Worksop Manor is a Grade I listed 18th-century country house in Bassetlaw, Nottinghamshire. It stands in one of the four contiguous estates in the Dukeries area of Nottinghamshire. Traditionally, the Lord of the Manor of Worksop may assist a British monarch at his or her coronation by providing a glove and putting it on the monarch's right hand and supporting his or her right arm. Worksop Manor was the seat of the ancient Lords of Worksop; the building is constructed in 3 storeys of ashlar with hipped slate roofs. The house forms a quadrangle 25 bays wide by 14 bays deep; the Talbot family had owned Worksop Manor since the 14th century. Its manor house was for some time in 1568 the prison of Queen of Scots. In the 1580s a new house was built on the site for the wealthy George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury designed by Robert Smythson, it was a leading example of the Elizabethan prodigy house. At the same time Smythson designed the associated Worksop Manor Lodge which survived in original form until 2007 when it was burnt down and it is being restored.
King James stayed at the new house in 1603 on his way south to take the throne of England. At the end of the 17th century the house passed by marriage to the Duke of Norfolk, in whose family it would remain until 1840. In 1701 the 8th Duke of Norfolk doubled the size of the house, built stables and laid out large gardens; the 9th Duke further improved the gardens. Mary Howard, Duchess of Norfolk had the house renovated but it burned down in 1761; that year, James Paine was commissioned to build a replacement for the burnt-out Elizabethan mansion. He planned a square mansion with a vast hall in the central courtyard which would have been one of the largest houses built in England, had it been completed. Only one wing had been finished when work stopped on the house in 1767, but this was on a palatial scale. On the death of the 9th Duke in 1777, the estate passed to a distant cousin, aged 57 and living in Surrey. Neither he nor his immediate successors lived at Worksop and it became neglected; the 12th Duke gave it to his son, the Earl of Surrey, in 1815.
In 1838, the Earl of Surrey sold the estate to the Duke of Newcastle of nearby Clumber Park for £375,000, who ruthlessly stripped the house. He demolished the main wing of the house with gunpowder, having sold off the roof lead and some fittings, as he was only interested in adding the land to his own estate. In spite of the money received from salvage and timber he made a huge loss on the purchase which seems to have been animated by anti-Catholic sentiment, the Duke of Norfolk having been a leading Catholic aristocrat. After a number of years the surviving parts of the house, the stable, the service wing and part of the eastern end of the main range, were reformed into a new mansion, leased for a number of years by Lord Foley and afterwards by William Isaac Cookson, a manufacturer of lead. In 1890 a large part of the estate was sold by auction, he was appointed High Sheriff of Nottinghamshire in 1901. Since at least 1890 the estate has been home to the Worksop Manor Stud, which breeds thoroughbred horses.
History of Worksop Manor at Worksop Heritage Trail Worsop Manor in The Great Houses of Nottinghamshire and the County Families, by L Jacks Worsop Manor in Worksop, The Dukery and Sherwood Forest, by Robert White
Wars of the Roses
The Wars of the Roses were a series of English civil wars for control of the throne of England fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, associated with a red rose, the House of York, whose symbol was a white rose. The wars eliminated the male lines of both families; the conflict lasted through many sporadic episodes between 1455 and 1487, but there was related fighting before and after this period between the parties. The power struggle ignited around social and financial troubles following the Hundred Years' War, unfolding the structural problems of feudalism, combined with the mental infirmity and weak rule of King Henry VI which revived interest in Richard of York's claim to the throne. Historians disagree on. With the Duke of York's death in 1460, the claim transferred to Edward. After a series of Yorkist victories from January–February 1461, Edward claimed the throne on March 4, 1461, the last serious Lancastrian resistance ended at decisive Battle of Towton.
Edward was thus unopposed as the first Yorkist king of England, as Edward IV. Resistance smoldered in the North until 1464, but the early part of his reign remained peaceful. A new phase of the wars broke out in 1469 after The Earl of Warwick, the most powerful noble in the country, withdrew his support for Edward and threw it behind the Lancastrian cause. Fortunes changed many times as the Yorkist and Lancastrian forces exchanged victories throughout 1469–1470; when Edward fled to Flanders in 1470, Henry VI was re-installed as king on 3 October 1470, but his resumption of rule was short lived, he was deposed again following the defeat of his forces at the Battle of Tewkesbury, on 21 May 1471, Edward entered London unopposed, resumed the throne, had Henry killed that same day. With all significant Lancastrian leaders now banished or killed, Edward ruled unopposed until his sudden death in 1483, his son reigned for 78 days as Edward V, but was deposed by his uncle, who became Richard III. The ascension of Richard III occurred under a cloud of controversy, shortly after assuming the throne, the wars sparked anew with Buckingham's rebellion, as many die-hard Yorkists abandoned Richard to join Lancastrians.
