Great Locomotive Chase
The Great Locomotive Chase or Andrews Raid was a military raid that occurred on April 12,1862, in northern Georgia during the American Civil War. Volunteers from the Union Army, led by civilian scout James J and they were pursued by Confederate forces at first on foot, and on a succession of locomotives for 87 miles. Because the Union men had cut the wires, the Confederates could not send warnings ahead to forces along the railway. Confederates eventually captured the raiders and executed some quickly as spies, including Andrews, some of the raiders were the first to be awarded the Medal of Honor by the US Congress for their actions. As a civilian, Andrews was not eligible, and then, captured the water and railway junction of Chattanooga, Tennessee. Thereby severing the Western Confederacys contact with both the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys, at the time, the standard means of capturing a city was by encirclement to cut it off from supplies and reinforcements, would follow artillery bombardment and direct assault by massed infantry.
However, Chattanoogas natural water and mountain barriers to its east, but, if he could somehow block railroad reinforcement of the city from Atlanta to the southeast, he could take Chattanooga. The Union Army would have rail reinforcement and supply lines to its rear, leading west to the Union-held stronghold and supply depot of Nashville and he recruited the men known as Andrews Raiders. These were the civilian William Hunter Campbell and 22 volunteer Union soldiers from three Ohio regiments, the 2nd, 21st, and 33rd Ohio Infantry, Andrews instructed the men to arrive in Marietta, Georgia, by midnight of April 10, but heavy rain caused a one-day delay. They traveled in small parties in civilian attire to avoid arousing suspicion, all but two reached the designated rendezvous point at the appointed time. Llewellyn and Smith joined a Confederate artillery unit, as they had instructed to do in such circumstances. These essentially simultaneous actions would bring about the capture of Chattanooga, Andrews Raid was intended to deprive the Confederates of the integrated use of the railways to respond to a Union advance, using their interior lines of communication.
When the Union Army threatened Chattanooga, the Confederate States Army would first reinforce Chattanoogas garrison from Atlanta and it was this process that the Andrews raid sought to disrupt. Because railway dining cars were not yet in use, railroad timetables included water, rest. In addition, as the locomotives of the time needed to replenish fuel and water, stops for passenger. The locomotive would be serviced to prepare for the steep graded further north. This time allowed for the passengers and crew to have breakfast at the Lacy Hotel, there Andrews and his raiders hijacked the General and the trains first car. The Raiders planned to cross through the Federal siege lines on the outskirts of Chattanooga and they chose to capture the train at Big Shanty station because it had no telegraph office
Battle of Chickamauga
The Battle of Chickamauga, fought September 18–20,1863, marked the end of a Union offensive in southeastern Tennessee and northwestern Georgia called the Chickamauga Campaign. The battle was the most significant Union defeat in the Western Theater of the American Civil War and it was the first major battle of the war that was fought in Georgia. After his successful Tullahoma Campaign, Rosecrans renewed the offensive, aiming to force the Confederates out of Chattanooga, in early September, Rosecrans consolidated his forces scattered in Tennessee and Georgia and forced Braggs army out of Chattanooga, heading south. The Union troops followed it and brushed with it at Daviss Cross Roads, Bragg was determined to reoccupy Chattanooga and decided to meet a part of Rosecranss army, defeat it, and move back into the city. On September 17 he headed north, intending to attack the isolated XXI Corps, as Bragg marched north on September 18, his cavalry and infantry fought with Union cavalry and mounted infantry, which were armed with Spencer repeating rifles.
Fighting began in earnest on the morning of September 19, Braggs men strongly assaulted but could not break the Union line. The next day, Bragg resumed his assault, in late morning, Rosecrans was misinformed that he had a gap in his line. Longstreets attack drove one-third of the Union army, including Rosecrans himself, Union units spontaneously rallied to create a defensive line on Horseshoe Ridge, forming a new right wing for the line of Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas, who assumed overall command of remaining forces. Although the Confederates launched costly and determined assaults and his men held until twilight, Union forces retired to Chattanooga while the Confederates occupied the surrounding heights, besieging the city. General-in-chief Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck and President Abraham Lincoln were insistent that Rosecrans move quickly to take Chattanooga, seizing the city would open the door for the Union to advance toward Atlanta and the heartland of the South. Chattanooga was a rail hub, and an important manufacturing center for the production of iron and coke.
