USS Belknap (CG-26)
USS Belknap, named for Rear Admirals George E. Belknap and Reginald Rowan Belknap, was the lead ship of her class of guided missile cruisers in the United States Navy, she was launched in 1963 as DLG-26, a guided missile frigate under the then-current designation system, reclassified as CG-26 on 30 June 1975. On 22 November 1975, Belknap and the aircraft carrier John F. Kennedy collided, killing seven sailors on the cruiser and one on the aircraft carrier. Belknap, the first of a new class of guided missile frigates, was laid down by the Bath Iron Works Corporation at Bath in Maine on 5 February 1962, she was christened by Mrs. Leonard B. Cresswell, the granddaughter and daughter of the RADMs Belknap and was launched by the Bath Iron Works, Maine on 20 July 1963 and commissioned on 7 November 1964. Belknap was damaged in a collision with the aircraft carrier John F. Kennedy on 22 November 1975 off the coast of Sicily. A fire broke out on Belknap following the collision, during the fire her aluminum superstructure was melted and gutted to the deck level.
Seven sailors were killed on one on John F. Kennedy. Shortly after the fire began, boats from other vessels operating with John F. Kennedy and Belknap began to pull alongside the burning ship with complete disregard for their own safety; the guided missile destroyer Claude V. Ricketts and destroyer Bordelon moved in on both sides of Belknap, their men directing fire hoses into the amidships area that the stricken ship’s crew could not reach. Bordelon was badly damaged in a collision with Kennedy the following year which forced her removal from service. Claude V. Ricketts moved in and secured alongside Belknap’s port side, evacuated the injured while fragments from exploding ammunition showered down upon her weather decks; the frigate Pharris closed in the carrier’s starboard side to provide fire-fighting assistance. Ammunition from Belknap’s three-inch ready storage locker, located amidships, cooked off, hurling fiery fragments into the air and splashing around the rescue boats. Undaunted, the rescuers pulled out the wounded and delivered fire-fighting supplies to the sailors who refused to surrender their ship to the conflagration.
The ammunition ship Mount Baker was involved in the rescue and salvage of Belknap, escorting her to an ammunition depot and providing electric and water services as Mount Baker's Explosive Ordnance Disposal team retrieved all of the remaining ammunition from Belknap. Mount Baker took aboard most of Belknap's crew until they could be transferred to a way station for re-assignment; the fire and the resultant damage and deaths, which would have been less had Belknap's superstructure been made of steel, helped persuade the US Navy to pursue all-steel construction in future classes of surface combatants. However, in 1987 the New York Times cited cracking in aluminum superstructures such as what occurred in the Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates, rather than fire, as the reason the Navy returned to steel on some ships; the first USN combatant ships to revert to all steel superstructure were the Arleigh Burke class, which were commissioned beginning in the 1990s. Belknap was reconstructed by the Philadelphia Navy Yard from 30 January 1976 to 10 May 1980.
Since the hull was still in good condition the Navy decided to use this as a test platform for the Aegis class cruiser electronics and updated weapons systems. Until the Aegis class cruisers came along Belknap was one of the most powerful warships in the world and saw service in Beirut as part of the multinational peacekeeping force, becoming the first ship to fire on an enemy since the Vietnam War, it was the ship's Naval Tactical Data Systems' reliability during this time in Beirut, named as the defining reason that the Belknap was chosen as the Sixth Fleet flagship. Belknap was converted to a flagship by Norfolk Naval Shipyard from May 1985 to February 1986; this conversion work entailed building out the superstructure forward to just aft of the missile launcher and three decks up to add flag spaces, additional communications gear. In addition, the helicopter hangar aft was turned into accommodation spaces for flag staff and a small detachment of Marines. After this conversion she became Sixth Fleet flagship, relieving Coronado.
