The Paris Métro is a rapid transit system in the Paris metropolitan area, France. A symbol of the city, it is known for its density within the city limits, uniform architecture and unique entrances influenced by Art Nouveau, it is underground and 214 kilometres long. It has 302 stations. There are 16 lines, numbered 1 to 14 with two lines, 3bis and 7bis, which are named because they started out as branches of lines 3 and 7. Lines are identified on maps by number and colour, direction of travel is indicated by the terminus, it is the second busiest metro system in Europe, after the Moscow Metro, the tenth-busiest in the world. It carried 1.520 billion passengers in 2015, 4.16 million passengers a day, which amounts to 20% of the overall traffic in Paris. It is one of the densest metro systems in the world, with 245 stations within the 86.9 km2 of the city of Paris. Châtelet – Les Halles, with five Métro lines, three RER commuter rail and platforms up to 800 m apart, is one of the world's largest metro stations.
However, the system has poor disabled accessibility, because most stations were built well before this became a consideration. The first line opened without ceremony on 19 July 1900, during the World's Fair; the system expanded until the First World War and the core was complete by the 1920s. Extensions into suburbs and Line 11 were built in the 1930s; the network reached saturation after World War II with new trains to allow higher traffic, but further improvements have been limited by the design of the network and in particular the short distances between stations. Besides the Métro, central Paris and its urban area are served by the RER, developed beginning in the 1960s, several tramway lines, Transilien suburban trains and two VAL lines, serving Charles De Gaulle and Orly airports. In the late 1990s, the automated line 14 was built to relieve RER line A. Métro is the abbreviated name of the company that operated most of the network: La Compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain de Paris, shortened to "Le Métropolitain".
It was abbreviated to métro, which became a common word to designate all rapid transit systems in France and in many cities elsewhere. The Métro is operated by the Régie autonome des transports parisiens, a public transport authority that operates part of the RER network, bus services, light rail lines and many bus routes; the name métro was adopted in many languages, making it the most used word for a urban transit system. It is possible that "Compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain" was copied from the name of London's pioneering underground railway company, the Metropolitan Railway, in business for 40 years prior to the inauguration of Paris's first line. By 1845, Paris and the railway companies were thinking about an urban railway system to link inner districts of the city; the railway companies and the French government wanted to extend main-line railways into a new underground network, whereas the Parisians favoured a new and independent network and feared national takeover of any system it built.
The disagreement lasted from 1856 to 1890. Meanwhile, the population became traffic congestion grew massively; the deadlock gave the city the chance to enforce its vision. Prior to 1845, the urban transport network consisted of a large number of omnibus lines, consolidated by the French government into a regulated system with fixed and unconflicting routes and schedules; the first concrete proposal for an urban rail system in Paris was put forward by civil engineer Florence de Kérizouet. This plan called for a surface cable car system. In 1855, civil engineers Edouard Brame and Eugène Flachat proposed an underground freight urban railroad, due to the high rate of accidents on surface rail lines. On 19 November 1871 the General Council of the Seine commissioned a team of 40 engineers to plan an urban rail network; this team proposed a network with a pattern of routes "resembling a cross enclosed in a circle" with axial routes following large boulevards. On 11 May 1872 the Council endorsed the plan.
After this point, a serious debate occurred over whether the new system should consist of elevated lines or of underground lines. The underground option emerged as the preferred solution because of the high cost of buying land for rights-of-way in central Paris required for elevated lines, estimated at 70,000 francs per metre of line for a 20-metre-wide railroad; the last remaining hurdle was the city's concern about national interference in its urban rail system. The city commissioned renowned engineer Jean-Baptiste Berlier, who designed Paris' postal network of pneumatic tubes, to design and plan its rail system in the early 1890s. Berlier recommended a special track gauge of 1,300 mm to protect the system from national takeover, which inflamed the issue substantially; the issue was settled when the Minister of Public Works begrudgingly recognized the city's right to build a local system on 22 November 1895, by the city's secret designing of the trains and tunnels to be too narrow for main-line trains, while adopting standard gauge as a compromise with the state.
On 20 April 1896, Par
The Congreve rocket was a British military weapon designed and developed by Sir William Congreve in 1804, based directly on Mysorean rockets. The Kingdom of Mysore in India used Mysorean rockets as a weapon against the British in the wars that they fought against the British East India Company. Lieutenant General Thomas Desaguliers, Colonel Commandant of the Royal Artillery in Woolwich, was influenced by the reports about their effectiveness, he undertook several unsuccessful experiments. Several Mysore rockets were sent to Woolwich for studying and reverse-engineering following the Second and Fourth Mysore wars. So, Congreve had to start his project in 1804 with his own funds; the first demonstration of his solid fuel rockets was in September 1805. The rockets were used during the Napoleonic Wars, the War of 1812, the First Anglo-Burmese War of 1824–1826. Tipu Sultan and his father Hyder Ali developed the military tactic of using mass attacks with rocket artillery brigades on infantry formations.