While the rebellions lacked much central coordination, in the chaos the exiled Henry Tudor, son of Henry VI's half-brother Edmund Earl of Richmond, the leader of the Lancastrian cause, returned to the country from exile in Brittany at the head of an army of combined Breton and English forces. Richard avoided direct conflict with Henry until the Battle of Bosworth Field on 22 August 1485. After Richard III was killed and his forces defeated at Bosworth Field, Henry assumed the throne as Henry VII and married Elizabeth of York, the eldest daughter and heir of Edward IV, thereby uniting the two claims; the House of Tudor ruled the Kingdom of England until 1603, with the death of Elizabeth I, granddaughter of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. Shortly after Henry took the throne, the Earl of Lincoln, a Yorkist sympathizer, put forward Lambert Simnel as an imposter Richard of York, younger brother of Edward V. Lincoln's forces were defeated, he was killed at the Battle of Stoke Field on 16 June 1487, bringing a close to the Wars of the Roses.
The name "Wars of the Roses" refers to the heraldic badges associated with two rival branches of the same royal house, the White Rose of York and the Red Rose of Lancaster. Wars of the Roses came into common use in the 19th century after the publication in 1829 of Anne of Geierstein by Sir Walter Scott. Scott based the name on a scene in William Shakespeare's play Henry VI, Part 1, set in the gardens of the Temple Church, where a number of noblemen and a lawyer pick red or white roses to show their loyalty to the Lancastrian or Yorkist faction respectively, it is suggested by literary critics that Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland has strong allegorical references to the conflict with York represented by the White Queen and Lancaster represented by the Red Queen. The Yorkist faction used the symbol of the white rose from early in the conflict, but the Lancastrian red rose was introduced only after the victory of Henry Tudor at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485, when it was combined with the Yorkist white rose to form the Tudor rose, which symbolised the union of the two houses.
Owing to nobles holding multiple titles, more than one badge was used: Edward IV, for example, used both his sun in splendour as Earl of March, but his father's falcon and fetterlock as Duke of York. Badges were not always distinct. Most, but not all, of the participants in the wars wore livery badges associated with their immediate lords or patrons under the prevailing system of bastard feudalism. Another example: Henry Tudor's forces at Bosworth fought under the banner of a red dragon while the Yorkist army used Richard III's personal device of a white boar. Although the names of the rival houses derive from the cities of York and Lancaster, the corresponding duchy and dukedom had little to do with these cities; the lands and offices attached to the Duchy of Lancaster were in Gloucestershire, North Wales, in Yorkshire, while the estates and castles of the Duke of York were spread throughout England and Wales, many in the We
The Tudor rose is the traditional floral heraldic emblem of England and takes its name and origins from the House of Tudor, which united the House of York and House of Lancaster. The Tudor rose consists of five white inner petals, representing the House of York, five red outer petals to represent the House of Lancaster; when Henry VII took the crown of England from Richard III in battle, he brought the end of the retrospectively dubbed "Wars of the Roses" between the House of Lancaster and the House of York. Henry's father was Edmund Tudor from the House of Richmond, his mother was Margaret Beaufort from the House of Lancaster; the white rose. The historian Thomas Penn writes: The "Lancastrian" red rose was an emblem that existed before Henry VII. Lancastrian kings used the rose sporadically, but when they did it was gold rather than red. Contemporaries did not refer to the traumatic civil conflict of the 15th century as the "Wars of the Roses". For the best part of a quarter-century, from 1461 to 1485, there was only one royal rose, it was white: the badge of Edward IV.
The roses were created after the war by Henry VII. On his marriage, Henry VII adopted the Tudor rose badge conjoining the White Rose of York and the Red Rose of Lancaster; the Tudor rose is seen divided in quarters and vertically red and white. More the Tudor rose is depicted as a double rose, white on red and is always described, heraldically, as "proper". During his reign, Henry VIII had the legendary "Round Table" at Winchester Castle – believed to be genuine – repainted; the new paint scheme included. Though previous to this, his father Henry VII had built a chapel at Westminster Abbey dedicated to himself and it was decorated principally with the Tudor rose and the Beaufort portcullis – as a form of propaganda to define his claim to the throne; the Tudor rose badge may appear slipped and crowned: shown as a cutting with a stem and leaves beneath a crown. The Tudor rose may appear dimidiated to form a compound badge; the Westminster Tournament Roll includes a badge of Henry and his first wife Catherine of Aragon with a slipped Tudor rose conjoined with Catherine's personal badge, the pomegranate.