On 27 May 1989, she participated in a naval parade with ships from 10 countries at Barcelona. Belknap played a role in the Malta Summit between US President George H. W. Bush and Soviet Leader Mikhail Gorbachev on 2 December and 3 December 1989; the US President, along with his advisers, James Baker, John Sununu and Brent Scowcroft, had their sleeping quarters aboard Belknap, whereas the Soviet delegation used the missile cruiser Slava. The ships were anchored in a roadstead off the coast of Marsaxlokk. Stormy weather and choppy seas resulted in some meetings being cancelled or rescheduled, gave rise to the moniker the "Seasick Summit" among international media. In the end, the meetings took place aboard Maxsim Gorkiy, a Soviet cruise ship anchored in the harbor at La Valletta. Engineers from the Navy Ship Systems Engineering Station devised a mooring arrangement for this event, despite the worst-case 100-year storm event, Belknap held its ground using emergency operating procedures as outlined by the engineers.
Belknap was decommissioned and stricken from the Naval Vessel Register on 15 February 1995 and sunk as a target on 24 September 1998. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here. This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U. S. government publication, is in the public domain. The entry can be found here. Dicti
A warship or combatant ship is a naval ship, built and intended for naval warfare. They belong to the armed forces of a state; as well as being armed, warships are designed to withstand damage and are faster and more manoeuvrable than merchant ships. Unlike a merchant ship, which carries cargo, a warship carries only weapons and supplies for its crew. Warships belong to a navy, though they have been operated by individuals and corporations. In wartime, the distinction between warships and merchant ships is blurred. In war, merchant ships are armed and used as auxiliary warships, such as the Q-ships of the First World War and the armed merchant cruisers of the Second World War; until the 17th century it was common for merchant ships to be pressed into naval service and not unusual for more than half a fleet to be composed of merchant ships. Until the threat of piracy subsided in the 19th century, it was normal practice to arm larger merchant ships such as galleons. Warships have often been used as troop carriers or supply ships, such as by the French Navy in the 18th century or the Japanese Navy during the Second World War.
In the time of Mesopotamia, Ancient Persia, Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire, warships were always galleys: long, narrow vessels powered by banks of oarsmen and designed to ram and sink enemy vessels, or to engage them bow-first and follow up with boarding parties. The development of catapults in the 4th century BC and the subsequent refinement of this technology enabled the first fleets of artillery-equipped warships by the Hellenistic age. During late antiquity, ramming fell out of use and the galley tactics against other ships used during the Middle Ages until the late 16th century focused on boarding. Naval artillery was redeveloped in the 14th century, but cannon did not become common at sea until the guns were capable of being reloaded enough to be reused in the same battle; the size of a ship required to carry a large number of cannons made oar-based propulsion impossible, warships came to rely on sails. The sailing man-of-war emerged during the 16th century. By the middle of the 17th century, warships were carrying increasing numbers of cannon on their broadsides and tactics evolved to bring each ship's firepower to bear in a line of battle.
The man-of-war now evolved into the ship of the line. In the 18th century, the frigate and sloop-of-war – too small to stand in the line of battle – evolved to convoy trade, scout for enemy ships and blockade enemy coasts. During the 19th century a revolution took place in the means of marine propulsion, naval armament and construction of warships. Marine steam engines were introduced, at first as an auxiliary force, in the second quarter of the 19th century; the Crimean War gave a great stimulus to the development of guns. The introduction of explosive shells soon led to the introduction of iron, steel, armour for the sides and decks of larger warships; the first ironclad warships, the French Gloire and British Warrior, made wooden vessels obsolete. Metal soon replaced wood as the main material for warship construction. From the 1850s, the sailing ships of the line were replaced by steam-powered battleships, while the sailing frigates were replaced by steam-powered cruisers; the armament of warships changed with the invention of the rotating barbettes and turrets, which allowed the guns to be aimed independently of the direction of the ship and allowed a smaller number of larger guns to be carried.
The final innovation during the 19th century was the development of the torpedo and development of the torpedo boat. Small, fast torpedo boats seemed to offer an alternative to building expensive fleets of battleships. Another revolution in warship design began shortly after the start of the 20th century, when Britain launched the Royal Navy's all-big-gun battleship Dreadnought in 1906. Powered by steam turbines, it was bigger and more gunned than any existing battleships, which it rendered obsolete, it was followed by similar ships in other countries. The Royal Navy developed the first battlecruisers. Mounting the same heavy guns as the Dreadnoughts on an larger hull, battlecruisers sacrificed armour protection for speed. Battlecruisers were faster and more powerful than all existing cruisers, which they made obsolete, but battlecruisers proved to be much more vulnerable than contemporary battleships; the torpedo-boat destroyer was developed at the same time as the dreadnoughts. Bigger and more gunned than the torpedo boat, the destroyer evolved to protect the capital ships from the menace of the torpedo boat.