Situated between Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Raccoon Mountain, and Stringers Ridge, Chattanooga occupied an important, defensible position. Although Braxton Braggs Army of Tennessee had about 52,000 men at the end of July, into Braggs Department of Tennessee, which added 17,800 men to Braggs army, but extended his command responsibilities northward to the Knoxville area. This brought a third subordinate into Braggs command who had little or no respect for him, Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk and Maj. Gen. William J. Hardee had already made their animosity well known. Buckners attitude was colored by Braggs unsuccessful invasion of Buckners native Kentucky in 1862, as well as by the loss of his command through the merger. A positive aspect for Bragg was Hardees request to be transferred to Mississippi in July, but he was replaced by Lt. Gen. D. H. Hill, a general who did not get along with Robert E. Lee in Virginia. The Confederate War Department asked Bragg in early August whether he could assume the offensive against Rosecrans if he were given reinforcements for Mississippi and he demurred, concerned about the daunting geographical obstacles and logistical challenges, preferring to wait for Rosecrans to solve those same problems and attack him.
He was concerned about a sizable Union force under Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside that was threatening Knoxville, Bragg withdrew his forces from advanced positions around Bridgeport, which left Rosecrans free to maneuver on the northern side of the Tennessee River
Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the rank of sergeant major general. In the Commonwealth, major general is equivalent to the rank of rear admiral. In some countries, including much of Eastern Europe, major general is the lowest of the officer ranks. In the old Austro-Hungarian Army, the general was called a Generalmajor. Todays Austrian Federal Army still uses the same term, see Rank insignias of the Austro-Hungarian armed forces General de Brigade is the lowest rank amongst general officers in the Brazilian Army. AGeneral de Brigada wears two-stars as this is the level for general officers in the Brazilian Army. In tha Brazilian Air Force, the two-star, three-star and four-star rank are known as Brigadeiro, Major-Brigadeiro, see Military ranks of Brazil and Brigadier for more information. In the Canadian Armed Forces, the rank of major-general is both a Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force rank equivalent to the Royal Canadian Navys rank of rear-admiral, a major-general is a general officer, the equivalent of a naval flag officer.
The major-general rank is senior to the ranks of brigadier-general and commodore, prior to 1968, the Air Force used the rank of air vice-marshal, instead. In the Canadian Army, the insignia is a wide braid on the cuff. It is worn on the straps of the service dress tunic. On the visor of the cap are two rows of gold oak leaves. Major-generals are initially addressed as general and name, as are all general officers, major-generals are normally entitled to staff cars. In the Estonian military, the general rank is called kindralmajor. The Finnish military equivalent is kenraalimajuri in Finnish, and generalmajor in Swedish and Danish, the French equivalent to the rank of major general is général de division. In the French military, major général is not a rank but an appointment conferred on some generals, usually of général de corps darmée rank, the position of major général can be considered the equivalent of a deputy chief of staff. In the French Army, Major General is a position and the general is normally of the rank of corps general
Battle of Dallas
The Battle of Dallas was a series of engagements during the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War. They occurred between May 26 and June 4,1864, in and around Dallas, between Lt. General William J. Hardees Confederate corps and the Union defense line, held by the XV Corps under Maj. General John A. Logan of the Army of the Tennessee, the Battle of New Hope Church and the Battle of Picketts Mill are often subgrouped as part of the overall engagement at Dallas. After a series of engagements, Johnstons army fell back from the vicinity of Cassville-Kingston, first to Allatoona Pass and to the Dallas area, shermans army tested the Rebel line while entrenching themselves. The Battle of Dallas occurred on May 28 when Hardees Corps probed the Union defensive line, held by Logans Army of the Tennessee corps, fighting ensued at two different points, but the Rebels were repulsed, suffering high casualties. Sherman continued looking for a way around Johnstons line, and, on June 1, his cavalry occupied Allatoona Pass, sherman abandoned his lines at Dallas on June 5 and moved toward the rail-head at Allatoona Pass, forcing Johnston to follow soon afterwards.