James I of England and VI of Scotland used a badge consisting of a Tudor rose dimidiated with a thistle and surmounted by a royal crown. The crowned and slipped Tudor Rose is used as the plant badge of England, as Scotland uses the thistle, Ireland uses the shamrock, Wales uses the leek; as such, it is seen on the dress uniforms of the Yeomen Warders at the Tower of London, of the Yeomen of the Guard. It features in the design of the British Twenty Pence coin minted between 1982 and 2008, in the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, it features on the coat of arms of Canada. The Tudor rose, it is notably used as the symbol of the English Tourist Board. And as part of the badge of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom; the Tudor Rose is used as the emblem of the Nautical Training Corps, a uniformed youth organisation founded in Brighton in 1944 with 20 units in South East England. The Corps badge has the Tudor Rose on the shank of an anchor with the motto "For God and Country", it is used as part of the Corps' cap badge.
The Tudor Rose is prominent in a number of towns and cities. The Royal Town of Sutton Coldfield, uses the emblem due to the town being given Royal Town status by King Henry VIII; the borough of Queens in New York City uses a Tudor Rose on its seal. The Tudor rose was used in the coat of arms of Count of Schaumburg-Lippe; the city of York, South Carolina is nicknamed "The White Rose City", the nearby city of Lancaster, South Carolina is nicknamed "The Red Rose City". Flag of England Red Rose of Lancaster Tudor dynasty Wars of the Roses White Rose of York Royal Badges of England Floral emblem Boutell, Charles. C. Fox-Davies; the Handbook to English Heraldry. London: Reeves and Turner. OCLC 2034334. Fox-Davies, A. C.. The Art of Heraldry: An Encyclopædia of Armory. London and Edinburgh: T C and E C Jack. Fox-Davies, A. C.. Heraldic Badges. London: John Lane. OCLC 4897294. Fox-Davies, A. C.. A Complete Guide to Heraldry. London and Edinburgh: T C and E C Jack. OCLC 474004850. Starkey, David. Henry – Virtuous Prince.
London: Harper. ISBN 0-00-729263-5. Wise, Terence. Medieval Heraldry. Osprey. ISBN 0-85045-348-8. Tudor Rose in SF Presidio, CH+D Magazine
Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset
Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset, KG, was an English nobleman and an important figure in the Wars of the Roses and in the Hundred Years' War. He succeeded in the title of 4th Earl of Somerset and was created 1st Earl of Dorset and 1st Marquess of Dorset, Count of Mortain, he was known for his deadly rivalry with Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York. Edmund Beaufort was the third surviving son of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, Margaret Holland, his paternal grandparents were John of Gaunt, Katherine Swynford. His maternal grandparents were Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Alice FitzAlan. Alice was a daughter of Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Eleanor of Lancaster. Edmund was a cousin of both Richard, Duke of York and the Lancastrian King Henry VI. Although he was the head of one of the greatest families in England, his inheritance was worth only 300 pounds. By contrast his rival, Duke of York, had a net worth of 5,800 pounds, his cousin King Henry VI's efforts to compensate Somerset with offices worth 3,000 pounds only served to offend many of the nobles and as his quarrel with York grew more personal, the dynastic situation got worse.
Another quarrel with the Earl of Warwick over the lordships of Glamorgan and Morgannwg may have forced the leader of the younger Nevilles into York's camp. His brothers were taken captive at the Battle of Baugé in 1421, but Edmund was too young at the time to fight, he acquired much military experience. In 1427 it is believed that Edmund Beaufort may have embarked on an affair with Catherine of Valois, the widow of Henry V. Evidence is sketchy, however the liaison prompted a parliamentary statute regulating the remarriage of queens of England; the historian G. L. Harriss surmised that it was possible that another of its consequences was Catherine's son Edmund Tudor and that Catherine, to avoid the penalties of breaking the statute of 1427–8, secretly married Owen Tudor, he wrote: "By its nature the evidence for Edmund Tudor's parentage is less than conclusive, but such facts as can be assembled permit the agreeable possibility that Edmund'Tudor' and Margaret Beaufort were first cousins and that the royal house of'Tudor' sprang in fact from Beauforts on both sides."