At this time, Britain developed the use of fuel oil to produce steam to power warships, instead of coal. While reliance on coal required navies to adopt a "coal strategy" to remain viable, fuel oil produced twice the power and was easier to handle. Tests were conducted by the Royal Navy in 1904 involving the torpedo-boat destroyer Spiteful, the first warship powered by fuel oil; these proved its superiority, all warships procured for the Royal Navy from 1912 were designed to burn fuel oil. During the lead-up to the Second World War and Great Britain once again emerged as the two dominant Atlantic sea powers. Germany, under the Treaty of Versailles, had its navy limited to only a few minor surface ships, but the clever use of deceptive terminology, such as "Panzerschiffe" deceived the British and French commands. They were surprised when ships such as Admiral Graf Spee and Gneisenau raided the Allied supply lines; the greatest threat though, was the introduction of the Kriegsmarine's largest vessels and Tirpitz
Blockade of Wonsan
The Blockade of Wonsan, or the Siege of Wonsan, from February 16, 1951 to July 27, 1953, during the Korean War, was the longest naval blockade in modern history, lasting 861 days. UN naval forces from the United States kept the strategically important city of Wonsan from being used by the North Korean Navy; the blockade served to divert communist troops from the front line. North Korean resistance used artillery to oppose the American fleet, although this was ineffective, the city was damaged by UN naval aircraft and warships. Wonsan was a strategic point during the war, located on North Korea's southeastern coast with a large harbor, an airfield, a petroleum refinery, 75,000 people, as many as 80,000 troops, including several artillery batteries. After the Battle of Inchon, in which General Douglas MacArthur landed on the northwestern shores of the Korean peninsula, he ordered X Corps to make a landing at Wonsan where they would proceed west, link up with the Eighth Army and advance towards Pyongyang, the capital of North Korea.
North Korean naval forces had been well supplied by the Soviet Union and China with all sorts of sea mines and they were used as much as possible to defend Wonsan. Soviet military advisors were employed to create more effective mine fields. One of the first objectives of the operation was to begin plotting the locations of mines and destroy them; because of this, the use of minesweepers became a necessity and dozens would serve in the blockade. Operation Wonsan, or the Clearance of Wonsan, began on October 10 of 1950, ten days before the landing was scheduled to take place. Rear Admiral James H. Doyle commanded Task Force 90, a fleet of dozens of American warships which were used in the clearance. Two days on October 12, mines sank the sweepers USS Pledge and USS Pirate, killing twelve men and wounding dozens of others, all while under accurate fire from North Korean shore batteries; the United States Navy Pacific Fleet responded by starting the production of new minesweepers in the largest shipbuilding program since World War II.
Other vessels were damaged by mines and battery fire as well but the loss of the Pirate and Pledge proved to be the major engagement during the operation. Operation Tailboard was the codename for the United States Army landing at Wonsan, it was found to have been unnecessary. Preparations began over 800 miles away at Inchon where on October 15, thousands of marines and soldiers, 30,184 in total, embarked transports to participate in the landing; when they arrived off Wonsan on October 20, the clearance of the mine fields was still taking place so for five days X Corps and the 1st Marine Division were forced to remain on ship to wait for a clear path to the beaches. When it came time to land on October 25, the North Koreans had withdrawn and the British and South Koreans were securing the area; the landing was not needed and MacArthur was criticized for not using the X Corps in the pursuit of the retreating North Korean Army on the Inchon front. On October 19, the South Korean Army captured Pyongyang so instead of heading there the American army went north along the coast to occupy Hungnam and the Chosin Reservoir areas while the 3rd Infantry Division landed at Wonsan in November as reinforcements.
