he decided to rely on his superior siege tactics
Battle of Magetobriga
The Battle of Magetobriga was fought in 63 BC between rival tribes in Gaul. The Aedui tribe was defeated and massacred by the forces of their hereditary rivals. The Sequani and Arverni enlisted the aid of the German Suebi tribe under their king Ariovistus, following their defeat, the Aedui sent envoys to the Roman Senate, their traditional ally, for aid. The Roman general Julius Caesar would subsequently use their request for aid as a basis for launching his conquest of Gaul, according to Strabo, the cause of the conflict between the Haedui and Sequani was commercial. The Arar River formed part of the border between the hereditary rivals, each tribe claimed the Arar and the tolls on trade along it. The Sequani controlled access to the Rhine River and had built an oppidum at Vesontio to protect their interests, in 63 BC the Sequani and Arverni secured the aid of Ariovistus, a king of the Germanic Suebi tribe, to settle the hereditary dispute. Ariovistus crossed the Rhine with a confederation of Germanic tribes, the Battle of Magetobriga, the final battle between the Aedui and their enemies, took place close to the Sequani town of Magetobria 10 km from Luxeuil.
Ariovistus 15,000 Germanic tribesmen turned the tide, and the Aedui became tributary to the Sequani, in return, Ariovistus was promised land grants in Gaul. In 63 BC, following the Aeduis defeat at Magetobriga, the Aedui druid Diviciacus travelled to Rome, while in Rome, Diviciacus was a guest of Cicero, who spoke of his knowledge of divination and natural philosophy, and names him as a druid. Cicero wrote in 60 BC of a defeat sustained by the Haedui, N public affairs for the moment the chief subject of interest is the disturbance in Gaul. For the Haedui—our brethren—have recently fought a battle, and the Helvetii are undoubtedly in arms. In the wake of victory, and to the dismay of his allies, according to Caesar, he seized a third of the Sequani territory and proceeded to settle 120,000 Germani there as the nucleus of a new Germanic kingdom. That move left the Sequani between him and the Jura mountains, not a situation for either if they were not going to be allies. Ariovistus made the decision to out the Sequani from the strategic Doubs valley.
He demanded a further third of Celtic land for his allies the Harudes, Caesar makes it clear that Germanic tribes were actually in the land of the Sequani and were terrorizing them. They are said to all the oppida, but this statement is not entirely true. Presumably, the country to the north of there was under Germanic control, following Caesar’s victory over the Helvetii, the majority of the Gallic tribes congratulated Caesar and sought to meet with him in a general assembly. The Aeduan Druid and statesment Diviciacus, acting as spokesmen for the Gallic delegation, the Gallic request afforded Caesar the perfect pretext to expand his intervention as the savior and not the conqueror of Gaul
The Auxilia constituted the standing non-citizen corps of the Imperial Roman army during the Principate era, alongside the citizen legions. By the 2nd century, the Auxilia contained the number of infantry as the legions and in addition provided almost all of the Roman armys cavalry. The auxilia thus represented three-fifths of Romes regular land forces at that time, like their legionary counterparts, auxiliary recruits were mostly volunteers, not conscripts. The Auxilia were mainly recruited from the peregrini, free provincial subjects who did not hold Roman citizenship and constituted the vast majority of the population in the 1st and 2nd centuries. In contrast to the legions, which only admitted Roman citizens, reliance on the various contingents of non-Italic troops, especially cavalry, increased when the Roman Republic employed them in increasing numbers to support its legions after 200 BC. The Julio-Claudian period saw the transformation of the Auxilia from motley levies to a corps with standardised structure, equipment.
By the end of the period, there were no significant differences between legionaries and auxiliaries in terms of training, and thus, combat capability. Auxiliary regiments were stationed in provinces other than that in which they were originally raised, for reasons of security. The regimental names of many auxiliary units persisted into the 4th century, but by the units in question were different in size, despite its formidable strength, the legion had a number of deficiencies, especially a lack of cavalry. Around 200 BC, a legion of 4,200 infantry had an arm of only 300 horse. In addition the legion lacked missile forces such as slingers and archers, until 200 BC, the bulk of a Roman armys cavalry was provided by Romes regular Italian allies, commonly known as the Latin allies, which made up the Roman military confederation. This was Romes defence system until the Social War of 91–88 BC, the Italian forces were organised into alae. Since a pre-Social War consular army always contained a number of legions and alae.