Edmund received the county of Mortain in Normandy on 22 April 1427. Edmund became a commander in the English army in 1431, in 1432 was one of the envoys to the Council of Basel. After his recapture of Harfleur and his lifting of the Burgundian siege of Calais, he was named a Knight of the Garter in 1436. After subsequent successes he was created Earl of Dorset on 28 August 1442 and Marquess of Dorset on 24 June 1443. During the five-year truce from 1444 to 1449 he served as Lieutenant of France. On 31 March 1448 he was created Duke of Somerset; as the title had been held by his brother, he is sometimes mistakenly called the second duke, but the title was created for the second time, so he was the first duke, the numbering starting over again. Somerset was appointed to replace York as commander in France in 1448. Fighting began in Normandy in August 1449. Somerset's subsequent military failures left him vulnerable to criticism from York's allies. Somerset was supposed to be paid £20,000, he failed to repulse French attacks, by the summer of 1450 nearly all the English possessions in northern France were lost.
By 1453 all the English possessions in the south of France were lost, the Battle of Castillon ended the Hundred Years War. The fall of the duke of Suffolk left Somerset the chief of the king's ministers, the Commons in vain petitioned for his removal in January 1451. Power rested with Somerset and he monopolised it, with Margaret of Anjou, wife of Henry VI, as one of his principal allies, it was widely suspected that Edmund had an extra-marital affair with Margaret. After giving birth to a son in October 1453, Margaret took great pains to quash rumours that Somerset might be his father. During her pregnancy, Henry had suffered a mental breakdown, leaving him in a withdrawn and unresponsive state that lasted for one and a half years; this medical condition, untreatable either by court physicians or by exorcism, plagued him throughout his life. During Henry's illness, the child was baptised Prince of Wales, with Somerset as godfather. Somerset's fortunes, soon changed when his rival York assumed power as Lord Protector in April 1454 and imprisoned him in the Tower of London.
Somerset's life was saved only by the King's seeming recovery late in 1454, which forced York to surrender his office. Henry agreed to recognise Edward as his heir, putting rest to concerns about a successor prompted by his known aversion to physical contact. Somerset was honourably discharged, restored to his office as Captain of Calais. By now York was determined to depose Somerset by one means or another, in May 1455 he raised an army, he confronted Somerset and the King in an engagement known as the First Battle of St Albans which marked the beginning of the Wars of the Roses. Somerset was killed in a last wild charge from the house, his son, never forgave York and Warwick for his father's death, he spent the next nine years attempting to restore his family's honour. Edmund married sometime between 1431 and 1433, daughter of Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick and his first wife, Elizabeth. Eleanor was an o
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Battle of Hexham
The Battle of Hexham marked the end of significant Lancastrian resistance in the north of England during the early part of the reign of Edward IV. The battle was fought near the town of Hexham in Northumberland. John Neville to be 1st Marquess of Montagu, led a modest force of 3,000-4,000 men, routed the rebel Lancastrians. Most of the rebel leaders were captured and executed, including Henry Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, Lord Hungerford. Henry VI, was kept safely away, escaped to the north. With their leadership gone, only a few castles remained in rebel hands. After these fell in the year, Edward IV was not challenged until the Earl of Warwick changed his allegiance from the Yorkist to the Lancastrian cause in 1469. After the Battle of Hedgeley Moor, the Lancastrians failed to prevent the Yorkists from concluding peace negotiations with Scotland in 1463, soon found that their northern base of operations was now threatened, it was decided to mount a campaign in the north of England to gather Lancastrian support before a huge force under Edward IV could muster in Leicester and move north to crush the rebellion.
The Lancastrian army moved through Northumberland in late April 1464 under the Duke of Somerset, gathered support from Lancastrian garrisons until it camped near to Hexham in early May. A Yorkist force under John Neville raced north as vanguard of Edward's larger force, the two sides met outside Hexham on 14 May 1464. Details of the site of the battle, the composition and number of combatants and the events are sketchy but it is thought that the battle was bloodless; the Lancastrian camp was near Linnels Bridge over the Devil's Water found to the south of Hexham. The Yorkists crossed onto the south bank of the Tyne on the night of 12–13 May and were, by the morning of the 14th, in a position to attack Hexham; the Yorkist advance was at speed, as despite warnings by their own scouts the Lancastrians had little time to prepare for battle. It is thought that Somerset rushed his forces to a site near Linnels Bridge and deployed his troops in three detachments in a meadow near the Devil's Water, there he hoped he could engage the Yorkist army before it moved past him into Hexham.