UN forces would not hold Wonsan for long: after the massive Chinese intervention in the war, Allied forces were ordered to evacuate Wonsan on December 9, 1950, taking 7,009 refugees, 3,384 military personnel, 1,146 vehicles and 10,013 tons of cargo in the process. General MacArthur's plan was to regroup in Japan before launching another offensive, while holding Pusan Perimeter; when the North Koreans and Chinese recaptured the city, defenses were rebuilt in a more formidable way, additional sea mines were deployed and new artillery batteries were erected. The blockade began on February 16, 1951 and would last 861 days until the armistice in July 1953. During nearly three years of blockading United States Navy ships and aircraft engaged shore batteries repeatedly. Several American vessels were damaged by land based artillery fire. UN Task Group 95.2 was assigned to the blockade and they first bombarded Wonsan on February 17, 1951, targeting everything used by the communists and causing heavy damage.
On February 19, the destroyer USS Ozbourn, under Commander Charles O. Akers, was fired on by shore batteries in the Wonsan area, she received two direct hits and several near misses and rescued a downed pilot from USS Valley Forge with a motor boat, while he was adrift in a mine field. The boat officer of the boat received a Bronze Star for the rescue. Ozbourn returned to San Diego in April 1951 for repairs and sailed back to North Korea. On February 24, the undefended island of Sindo-ri, in Wonsan Harbor, was captured by South Korean marines supported by two American destroyers and two frigates. Wonsan shore batteries dueled with UN warships on March 3, but there were no recorded hits; the battleship USS New Jersey participated in her first shore bombardment mission of the war on May 20, 1951. While patrolling off Wonsan, North Korean batteries opened fire and she was struck by one shell. Damaged, she sustained one man killed and two wounded, her only casualties during the war. Another shot was a near miss and passed over New Jersey from aft to port.
She responded by bombarding the enemy position until they were silenced. The type of warfare experienced at Wonsan would last throughout the war. Operation Fireball was the code name for a bombardment of the Wonsan area from May through September, it involved the cooperation of naval vessels and aircraft from the 5th Air Force which caused heavy damage to the North Koreans. On the night of May 21 and May 22, during the height
USS Badger (FF-1071)
USS Badger was a Knox-class frigate in service with in the United States Navy from 1970 to 1991. She was sunk as a target in 1998; the first USS Badger was named for Commodore Oscar C. Badger, the father of Rear Admiral Charles J. Badger, the son of the commodore and the father of the admiral, was honored by the naming of the destroyer USS Charles J. Badger, the grandfather of Admiral Oscar C. Badger; this Badger honors all four men. Badger was laid down on 17 February 1968 at Todd Shipyards, Los Angeles Division, San Pedro, California. Badger. Badger completed fitting out at the Long Beach Naval Shipyard in January 1971 and spent most of the spring engaged in tests and shakedown training, she completed final contract trials in May, during which Badger set the speed record for Knox class frigates, over 30 knots. The following month, entered the Long Beach Naval Shipyard for post-shakedown availability. During that availability, she received extensive modifications including the addition of a basic point defense missile system and of an independent variable depth sonar system.
Because of those changes, Badger underwent a post-shakedown availability that lasted until mid-November. From that time until mid-March 1972, the destroyer escort conducted a series of underway tests and training evolutions and underwent readiness inspections. On 16 March 1972, she stood out of Long Beach on her way to the Far East. Along the way, Badger stopped at Pearl Harbor and Guam before arriving in Subic Bay on 7 April. On the following evening, Badger stood out of Subic bound for the Vietnam War zone, she arrived in Danang, South Vietnam, two days and, after a four-hour layover, again got underway, bound for the northern gunline near the mouth of the Cua Viet River. She began gunfire support missions on the 11th and, on the 13th, received her first counterbattery fire. Two days she suffered superficial damage from a communist shore battery after her five-inch gun had been put out of action by a fouled bore and an overheated barrel; that day, the ship headed back to Danang to have her five-inch gun barrel replaced by the repair ship USS Hector.
She soon arrived back on the gunline. On the 19th, Badger was switched to plane guard duty for the aircraft carrier USS Constellation in the Gulf of Tonkin; that assignment lasted two days short of a month. On 17 May, destroyer escort USS Albert David relieved her, Badger shaped a course for Sasebo, Japan. Following a week of availability and liberty, Badger departed Sasebo on 29 May 1972 and, on 2 June, joined guided missile cruiser USS Sterett on the middle sea-air rescue station in the Gulf of Tonkin. Four days however, she was reassigned to plane guard duty, this time for the ASW support carrier USS Ticonderoga. After spending 20 days supporting the carrier, Badger returned to gunfire support missions on 26 June. On 7 July, the warship resumed plane guard duties, this time for the carrier USS Midway, departed Vietnamese waters in company with that carrier; the following day, the ships moored in Subic Bay. Following upkeep, Badger headed back to the combat zone on 17 July 1972. Two days she resumed gunfire support duties.