Among the thousands of casualties was Archibald L. McDougall, a brigade commander in the Union Army of the Potomac. The site of the battle is now Paulding County High School, the Confederate trenches lay along the southern edge of the campus, as marked by a Civil War Marker sign along Highway 61. Dallas Union order of battle Bodart, national Park Service battle description CWSAC Report Update and Resurvey, Individual Battlefield Profiles
Battle of Adairsville
The Battle of Adairsville, known as the Battle of Cassville, was a battle of the Atlanta Campaign fought during the American Civil War on May 17,1864, just northeast of Rome, Georgia. The brief engagement was a Confederate delaying action that allowed General Joseph E. Johnston to bait a trap for the Union army at Cassville, following the Battle of Resaca, May 13–15, General Joseph E. Johnstons army retreated southward while Major General William Tecumseh Sherman pursued. Once across the Oostanaula River, Johnston sought to make a stand and he expected to find favorable terrain near Calhoun, but in this he was disappointed and during the night of May 16–17 he led the Confederates southward toward Adairsville. Sherman followed, dividing his forces into three columns, and advancing on a broad front, there were skirmishes all along the route, but the main bodies were not engaged. Two miles north of Adairsville Oliver Otis Howard and the Union IV Corps began skirmishing with entrenched units of William J.
Hardees Confederate corps. The 44th Illinois and 24th Wisconsin infantry regiments led by Maj. Arthur MacArthur, Jr. attacked Benjamin F. Cheathams division, the rest of Howards corps prepared for battle but further attacks were called off by General Thomas. As he fell back, Johnston devised a strategy that he hoped would lead to the destruction of a part of Shermans forces, there were two roads leading south from Adairsville—one south to Kingston, the other southeast to Cassville. It seemed likely that Sherman would divide his armies so as to use both roads and this would give Johnston the opportunity to attack one column before the other could come to its aid. When the Southerners abandoned Adairsville during the night of May 17–18, Johnston sent William J. Hardees Corps to Kingston and he hoped that Sherman would believe most of the Southerners to be in Kingston and concentrate the bulk of his forces there. Hardee would hold off the Northerners at Kingston while Johnston, with Leonidas Polk and John Bell Hood, Sherman reacted as Johnston hoped, ordering James B.
McPherson and the bulk of George Henry Thomass army toward Kingston while sending only John Schofield, on the morning of May 19, Johnston ordered Hood to march along a country road a mile or so east of the Adairsville-Cassville Road and form his corps for battle facing west. While Polk attacked the head of the Federal column, Hood was to assail its left flank, as Hood was moving into position, he ran into Daniel Butterfields Federal brigade to the east. This was a source of danger, for had Hood formed facing west. After a brief skirmish with the Northerners, Hood fell back to rejoin Polk, Johnston formed his army on a ridge and hoped that Sherman would attack him there on May 20. As usual, the Southern commander was confident of repulsing the enemy, during the night, the Confederates withdrew across the Etowah River. As they fell back, their feelings were mixed and they had lost a very strong position at Dalton, and had fallen back from Resaca and Adairsville. Now they were retreating again under cover of darkness and that morning as they prepared for battle, their spirits had been high.
Although morale would revive in the few days, many Southern soldiers would never again place as much confidence in Johnstons abilities as they once had
George Henry Thomas
George Henry Thomas was a United States Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War, one of the principal commanders in the Western Theater. Thomas served in the Mexican-American War and chose to remain with the U. S. Army for the Civil War, despite his heritage as a Virginian. He won one of the first Union victories in the war, at Mill Springs in Kentucky and his stout defense at the Battle of Chickamauga in 1863 saved the Union Army from being completely routed, earning him his most famous nickname, the Rock of Chickamauga. He followed soon after with a breakthrough on Missionary Ridge in the Battle of Chattanooga. Thomas had a record in the Civil War, but he failed to achieve the historical acclaim of some of his contemporaries, such as Ulysses S. Grant. He developed a reputation as a slow, deliberate general who shunned self-promotion, after the war, he did not write memoirs to advance his legacy. He had a personal relationship with Grant, which served him poorly as Grant advanced in rank.