No sooner had the Lancastrians taken their positions than the Yorkists charged down from their positions on higher ground. Upon seeing the Yorkist advance the right detachment of the Lancastrian army, commanded by Lord Roos and fled across the Devil's Water and into Hexham, before a single blow had been struck; the remnants of Somerset's force were in a hopeless situation, unable to manoeuvre. Lancastrian morale collapsed, after some token resistance the remains of Somerset's army was pushed into the Devil's Water by the Yorkist infantry. A chaotic rout followed, men either drowned in the river or were crushed as they tried to climb the steep banks of the Devil's Water in the retreat towards Hexham. Most, were trapped in West Dipton Wood on the north bank of the river and were forced to surrender when the Yorkists approached. Neville showed little of Edward's conciliatory spirit, had thirty leading Lancastrians executed in Hexham on the evening following the battle, including Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset, Lord Roos.
Sir William Tailboys was captured and executed shortly after he tried to flee north with £2,000 of Henry's war chest. Upon the loss of its leadership and bankroll, the Lancastrian resistance in the North of England collapsed; the capture of Henry at Waddington, near Clitheroe, meant that the rebellion was over. There followed a relative period of peace until the Earl of Warwick's defection to the Lancastrian cause in 1469 and the wars started anew
Red Rose of Lancaster
The Red Rose of Lancaster is the county flower of Lancashire. The exact species or cultivar which the red rose relates to is uncertain, but it is thought to be Rosa gallica officinalis; the rose. It was one of the badges of Henry IV of the first king of the House of Lancaster. Following the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, it became the emblem of Lancashire. Lancaster's Red Rose is an official variety and is the first cultivated rose; the rose was discovered by the ancient Persians and Egyptians. Adopted by the Romans, who introduced it to Gaul where it assumed the name Rosa gallica, it is documented. The rose was appreciated for its medical value and was utilized in countless medical remedies; the Red Rose of Lancaster derives from the gold rose badge of Edward I of England. Other members of his family used variants of the royal badge, with the king's brother, the Earl of Lancaster, using a red rose, it is believed that the Red Rose of Lancaster was the House of Lancaster's badge during the Wars of the Roses.
Evidence for this "wearing of the rose" includes land tenure records requiring service of a red rose yearly for a manor held directly from Henry VI of England. There are, doubts as to whether the red rose was an emblem taken up by the Lancastrians during the Wars of the Roses. Adrian Ailes has noted that the red rose “probably owes its popular usage to Henry VII responding to the pre-existing Yorkist white rose in an age when signs and symbols could speak louder than words." It allowed Henry to invent and exploit his most famous heraldic device, the Tudor Rose, combining the so-called Lancastrian red rose and the White Rose of York. This floral union neatly symbolised the restoration of peace and harmony and his marriage in January 1486 to Elizabeth of York, it was a brilliant piece of simple heraldic propaganda.” The Tudor Rose is used as the plant badge of England. The rose does not form any part of the insignia of the Duchy of Lancaster, but came to be seen as an emblem of the county of Lancashire, as such was incorporated in the coats of arms of numerous Lancashire local authorities including the county council.
Since 1974 a number of metropolitan boroughs in Greater Manchester and Merseyside have included red roses in their armorial bearings to show their formation from parts of Lancashire. It is present in the crest of the coat of arms of the London Borough of Enfield; the traditional Lancashire flag, a red rose on a white field, was never registered with the Flag Institute and when this was attempted it was found that this flag had been registered by the town of Montrose, Scotland. As two flags of the same design can not be registered, Lancashire’s official flag is now registered as a red rose on a yellow field. Today the Red Rose is still used, not on a yellow background. Lancashire County Cricket Club still use; the Trafford Centre features Red Roses in its architecture, most noticeably on all of the glass panes in the shopping centre. Lancashire GAA features. Manchester City Football Club featured the red rose on the club badge from 1972 to 1997 and reinstated it in 2015, reflecting Manchester's history as part of Lancashire.
It features on the badge of Blackburn Rovers and Bolton Wanderers. Edge Hill University in Ormskirk uses the Red Rose on a yellow background on its crest along with a Liver bird which signifies its current location and origins in Liverpool; the shield of Lancashire County Council's coat of arms, displays not one but three red roses, on gold piles on a red background. The arms have been official since 1903. From the nineteenth century the red rose was part of the badge of a number of units of the British Army recruiting in the county. In World War I the rose; the cap badge of the Duke of Lancaster's Regiment, formed in 2006, features. The Saskatoon Light Infantry of the Canadian Army incorporated the red rose into the design of their cap badge and regimental buttons, due to an alliance with the York and Lancaster Regiment of the British Army; the Canadian city of Montreal has a Lancastrian rose in the top right hand corner of its flag, representing the city's historical English community. The U.
S. City of Lancaster, known as "Red Rose City", uses the Lancastrian rose as its seal, in its flag. Royal Badges of England Wars of the Roses White Rose of York Tudor rose Lancashire villages homepage concerning the rose 55th Territorial