During that assignment, the ocean escort joined five other American ships in providing gunfire support for operations carried out in Military Region II by the South Vietnamese Army's 22d Division. On 9 August, she was assigned duty interdicting communist waterborne logistics and remained so engaged until 12 August when she relieved guided missile frigate USS Worden as plane guard for Midway, once again headed for Subic Bay; the two ships reached their destination on 14 August but departed again the next day bound for Hong Kong. Badger conducted an upkeep and liberty period at that port from 17 to 23 August and got underway on the latter day to return to the Philippines, she arrived in Subic Bay on 24 August for repairs before putting to sea on the 30th, bound for Vietnamese waters. Upon her return to the combat zone, the warship took up position as escort for the guided missile cruiser USS Long Beach on the middle SAR station. During that tour of duty, she kept an eye on two Chinese merchantmen in the area.
When the guided missile frigate USS Gridley relieved Long Beach, Badger continued on station until 10 September, when she was relieved of middle SAR station escort duties by her sistership USS Hepburn and proceeded to rendezvous with the carrier USS Hancock. Badger provided plane guard services for the carrier as she made her final air strikes of the war and escorted Hancock to Subic Bay, arriving there on 15 September. After four days in port, the destroyer escort put to sea and shaped a course for Yokosuka, where she made an overnight stop on 22 and 23 September before setting sail for the United States in company with Hancock. After a nonstop voyage across the Pacific, highlighted by several fueling-at-sea operations, Badger arrived back in Long Beach on 4 October; the usual post-deployment stand-down ensued as did a restricted availability at the Todd Shipyard in Los Angeles, California. The latter began on 8 January 1973 and included the conversion of her main propulsion system to Navy distillate fuel and the installation of a light airborne multipurpose system.
Badger completed those modifications on 18 May 1973 and put to sea for trials and single ship exercises in the southern California operating area. Normal west
Geojedo or Geoje Island is the principal island of Geoje City, on the southern coast of Gyeongsangnam-do province, South Korea. It is joined to land by two bridges from nearby Tongyeong. Gohyeon is the largest town on the island; the Busan-Geoje Fixed Link was open in December 2010 and provides a more direct connection to the city of Busan. Geoje Island covers an area of the second largest island in South Korea; the landscape features several peaks: Gara, the skirmisher mountain and Googsabong. Geojedo is known for its rich deposits of granite; the southern belt of Geojedo, together with part of Namhaedo in Namhae County, belongs to Hallyeo Maritime National Park. Geoje Island features several natural harbors. Shipbuilding is the largest industry on the island; the second and third largest shipyards in South Korea are both located on the island, Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering in the city of Okpo, Samsung Heavy Industries in the city of Gohyeon. Geojedo During the Three Han States period, Geoje Island corresponded to one of the twelve states of Byeonhan state called Dokno 독로국, during the Shilla dynasty period, King Gyeongdeok in 757 A.
D. first started to use the name Geoje province "거제군" to refer to the island. In the Korea and Joseon dynasty period, after the area called Giseong was divided from Geoje 거제현 in 1914, the Geoje area was mistakenly called Tongyeong. During this period, the island was a strategic location between Japan and the Korean Peninsula, therefore suffered invasion by the Japanese; when the Japanese invaded Tongyeong in 1592, the Navy Headquarters of Three Provinces was established in Geoje which served as a command for many naval battles in the area. Included in these were the battle of May 1592. In the year 1597 the first and only naval defeat to the Japanese in Korean history took place at Chilcheon, Geoje. During the Korean War, UN Forces established the Geoje POW Camp in 1951 for captured North Koreans. In 1953 Geoje province became independent, in the early 1970s the shipbuilding industry began producing ships, so the population grew tremendously. In 1995 Geoje had a large enough population to be classified as a Geoje city.