Thomas was born at Newsoms Depot, Southampton County and his father, John Thomas, of Welsh descent, and his mother, Elizabeth Rochelle Thomas, a descendant of French Huguenot immigrants, had six children. George had three sisters and two brothers, the family led an upper-class plantation lifestyle. By 1829, they owned 685 acres and 24 slaves, John died in a farm accident when George was 13, leaving the family in financial difficulties. George Thomas, his sisters, and his mother were forced to flee from their home. This was an event in the formation of his views on slavery. Christopher Einholf, in contrast wrote For George Thomas, the view that slavery was needed as a way of controlling blacks was supported by his experience of Nat Turners Rebellion. Thomas left no record of his opinion on slavery. A traditional story is that Thomas taught as many as 15 of his familys slaves to read, violating a Virginia law that prohibited this, Thomas was appointed to the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, in 1836 by Congressman John Y.
Mason, who warned Thomas that no nominee from his district had ever graduated successfully, entering at age 20, Thomas was known to his fellow cadets as Old Tom and he became instant friends with his roommates, William T. Sherman and Stewart Van Vliet. He made steady progress, was appointed a cadet officer in his second year. He was appointed a lieutenant in Company D, 3rd U. S. Artillery
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Nathan Bedford Forrest, called Bedford Forrest in his lifetime, was a lieutenant general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. A cavalry and military commander in the war, Forrest is one of the wars most unusual figures, although less educated than many of his fellow officers, before the war Forrest had already amassed a fortune as a planter, real estate investor, and slave trader. He was one of the few officers in either army to enlist as a private and be promoted to general officer and he created and established new doctrines for mobile forces, earning the nickname The Wizard of the Saddle. In their postwar writings, Confederate President Jefferson Davis and General Robert E. Lee both expressed their belief that the Confederate high command had failed to fully use Forrests talents, Ulysses S. Grant called him that devil Forrest. Another Union general, William Tecumseh Sherman, it is reported, considered him the most remarkable man our civil war produced on either side and he was unquestionably one of the Civil Wars most brilliant tacticians.
Without military education or training, he became the scourge of Grant, Forrest fought by simple rules, he maintained that war means fighting and fighting means killing and that the way to win was to get there first with the most men. He played pivotal roles at Fort Donelson, the capture of Murfreesboro, the Nashville campaign, Brices Cross Roads, and in pursuit and capture of Streights Raiders. Forrest was notoriously accused of war crimes at the Battle of Fort Pillow for allowing forces under his command to massacre hundreds of black Union Army, Sherman investigated the allegations and did not charge Forrest with any improprieties. He was a delegate from Tennessee to the New York Democratic national convention of 4 July 1868. Forrest was an member of the Ku Klux Klan. Nathan Bedford Forrest was born to a poor Scotch-Irish American family in Bedford County and he and his twin sister, were the two eldest of blacksmith William Forrests 12 children with wife Miriam Beck. After the deaths of his father and Fanny to scarlet fever, in 1841, Forrest went into business with his uncle Jonathan Forrest in Hernando, Mississippi.
His uncle was killed there in 1845 during an argument with the Matlock brothers, in retaliation, Forrest shot and killed two of them with his two-shot pistol and wounded two others with a knife which had been thrown to him. One of the wounded Matlock men survived and served under Forrest during the Civil War, Forrest became a businessman and slaveholder. He owned several plantations in the Delta region of West Tennessee. He was a trader, at a time when demand was booming in the Deep South. In 1858, was elected a Memphis city alderman, Forrest supported his mother and put his younger brothers through college. By the time the American Civil War started in 1861, he had become a millionaire and one of the richest men in the South, before the Civil War, Forrest was well known as a Memphis speculator and Mississippi gambler
James H. Wilson
James Harrison Wilson was a United States Army topographic engineer and a Union Army Major General in the American Civil War. He served as an aide to Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan during the Maryland Campaign before joining Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grants army in the Western Theater, where he was promoted to brigadier general. Wilson ended the war with his men capturing both Confederate President Jefferson Davis and Andersonville Prison commandant Henry Wirz in May 1865, upon his death in 1925, he was the fourth-to-last living Union Civil War general. Wilson was born in Shawneetown and his initial assignment was assistant topographical engineer of the Department of Oregon at Fort Vancouver. He transferred to the Army of the Potomac in April 1862 and served as its topographic engineer and he served under McClellan during the Maryland Campaign and was present at the battles of South Mountain and Antietam. Wilson was transferred to the Western Theater and joined Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grants Army of the Tennessee as a lieutenant colonel, during the Vicksburg Campaign, he was the inspector general of Grants army.