The overall cavalry element, c. 12% of the force, was greater than in most peninsular Italian forces. The Roman/Latin cavalry was sufficient while Rome was in conflict with other states in the mountainous Italian peninsula, which disposed of limited cavalry resources. The decisive Roman victory at Zama in 202 BC, which ended the war, owed much to the Numidian cavalry provided by king Massinissa, from then, Roman armies were always accompanied by large numbers of non-Italian cavalry, Numidian light cavalry and, Gallic heavy cavalry. For example, Caesar relied heavily on Gallic and German cavalry for his Conquest of Gaul, as the role of native cavalry grew, that of Roman/Latin cavalry diminished. In the early 1st century BC, Roman cavalry was phased out altogether, after the Social War, the socii were all granted Roman citizenship, the Latin alae abolished, and the socii recruited into the legions
Doubs is a department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region of eastern France named after the Doubs River. As early as the 13th century, inhabitants of the northern two-thirds of Doubs spoke Franc-Comtois, residents of the southern third of Doubs spoke a dialect of the Arpitan language. Both languages co-existed with French, the language of law and commerce. They are both still spoken today but not on a daily basis, Doubs was important as a portal to Switzerland through the pass at Joux. Many famous people, including Mirabeau, Toussaint Louverture and Heinrich von Kleist, were imprisoned in the Château de Joux, Doubs is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790. It was created from part of the province of Franche-Comté. In 1793, the republic of Mandeure was annexed by France, the commune of Le Cerneux-Péquignot was annexed by the Canton of Neuchâtel under the terms of the 1814 Treaty of Paris, and since remained Swiss territory. Between the defeat of France at the Battle of Waterloo and November 1818, victor Hugo, Gustave Courbet, and Auguste and Louis Lumière are among the famous people born in Doubs.
The department is dominated by the Jura mountains, which rise east of Besançon, the President of the General Council is Claude Jeannerot of the Socialist Party. The inhabitants of the department are called Doubistes, the Doubs department is at the same time the greenest and the most industrialized in France. It is the birthplace of the automotive manufacturer Peugeot, the castle of Joux and Besançon are important tourist destinations
A centurion was a professional officer of the Roman army after the Marian reforms of 107 BC. Most centurions commanded groups of centuries of around 80 men but senior centurions commanded cohorts or took senior staff roles in their legion, centurions were found in the Roman navy. In the Byzantine Army, they are known by the name kentarch. Their symbol of office was the staff, with which they disciplined even Roman citizens protected from other forms of beating by the Porcian Laws. In the Roman infantry, centurions initially commanded a centuria or century, centuries, or centuriae, developed from the Roman tribal system under the Servian reforms and could contain 200 to 1000 men. Later and Caesars further manipulated these numbers with double, Julius Caesar, for instance, made the first century double strength. Centurions seemed to receive a higher rate of pay than the average legionary. Veteran legionaries often worked as tenants of their former centurions, during the Imperial era, centurions gradually rose in seniority in their cohort, commanding centuries with higher precedence, until commanding the senior century and therefore the whole cohort.
The very best centurions were promoted to become centurions in the First Cohort, called Primi Ordines, commanding one of the ten centuries, the most senior centurion of the legion was the Primus Pilus who commanded the first century. All centurions, however senior, had their own allocated century, there was little difference between the ranks of centurions except for the Primus Pilus. The Primus Pilus participated in war councils, the Primus Pilus was so called because his own century was the first file of the first cohort. Comparisons between the grades and modern officer ranks can lead to many incorrect assumptions. Centurions could be elected, appointed by the Senate, or promoted from the ranks for a variety of reasons, Julius Caesar is said to have promoted his centurions for displays of valor. Other historians cite examples of them being the first over the wall or through the breach. If this case were strictly so, there would be a lack of centurions in peacetime garrisons, although not directly comparable to modern ranks, the various centurion grades may be loosely compared to modern junior and middle officer grades. A modern captain is typically in command of roughly 200 men and, although he controlled far less weaponry, centurions often suffered heavy casualties in battle, generally fighting alongside the legionaries they commanded.
