Gaius Marius was a Roman general and statesman. He held the office of consul an unprecedented seven times during his career, he was noted for his important reforms of Roman armies, authorizing recruitment of landless citizens, eliminating the manipular military formations, reorganizing the structure of the legions into separate cohorts. Marius defeated the invading Germanic tribes, for which he was called "the third founder of Rome." His life and career were significant in Rome's transformation from Republic to Empire. Marius was born in 157 BC in the town of Arpinum in southern Latium; the town had been conquered by the Romans in the late 4th century BC and was given Roman citizenship without voting rights. Only in 188 BC did the town receive full citizenship. Although Plutarch claims that Marius' father was a labourer, this is certainly false since Marius had connections with the nobility in Rome, he ran for local office in Arpinum, he had marriage relations with the local nobility in Arpinum, which all combine to indicate that he was born into a locally important family of equestrian status.
The problems he faced in his early career in Rome show the difficulties that faced a "new man". There is a legend that Marius, as a teenager, found an eagle's nest with seven chicks in it – eagle clutches hardly have more than 3 eggs. Since eagles were considered sacred animals of Jupiter, the supreme god of the Romans, it was seen as an omen predicting his election to the consulship seven times; as consul, he decreed that the eagle would be the symbol of the Senate and People of Rome. In 134 BC, he was serving with the army at Numantia and his good services brought him to the attention of Scipio Aemilianus. Whether he arrived with Scipio Aemilianus or was serving in the demoralized army that Scipio Aemilianus took over at Numantia is not clear. According to Plutarch, during a conversation after dinner, when the conversation turned to generals, someone asked Scipio Aemilianus where the Roman people would find a worthy successor to him. Aemilianus gently tapped on Marius' shoulder, saying: "Perhaps this is the man."
It would seem that at this early stage in his army career, Marius had ambitions for a political career in Rome. He ran for election as one of the twenty-four special military tribunes of the first four legions who were elected. Sallust tells us that he was unknown by sight to the electors but was returned by all the tribes on the basis of his accomplishments. Next, he ran for the quaestorship after losing an election for local office in Arpinum; the military tribunate shows that he was interested in Roman politics before the quaestorship. He ran for local office as a means of gaining support back home, lost to some other local worthy. Nothing is known of his actions while quaestor. In 120 BC, Marius was returned as plebeian tribune for the following year, he won with the support of Quintus Caecilius Metellus, an inherited patronus. The Metelli, though neither ancient nor patrician, were one of the most powerful families in Rome at this time. During his tribunate, Marius pursued a populares line.
He passed a law. In the 130s voting by ballot had been introduced in elections for choosing magistrates, passing laws and deciding legal cases, replacing the earlier system of oral voting; the wealthy continued to try to influence the voting by inspecting ballots and Marius passed a law narrowing the passages down which voters passed to cast their votes in order to prevent outsiders from harassing the electors. In the passage of this law, Marius alienated the Metelli. Soon thereafter, Marius lost; this loss was at least in part due to the enmity of the Metelli. In 116 BC he won election as praetor for the following year and was promptly accused of ambitus, he won acquittal on this charge, spent an uneventful year as praetor in Rome. In 114 BC, Marius' imperium was prorogued and he was sent to govern Hispania Ulterior, where he engaged in some sort of minor military operation: according to Plutarch, he cleared away the robbers whilst robbery was still considered a noble occupation by the local people.
During this period in Roman history governors seem to have served two years in Hispania, so he was replaced in 113 BC. He received no triumph on his return and did not run for the consulship, but he did marry Julia, the aunt of Julius Caesar; the Julii Caesares were a patrician family, but at this period seem to have found it hard to advance above the praetorship. To judge by this marriage, Marius had achieved some substantial political or financial influence by this point; the Marii were the inherited clients of the Caecilii Metelli and a Caecilius Metellus had aided Marius' campaign for the tribunate. Although he seems to have had a break with the Metelli as a result of the laws he passed while tribune, the rupture was not permanent, since in 109 BC Quintus Caecilius Metellus took Marius with him as his legate on his campaign against Jugurtha. Legates were simply envoys sent by the Senate, but men appointed as legates by the Senate were used by generals as subordinate c
Pillars of Hercules
The Pillars of Hercules was the phrase, applied in Antiquity to the promontories that flank the entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar. The northern Pillar, Calpe Mons, is the Rock of Gibraltar. A corresponding North African peak not being predominant, the identity of the southern Pillar, Abila Mons, has been disputed throughout history, with the two most candidates being Monte Hacho in Ceuta and Jebel Musa in Morocco. According to Greek mythology adopted by the Etruscans and Romans, when Hercules had to perform twelve labours, one of them was to fetch the Cattle of Geryon of the far West and bring them to Eurystheus. A lost passage of Pindar quoted by Strabo was the earliest traceable reference in this context: "the pillars which Pindar calls the'gates of Gades' when he asserts that they are the farthermost limits reached by Heracles." Since there has been a one-to-one association between Heracles and Melqart since Herodotus, the "Pillars of Melqart" in the temple near Gades/Gádeira have sometimes been considered to be the true Pillars of Hercules.
According to Plato's account, the lost realm of Atlantis was situated beyond the Pillars of Hercules, in effect placing it in the realm of the Unknown. Renaissance tradition says the pillars bore the warning Ne plus ultra, serving as a warning to sailors and navigators to go no further. According to some Roman sources, while on his way to the garden of the Hesperides on the island of Erytheia, Hercules had to cross the mountain, once Atlas. Instead of climbing the great mountain, Hercules used his superhuman strength to smash through it. By doing so, he connected the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and formed the Strait of Gibraltar. One part of the split mountain is Gibraltar and the other is either Monte Hacho or Jebel Musa; these two mountains taken together have since been known as the Pillars of Hercules, though other natural features have been associated with the name. Diodorus Siculus, held that instead of smashing through an isthmus to create the Straits of Gibraltar, Hercules narrowed an existing strait to prevent monsters from the Atlantic Ocean from entering the Mediterranean Sea.