In 1792, Tipu Sultan wrote a military manual called Fathul Mujahidin in which 200 rocket men were prescribed to each Mysorean rocket artillery brigade known as "cushoons". Mysore had 16 to 24 cushoons of infantry; the areas of town where rockets and fireworks were manufactured were known as "taramandal pet". The rocket men were trained to launch their rockets at an angle calculated from the diameter of the cylinder and the distance of the target. In addition, wheeled rocket launchers were used in war that were capable of launching five to ten rockets simultaneously. Rockets could be of various sizes, but consisted of a tube of soft hammered iron about 8 inches long and 1.5 to 3 inches diameter, closed at one end and strapped to a shaft of bamboo about 4 ft long. The iron tube contained well-packed black powder propellant. A rocket carrying about one pound of powder could travel 1,000 yards. In contrast, rockets in Europe were not iron cased and could not take large chamber pressures, as a consequence they were not capable of reaching distances anywhere near as great.
Hyder Ali's father was the naik or chief constable at Budikote, he commanded 50 rocketmen for the Nawab of Arcot. There was a regular rocket corps in the Mysore Army, beginning with about 1,200 men in Hyder Ali's time. Hyder Ali introduced. At the Battle of Pollilur during the Second Anglo-Mysore War, Colonel William Baillie's ammunition stores are thought to have been detonated by a hit from one of Tipu Sultan's Mysorean rockets, which contributed to a British defeat. In the Third Anglo-Mysore War in 1792, there is mention of two rocket units fielded by Tipu Sultan, 120 men and 131 men respectively. Lieutenant Colonel Knox was attacked by rockets near Srirangapatna on the night of 6 February 1792, while advancing towards the Kaveri River from the north; the rocket corps reached a strength of about 5,000 in Tipu Sultan's army. Mysore rockets were used for ceremonial purposes; the Jacobin Club of Mysore sent a delegation to Tipu Sultan, 500 rockets were launched as part of the gun salute. During the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, rockets were again used on several occasions.
One of these involved Colonel Arthur Wellesley famous as the First Duke of Wellington and the hero of the Battle of Waterloo. Quoting Forrest:"At this point there was a large tope, or grove, which gave shelter to Tipu's rocketmen and had to be cleaned out before the siege could be pressed closer to Srirangapattanam Island; the commander chosen for this operation was Col. Wellesley, but advancing towards the tope after dark on 5 April 1799, he was set upon with rockets and musket-fires, lost his way and, as Beatson politely puts it, had to "postpone the attack" until a more favourable opportunity should offer. Wellesley's failure was glossed over by Beatson and other chroniclers, but the next morning he failed to report when a force was being paraded to renew the attack. "On 22 April, twelve days before the main battle, rocketeers worked their way around to the rear of the British encampment, then'threw a great number of rockets at the same instant' to signal the beginning of an assault by 6,000 Indian infantry and a corps of Frenchmen, all directed by Mir Golam Hussain and Mohomed Hulleen Mir Mirans.
The rockets had a range of about 1,000 yards. Some burst in the air like shells. Others, called ground rockets, on striking the ground, would rise again and bound along in a serpentine motion until their force was spent. According to one British observer, a young English officer named Bayly: "So pestered were we with the rocket boys that there was no moving without danger from the destructive missiles...". He continued: "the rockets and musketry from 20,000 of the enemy were incessant. No hail could be thicker; every illumination of blue lights was accompanied by a shower of rockets, some of which entered the head of the column, passing through to the rear, causing death and dreadful lacerations from the long bamboos of twenty or thirty feet, which are invariably attached to them'." During the conclusive British attack on Srirangapattanam on 2 May 1799, a British shot struck a magazine of rockets within Tipu Sultan's fort, causing it to explode and send a towering cloud of black smoke up from the battlements, with cascades of exploding white light.
Baird led the final attack on the fort on the afternoon of 4 May, he was again met by "furious musket and rocket fire" - but it did not help much. The fort was taken in about an hour's time.
Victoria, Entre Ríos
Victoria is a city located in the southwestern part of the province of Entre Ríos, Argentina. It is located on the eastern shore of the Paraná River, opposite Rosario, Santa Fe, to which it has been connected since 2003 by the Rosario-Victoria Bridge; the site of a 1750 defeat of a native uprising and an 1810 oratory to the Virgin of Aranzazú, a Marian apparition and the city's patron saint, Cerro La Matanza was granted Village status by the Provincial Legislature, in 1826. An 1829 edict renamed the hamlet Victoria; the church is dedicated to this patron. Designated a "city" in 1851, Victoria features an abbey, founded by Benedictine monks who arrived in 1899; the Victoria region is at the core of the fishing industry of commercially important species like sábalo and surubí. Concerns about over-exploitation of this resource have been raised lately; the city has a beach resort, the river at this point is appropriate for the practice of sports such as kayak sailing and windsurf. The municipality claims jurisdiction over 3,700 km² of islands and islets on the Paraná.