They usually led from the front, occupying a position at the front right of the century formation and they could be identified by the transverse horse-hair crest on top of their helmet, their metal greaves and the sword worn on the left, like all Roman officers. They led and inspired their men by example and they sought to display the skill and courage that may have brought them to their rank in the first place
The Vangiones appear first in history as an ancient Germanic tribe of unknown provenance. They threw in their lot with Ariovistus in his bid of 58 BC to invade Gaul through the Doubs river valley and lost to Julius Caesar in a battle probably near Belfort. After some Celts evacuated the region in fear of the Suebi, the Vangiones and they gradually assumed control of the Celtic city of Burbetomagus, Worms. The emperor, cultivated them as allies, intending to invade Germany through the region between the Rhine and the Danube and he had Drusus place two forts among the Vangiones, castrum Moguntiacum and one of unknown name at Worms. From there troops of the Vangiones were inducted into the Roman army, when he changed his mind after the Battle of Teutoburg Forest, the Vangiones were used for garrison duty on the far-flung northern frontier of the province of Britannia, Hadrians Wall. The Vangiones of Germania Superior held their position as a bulwark of civilized might as long as Germania Superior existed, under the Roman Republic they were not among the Belgae, an alliance of Celticised Germanic tribes in northeastern France.
In the early empire this name was extended by the Romans to all the Celticised Germans in northern France, in the late empire what was left of Germania Superior was divided into First Germany and Second Germany, the first comprising the Vangiones and Mainz. The identity disappeared nearly altogether when the region was overrun by the Alemanni, the Vangiones merged into the Alemanni. Only names local to Worms remembered the presence of the Vangiones, the fate of the Vangionic troops in Britain is uncertain. Some may have remained as a Scottish tribe, but that hypothesis is more speculative than not, the Vangiones are mentioned in Caesars De Bello Gallico as a unit among the copiae of Ariovistus. The Germans had been invited by the Celts to participate in the resolution of their issues. They continued to cross the Rhine until, in 58 BC,120,000 of them were in Gaul, Caesar does not say that the Vangiones were among the 120,000, but the text does imply it. He does not state that they specifically were Germanic, but the 120,000 are stated to be so, Caesar gives no indication of the homeland of any of the Germani other than the other side of the Rhine.
Moreover, he omits mention of what happened to the Vangiones, Pliny the Elders Naturalis Historia includes a geography that relies on Varro, a citizen of the late Republic and contemporary of Caesar, and Agrippa, who lived in the next generation after Caesar. Through him they give us information on Gaul and the Germanic tribes living in it. Caesar describes pre-Roman Gaul and some of the modifications he made to it, the Belgae of his time lived on the left bank of the lower Rhine and were considered Celts of Germanic origin. For the region of Alsace he gives a double list, one Celtic, two known end points are the Treveri who we know lived in the vicinity of Trier and the Helvetii who we know lived in Switzerland. The Celtic list between those points is Lingones, Mediomatrici and Raurici, the Germanic list, whom Pliny describes as accolentes Germaniae gentium in eadem provincia colonists from the peoples of Germany in the same province is Nemetes and Vangiones
Publius Licinius Crassus (son of triumvir)
Publius Licinius Crassus was one of two sons of Marcus Licinius Crassus, the so-called triumvir, and Tertulla, daughter of Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus. He belonged to the last generation of Roman nobiles who came of age and his peers included Marcus Antonius, Marcus Junius Brutus, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, the poet Gaius Valerius Catullus, and the historian Gaius Sallustius Crispus. Publius Crassus served under Julius Caesar in Gaul from 58 to 56 BC, too young to receive a formal commission from the senate, Publius distinguished himself as a commanding officer in campaigns among the Armorican nations and in Aquitania. He was highly regarded by Caesar and by Cicero, who praised his speaking ability, Publius’s promising career was cut short when he died along with his father in an ill-conceived war against the Parthian Empire. Cornelia, with whom he probably had no children, married the much older Pompeius Magnus, the achievements of Publius, named after his grandfather and uncle, eclipse those of his brother to such an extent that some have questioned the traditional birth order.