On October 30,1863, he was promoted to general of volunteers. He continued on duty during the Battle of Chattanooga and was chief engineer of the force sent to relieve Knoxville under Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman. In 1864, Wilson switched from engineering to the cavalry, on February 17,1864, he was assigned as chief of the Cavalry Bureau in Washington, D. C. He was an excellent administrator and organizer, but his true talents turned out to be as a combat leader, if this could be done, Lee would be compelled to abandon Petersburg. The raid began on June 22,1864, with over 5,000 Cavalry troops and 16 pieces of artillery, during the first three days of their raid, Wilsons cavalry tore up 60 miles of track and burned two trains and several railroad stations. Confederate General W. H. F. Rooney Lee pursued the Union raid, the audacious raid seemed to be wildly successful, though not uncontested, and the Staunton River Bridge loomed as the great objective. The railroad bridge was over a small but deep river, the Staunton, the Confederacy had sensed its strategic importance, putting a small fort there under Captain Benjamin Farinholt, and his 296 reserve troops. A valiant stand by local volunteers of old men and boys, with help from surrounding counties, gathered almost a force of nearly 1,000, wilson’s cavalry fought the action dismounted.
Rooney Lees cavalry came up during the end, and routed Wilsons troops. There has been speculation that this damaged an otherwise brilliant career for Wilson, as cavalry chief, he trained Shermans cavalry for the March to the Sea. Rather than accompanying Sherman, however, he and 17,000 troopers were attached to Maj. Gen. George H. Thomass Army of the Cumberland for the Franklin-Nashville Campaign in November and December 1864. He was promoted to brigadier general in the regular army for his service in the Battle of Nashville
The Chattahoochee River forms the southern half of the Alabama and Georgia border, as well as a portion of the Florida border. The Chattahoochee River is about 430 miles long, the Chattahoochee and Apalachicola rivers together make up the Apalachiacola–Chattahoochee–Flint River Basin. The Chattahoochee makes up the largest part of the ACFs drainage basin and its headwaters flow south from ridges that form the Tennessee Valley Divide. The Appalachian Trail crosses the rivers uppermost headwaters, the Chattahoochees source and upper course lies within Chattahoochee National Forest. From its source in the Blue Ridge Mountains, the Chattahoochee River flows southwesterly to Atlanta and it eventually turns due south to form the southern half of the Georgia/Alabama state line. Flowing through a series of reservoirs and artificial lakes, it flows by Columbus, the second-largest city in Georgia, at Columbus, it crosses the Fall Line of the eastern United States. From Lake Oliver to Fort Benning, the Chattahoochee Riverwalk provides cycling, farther south, it merges with the Flint River and other tributaries at Lake Seminole near Bainbridge, to form the Apalachicola River that flows into the Florida Panhandle.
Although the same river, this portion was given a different name by separated settlers in different regions during the colonial times, the name Chattahoochee is thought to come from a Muskogean word meaning rocks-marked, from chato plus huchi. This possibly refers to the many colorful granite outcroppings along the northeast-to-southwest segment of the river, much of that segment of the river runs through the Brevard fault zone. A local Georgia nickname for the Chattahoochee River is The Hooch, the vicinity of the Chattahoochee River was inhabited in prehistoric times by indigenous peoples since at least 1000 BC. Among the historical nations, the Chattahoochee served as a line between the Muscogee and the Cherokee territories in the Southeast. The Muscogee were first removed from the side of the river. The Chattahoochee River was of strategic importance during the Atlanta Campaign by Union General William Tecumseh Sherman of the American Civil War. A month prior to the Battle of Atlanta, Shoup talked with Johnston on June 18,1864 about building fortifications, Johnston agreed, and Shoup supervised the building of 36 small elevated earth and wooden triangular fortifications, arranged in a sawtooth pattern to maximize the crossfire of defenders.