Several fishing areas are reserved for sports purposes. Every year Victoria hosts an extended Carnival Season. Victoria has seen increased touristic affluence since the opening of the connection with Rosario and the Greater Rosario area. A year the high-class Casino was opened on the river front. Touristic an cultural website of Victoria, Entre Rios, Argentina. Municipal information: Municipal Affairs Federal Institute, Municipal Affairs Secretariat, Ministry of Interior, Argentina. AquiVictoria.com.ar Turismo Entre Ríos Entre Ríos - Economías regionales
Lucio Norberto Mansilla
Lucio Norberto Mansilla was an Argentine military man and politician. He fought in the battle of Vuelta de Obligado. Lucio Mansilla was born in Buenos Aires on April 2, 1789, son of Andrés Ximénez de Mansilla and Eduarda María Bravo. Lucio Mansilla was the 7th generation of the Mansilla family living in the Americas, he began his military career in 1806, during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata, under the command of Santiago de Liniers. He was part of the Gallegos regiment, he fought in the 180 invasions, in the combat of Miserere on June 2, the actions of July 5 and 6. The Buenos Aires Cabildo allowed him to run a math school in 1809. Mansilla joined the forces of José Gervasio Artigas in 1812, against the Portuguese armies summoned by the royalist Javier de Elío; when Artigas left the siege before the Second Banda Oriental campaign, he joined José Rondeau. He was shot on May 12, 1813, during the attack to the fortress "El Quilombo", joined back the siege when his injury healed, he was rewarded by Buenos Aires for his military actions.
He joined the Army of the Andes in 1814, fought in the battles of Chacabuco and Talcahuano, under the command of José de San Martín. He fought the decisive battle of Maipú under the command of Juan Gregorio de Las Heras, he was rewarded by both Argentina and Chile for his actions, returned to Buenos Aires. Francisco Ramírez Artigas; when Artigas invaded Entre Ríos, he joined forces with Ramírez against him. He had an important role at the battle of Las Tunas; the conflict between Ramírez and Artigas led to the exile of Artigas in Paraguay. Ramírez declared the independence of the Republic of Entre Ríos and incorporated Corrientes and Misiones to it. Mansilla opposed these actions, denied the help of his army. Ramírez died in an ambush, the Republic of Entre Ríos was abolished and reincorporated into Argentina. Mansilla was appointed governor, he ended the hostilities between the Santa Fe Province. He signed the Quadrilateral Treaty. Mansilla became a general in 1826, marched to the Argentine-Brazilian War under the command of Carlos María de Alvear, operating at Rio Grande Do Sul.
He led the siege of Montevideo, played an important role in the battle of Camacuá. He defeated the Brazilian cavalry at the battle of Ombú, fought in the battle of Ituzaingó. Mansilla refused to join the coup of Juan Lavalle against the governor Manuel Dorrego in 1828. Lavalle was ousted from power some time and Juan José Viamonte appointed him head of the police of Buenos Aires, once the Federals returned to power, he joined the military again with the War of the Confederation, moved to Tucumán. He did not take action during the campaign of Lavalle against Juan Manuel de Rosas during the French blockade of the Río de la Plata, because Rosas was his brother-in-law and Lavalle his comrade in arms during the War of Brazil. Britain and France began a war against Argentina, on behalf of the Colorados of Uruguay, as Argentina supported in Blancos in the Uruguayan Civil War. An Anglo-French navy sought to navigate the Paraná River, Mansilla was appointed to the defense, he prepared the defense at Vuelta de Obligado, closing the river with chains, prepared several artilleries, defended by 2000 men.
However, the artillery had a lower range and reload speed than the cannons of the ships. The battle of Vuelta de Obligado harmed a number of ships, but the navy prevailed after a couple of hours. Mansilla led a charge against French soldiers that tried to land and dismantle the artillery, being hurt in the chest and leaving Juan Bautista Thorne in command; the Argentine cavalry forced the French to return to their ships, but a second attack by both French and British had better success. The battle ended with 250 deaths and 400 injured for Argentina, 26 deaths and 86 injured for the Anglo-French navy. Mansilla prepared a new resistance at Quebracho; this attack gave serious damage to the ships. Mansilla died in Buenos Aires on April 1871, during an epidemic of Yellow Fever in the city. Launay, Luis. Lucio Norberto Mansilla: El héroe de Obligado. Buenos Aires: Fabro. ISBN 978-987-1677-41-2
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K