Both Ronald Syme and Elizabeth Rawson, have argued vigorously for a dynamic that casts Marcus as the older. Publius grew up in a household that was characterized by Plutarch in his Life of Crassus as stable. The biographer is often critical of the elder Crassuss shortcomings, particularly moralizing his greed. Despite his great wealth, Crassus is said to have avoided excess, family meals were simple, and entertaining was generous but not ostentatious, Crassus chose his companions during leisure hours on the basis of personal friendship as well as political utility. In marrying the widow of his brother, who had killed during the Sullan civil wars. Crassus remained married to Tertulla despite attacks on her reputation and it was rumored that a family friend, Quintus Axius of Reate, was the biological father of one of her two sons. Plutarch reports a joke by Cicero that made reference to a resemblance between Axius and one of the boys. The Peripatetic philosopher Alexander was attached to the household of Crassus and is likely to have contributed to the education of the boys and this view of man as a political animal would have been congenial to the family political dynamism of the Licinii Crassi.
Publius, his brother Marcus, and Decimus Brutus may have been contubernales during Caesars propraetorship in Spain, Caesar’s field commission of Publius in Gaul indicates a high level of confidence, perhaps because he had trained the young man himself and knew his abilities. Little else is known about Publiuss philosophical predispositions or political sympathies, in his friendship with Cicero, Publius showed a degree of political independence. Cicero almost always speaks of young Crassus with approval and affection, Publius Crassus enters the historical record as an officer under Caesar in Gaul. His military rank, which Caesar never identifies, has been a subject of debate and those who have argued that Publius was the elder son have attempted to make a quaestor of him. Publius is introduced in the narrative only as adulescens, “tantamount to a term for a young man not holding any formal post. ”The only other Roman Caesar calls adulescens is Decimus Brutus
The phalanx was a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears, sarissas, or similar weapons. In Greek texts, the phalanx may be deployed for battle, on the march, even camped and they marched forward as one entity. The word phalanx is derived from the Greek word phalangos, meaning finger, the term itself, as used today, does not refer to a distinctive military unit or division, but to the general formation of an armys troops. Thus a phalanx does not have a combat strength or composition but includes the total number of infantry. Many spear-armed troops historically fought in what might be termed phalanx-like formations, the word has come into use in common English to describe a group of people standing, or moving forward closely together, c. f. This article focuses on the use of the phalanx formation in Ancient Greece, the Hellenistic world. The earliest known depiction of a phalanx-like formation occurs in a Sumerian stele from the 25th century BC, here the troops seem to have been equipped with spears and large shields covering the whole body.
Ancient Egyptian infantry were known to have employed similar formations, the first usage of the term phalanx comes from Homers, used to describe hoplites fighting in an organized battle line. Homer used the term to differentiate the formation-based combat from the individual duels so often found in his poems, historians have not arrived at a consensus about the relationship between the Greek formation and these predecessors of the hoplites. Traditionally, historians date the origin of the phalanx of ancient Greece to the 8th century BC in Sparta. It is perhaps more likely that the formation was devised in the 7th century BC after the introduction of the aspis by the city of Argos and this is further evidenced by the Chigi vase, dated to 650 BC, identifying hoplites armed with aspis and panoply. Two of the basic strategies seen in earlier warfare include the principle of cohesion and this would suggest that the Greek phalanx was rather the culmination and perfection of a slowly developed idea that originated many years earlier.