Sherman tried to avoid the Shoupade defenses by crossing the river to the northeast, the nine remaining Shoupades consist of the earthworks portion of the original earth and wooden structures, they are endangered by land development in the area. Since the nineteenth century, early improvements and alterations to the river were for the purposes of navigation, the river was important for carrying trade and passengers and was a major transportation route. Creating the manmade,46, 000-acre Walter F. George Lake required evacuating numerous communities, including the historically majority-Native American settlement of Oketeyeconne, the lakes were complete in 1963, covering over numerous historic and prehistoric sites of settlement. In 2010 a campaign to create a course was launched in the portion of the Chattahoochee River that runs through Columbus
Battle of New Hope Church
The battle was a result of an attempt by Sherman to outmaneuver Johnston. Johnston anticipated Shermans move and shifted his army into Shermans path, Sherman mistakenly surmised that Johnston had a token force and ordered Maj. Gen. Joseph Hookers XX Corps to attack. Advancing with his three divisions in parallel routes, Hooker pushed the Confederate skirmishers back for three miles, before coming to Johnstons main line, difficult terrain prevented Hooker from coordinating his corps attacks effectively, causing his men to suffer severe casualties, especially from canister and shrapnel. On May 26, both sides entrenched, and skirmishing continued throughout the day, at the end of the battle, Confederate Captain Samuel T. Foster reported that 703 Union soldiers had been killed, as well as 350 taken prisoner. The next day, the Union troops concentrated their efforts in the area towards the end of the Confederate line. The New Hope Church battlefield is privately owned and is located at the intersection of Bobo Road.
John Wadsworth Vodrey, son of noted American potter Jabez Vodrey, was killed in the battle while serving with the 46th Pennsylvania Infantry, national Park Service battle description Hope Church Community Kennedy, Frances H. ed. The Civil War Battlefield Guide, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin Co
Although some were driven by animal power, most early mills were built in rural locations near to fast-flowing rivers and streams and had water wheels to power them. The mechanisation of the process in the early factories was instrumental in the growth of the machine tool industry. Limited companies were developed to construct mills, and the floors of the cotton exchange in Manchester. Mills generated employment, drawing workers from rural areas and expanding urban populations. They provided incomes for girls and women, child labour was used in the mills, and the factory system led to organised labour. Poor conditions became the subject of exposés, and in England, the cotton mill, originally a Lancashire phenomenon, was copied in New England and in the southern states of America. In the 20th century, North West England lost its supremacy to the United States, to India, in the mid-16th century Manchester was an important manufacturing centre for woollens and linen and market for textiles made elsewhere.
The fustian district of Lancashire, from Blackburn to Bolton, west to Wigan and Leigh and south towards Manchester, used flax and raw cotton imported along the Mersey and Irwell Navigation. During the Industrial Revolution cotton manufacture changed from a domestic to an industry, made possible by inventions. The weaving process was the first to be mechanised by the invention of John Kays flying shuttle in 1733, the manually-operated spinning jenny was developed by James Hargreaves in about 1764 speeded up the spinning process. The roller spinning principle of Paul and Bourne became the basis of Richard Arkwrights spinning frame and water frame, the principles of the spinning jenny and water frame were combined by Samuel Crompton in his spinning mule of 1779, but water power was not applied to it until 1792. Many mills were built after Arkwrights patent expired in 1783 and by 1788, the development of cotton mills was linked to the development of the machinery they contained. By 1774,30,000 people in Manchester were employed using the system in cotton manufacture.
The first cotton mills were established in the 1740s to house roller spinning machinery invented by Lewis Paul, the machines were the first to spin cotton mechanically without the intervention of human fingers. They were driven by a single power source which allowed the use of larger machinery. The Paul-Wyatt mills spun cotton for several decades but were not very profitable, Richard Arkwright obtained a patent for his water frame spinning machinery in 1769. Arkwrights first mill – powered by horses in Nottingham in 1768 – was similar to Paul and Wyatts first Birmingham mill although by 1772 it had expanded to four storeys and employed 300 workers. Arkwright recruited large, highly disciplined workforces for his mills, managed credit and supplies, by 1782 his annual profits exceeded £40,000, and by 1784 he had opened 10 more mills