It is now becoming the location for the driving force of Korea's economic development, the shipbuilding industry. Geoje is the hometown of the former president of Korea Kim Young-sam, it was the final port of call of the SS Meredith Victory at Christmastide 1950, when that ship evacuated some fourteen thousand North Korean civilians from Hungnam. Islands of South Korea Geography of South Korea List of Korea-related topics Geoje Foreigner's Residents Association – Foreigners' Club in Okpo Geojedo featured on JustEnoughKorean.com
Sokcho is a city in Gangwon-do province, South Korea. It is located in the far northeast of Gangwon-do. Lying north of the 38th parallel, the city belonged to North Korea from 1945 until the end of the Korean War, when the dividing line between the two Korean states was altered. Abai Maeul was set up as an area to house North Korean refugees in Sokcho due to the separation of the two Koreas. Many of the population have relatives in North Korea. Today, Sokcho receives a number of tourists attracted by the closeness to the DMZ; the city is a well-known gateway to nearby Seoraksan national park. Until the opening of the airport in Yangyang County, Sokcho had its own airport, linking the city to Seoul; the city still attracts many national and international tourists, not only because of Seorak-san, but because of its fine fishery products. The beach of Sokcho has a good reputation, is open all year round with the summer months being the most popular. There are natural hot springs in Sokcho, some of which have been developed into spas and pleasure swimming halls.
There are golf courses which are popular because of their natural surroundings. The nearby Yeongrangho lake is renowned for its beauty; the reflection of Seorak-san and its Ulsan-bawi are popular. There are a number of well-preserved Buddhist temples in the area around Sokcho; the main building of the Sinheungsa temple is a popular tourist destination. Popular is the Hyangseongsaji samcheung seoktap, a three-storey pagoda of 4.3 metres. It is located at the site of the Hyangseongsa temple. Sokcho is home to one of the few lakes created by the sea. Sokcho is a great place to explore Seoraksan National Park from and any of the number 7 buses will take visitors to the park entrance. Yeonggeumjeong is a popular pavilion built on the shores of Sokcho, it is not only popular for its magnificent views of the sunrise, but for the sound of the sea, thought to be nice at this site. It is thought. Sokcho offers many food districts to enjoys the local cuisine. Foodtown is a two block area dedicated to restaurants where visitors can find Korean style beef pork and chicken restaurants.
There are some bars and noraebangs. Daepo harbor, outside of Sokcho on the road to Yangyang offers upwards of 100 individual mini restaurants serving raw, grilled and deepfried seafood of every variety. On the north side of Sokcho near the lighthouse visitors can enjoy numerous raw fish restaurant as well as grilled. Abai Mauel, accessible by the Gaet-Bae offers more seafood and their own unique stuffed squid, Abai Sundae. In October Sokcho comes to life with the Seorak Cultural Festival. There is no shortage of events in. Parades, stage shows, contests and various other forms of entertainment all fill the calendar during the festival, and what festival would be complete without row after row of food stalls. An popular event is the rice cake making contest, the sampling that follows; the locals tell one not to miss the "Taffy Vendors". A troupe of professional entertainers that sing, dressed as the self described "Traditional Korean Beggar", who donate all proceeds from the sale of taffy and their CDs, to charities.
Another unusual event is the Gaet-Bae, or raft, race. Two teams propel the rafts across the course by pulling on long handled hooks catching the cable that straddles the deck of each raft. Sokcho straddles the line between a humid continental climate. Tourist attractions include Seoraksan, Cheoksan hot spring, Sokcho Beach and Abai village. In July 2016, Sokcho became one of the few locations in South Korea where Pokémon Go could be played due to government restrictions on mapping data. Players flocked to the city. Jeongeup, North Jeolla since June 13, 1996 Jung-gu, Seoul since January 22, 1997 Gresham, United States since June 23, 1985 Taitung County, Taiwan since April 16, 1992 Hunchun, People's Republic of China since August 22, 1994 Yonago, Japan since October 18, 1995 Khasansky, Primorsky Krai, Russia since July 19, 1996 Nyūzen, Japan since October 3, 1996 Sakaiminato, Japan since April 9, 2002 Partizansk, Primorsky Krai, Russia Seorak Cultural Festival List of cities in South Korea Dae Jo Yeong Sokcho city government English-language home page Sokcho-si:Official Site of Korea Tourism Org