As weaponry and armour advanced through the years in different city-states, the hoplite phalanx of the Archaic and Classical periods in Greece was a formation in which the hoplites would line up in ranks in close order. The hoplites would lock their shields together, and the first few ranks of soldiers would project their spears out over the first rank of shields, the phalanx therefore presented a shield wall and a mass of spear points to the enemy, making frontal assaults against it very difficult. It allowed a higher proportion of the soldiers to be engaged in combat at a given time. Battles between two phalanxes usually took place in open, flat plains where it was easier to advance, rough terrain or hilly regions would have made it difficult to maintain a steady line and would have defeated the purpose of employing the use of a phalanx. As a result, battles between Greek city-states would not take place in any location, nor would they be limited to sometimes obvious strategic points. Rather, many times, the two opposing sides would find the most suitable piece of land where the conflict could be settled, the battle ended with one of the two fighting sides fleeing to safety
The Roman name for Speyer, Noviomagus Nemetum, reflects this citys status as the Nemetes tribal capital. According to Tacitus, they were unquestionably Germanic, both of these names derive from the Celtic root nemeto-, referring to sacred spaces. Their territory on the bank of the Rhine had belonged to the Mediomatrici during the time of Caesar and Strabo. The Nemetes fought alongside the Romans and Vangiones against the Chatti when the latter invaded in 50 AD. g, немцы in the Russian language, Niemcy in Polish or Němci in Czech. Nemetati Vangiones List of Germanic peoples map
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Legio X Gemina
Legio decima Gemina, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. It was one of the four used by Julius Caesar in 58 BC. There are still records of the X Gemina in Vienna in the beginning of the 5th century, the legion symbol was a bull. Early on in its history, the legion was called X Equestris, see Legio X Equestris In the Gallic Wars, X Equestris played an important role on Caesars military success and for this reason is sometimes said to be his favorite. In Caesars campaigns they were present in the battle of the Sabis, the invasions of Britain, and they remained faithful to Caesar in the civil war against Pompey, being present in the battles of Pharsalus and Munda. In 45 BC Caesar disbanded the legion, giving the veterans farmlands near Narbonne in Gaul, the legion was reconstituted in 42 BC and fought for Augustus and Mark Antony in the Battle of Philippi against the murderers of Caesar. After this, they followed Mark Antony in his campaign against Parthia and were defeated with him at Actium, Augustus took control of the legion and settled the veterans in Patras.
The legion rebelled and lost its cognomen Equestris as punishment, replacements were added from other legions, and the Tenth was rebaptized Gemina. From about 30 BC the newly formed X Gemina was relocated to Petavonium in Hispania Tarraconensis and their veterans were among the first inhabitants of modern Zaragoza and Emerita Augusta, modern Mérida. The legion was sent to Carnuntum in Pannonia in about 63 AD after legio XV Apollinaris left, during the brief reign of Galba, it was transferred back to Hispania. However, its stay in Hispania was to be very brief, in 70, after the Batavian rebellion was suppressed by the new emperor Vespasian, X Gemina was sent to Batavia in Germania Inferior to police the lands and prevent new revolts. From 71 to 103, the legion was stationed at the built by II Adiutrix at Oppidum Batavorum. As part of the army of Germania Inferior, X Gemina fought against the rebellion of the governor of Germania Superior, L. Antonius Saturninus, against Emperor Domitian. During the Trajans first campaign in Dacia, the legion participated at the Second Battle of Tapae, in 103, it was moved to Aquincum and to Vindobona, in Pannonia Superior, which would be the legions camp until the 5th century.
Vexillationes of the X Gemina fought against the rebellion of Simon bar Kokhba in 132-135, in Iudaea, another major campaign was the one fought against the Quadi and the Lombards, in Moravia, under the command of Emperor Marcus Aurelius. During the 3rd century, the legion fought for several emperors, who awarded the legion with titles showing the fidelity of the legion, the titles Antoniniana, Deciana and Cariniana were short-lived and dropped after the death of the Emperor. For its support of Emperor Gallienus against Postumus, the Gemina was awarded the title Pia VI Fidelis VI, six times faithful, six times loyal. At the time in which Notitia Dignitatum was written, the first detachment of Decima Gemina was under the command of the Magister Militum per Orientem, the other detachment was still in Vindobona, under the command of the Dux Pannoniae primae et Norici ripensis