In some versions, Heracles instead built the two to hold the sky away from the earth, liberating Atlas from his damnation. Beyond Gades, several important Mauretanian colonies were founded by the Phoenicians as the Phoenician merchant navy pushed through the Pillars of Hercules and began constructing a series of bases along the Atlantic coast starting with Lixus in the north Chellah and Mogador. Near the eastern shore of the island of Gades/Gadeira Strabo describes the westernmost temple of Tyrian Heracles, the god with whom Greeks associated the Phoenician and Punic Melqart, by interpretatio graeca. Strabo notes that the two bronze pillars within the temple, each eight cubits high, were proclaimed to be the true Pillars of Hercules by many who had visited the place and had sacrificed to Heracles there, but Strabo believes the account to be fraudulent, in part noting that the inscriptions on those pillars mentioned nothing about Heracles, speaking only of the expenses incurred by the Phoenicians in their making.
The columns of the Melqart temple at Tyre were of religious significance. Syriac scholars were aware of the Pillars through their efforts to translate Greek scientific works into their language as well as into Arabic; the Syriac compendium of knowledge known as Ktaba d'ellat koll'ellan. "The Cause of all Causes", is unusual in asserting that there were three, not two, columns In Inferno XXVI Dante Alighieri mentions Ulysses in the pit of the Fraudulent Counsellors and his voyage past the Pillars of Hercules. Ulysses justifies endangering his sailors by the fact that his goal is to gain knowledge of the unknown. After five months of navigation in the ocean, Ulysses sights the mountain of Purgatory but encounters a whirlwind from it that sinks his ship and all on it for their daring to approach Purgatory while alive, by their strength and wits alone; the Pillars appear as supporters of the coat of arms of Spain, originating in the impresa of Spain's sixteenth century king Charles I, the Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V.
It was an idea of the Italian humanist Luigi Marliano. It bears the motto Plus Ultra, Latin for further beyond, implying; this was modified from the phrase Nec plus ultra, Nothing more beyond after the discovery of the Americas, which laid to rest the idea of the Pillars of Hercules as the westernmost extremity of the inhabitable world which had prevailed since Antiquity. The Pillars appear prominently on the engraved title page of Sir Francis Bacon's Instauratio Magna, 1620, an unfinished work of which the second part was his influential Novum Organum; the motto along the base says augebitur scientia. The image was based on the use of the pillars in Habsburg propaganda. On the Spanish coast at Los Barrios are Torres de Hercules which are twin towers that were inspired by the Pillars of Hercules; these towers were the tallest in Andalusia until Cajasol Tower was completed in Seville in 2015. Caves of Hercules Dollar sign
The Roman Republic was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. Roman society under the Republic was a cultural mix of Latin and Greek elements, visible in the Roman Pantheon, its political organisation was influenced by the Greek city states of Magna Graecia, with collective and annual magistracies, overseen by a senate. The top magistrates were the two consuls, who had an extensive range of executive, judicial and religious powers. Whilst there were elections each year, the Republic was not a democracy, but an oligarchy, as a small number of large families monopolised the main magistracies. Roman institutions underwent considerable changes throughout the Republic to adapt to the difficulties it faced, such as the creation of promagistracies to rule its conquered provinces, or the composition of the senate.
Unlike the Pax Romana of the Roman Empire, the Republic was in a state of quasi-perpetual war throughout its existence. Its first enemies were its Latin and Etruscan neighbours as well as the Gauls, who sacked the city in 387 BC; the Republic nonetheless demonstrated extreme resilience and always managed to overcome its losses, however catastrophic. After the Gallic Sack, Rome indeed conquered the whole Italian peninsula in a century, which turned the Republic into a major power in the Mediterranean; the Republic's greatest enemy was doubtless Carthage, against. The Punic general Hannibal famously invaded Italy by crossing the Alps and inflicted on Rome two devastating defeats at the Lake Trasimene and Cannae, but the Republic once again recovered and won the war thanks to Scipio Africanus at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC. With Carthage defeated, Rome became the dominant power of the ancient Mediterranean world, it embarked in a long series of difficult conquests, after having notably defeated Philip V and Perseus of Macedon, Antiochus III of the Seleucid Empire, the Lusitanian Viriathis, the Numidian Jugurtha, the great Pontic king Mithridates VI, the Gaul Vercingetorix, the Egyptian queen Cleopatra.
At home, the Republic experienced a long streak of social and political crises, which ended in several violent civil wars. At first, the Conflict of the Orders opposed the patricians, the closed oligarchic elite, to the far more numerous plebs, who achieved political equality in several steps during the 4th century BC; the vast conquests of the Republic disrupted its society, as the immense influx of slaves they brought enriched the aristocracy, but ruined the peasantry and urban workers. In order to solve this issue, several social reformers, known as the Populares, tried to pass agrarian laws, but the Gracchi brothers, Saturninus, or Clodius Pulcher were all murdered by their opponents, the Optimates, keepers of the traditional aristocratic order. Mass slavery caused three Servile Wars. In this context, the last decades of the Republic were marked by the rise of great generals, who exploited their military conquests and the factional situation in Rome to gain control of the political system.
Marius Sulla dominated in turn the Republic. These multiple tensions lead to a series of civil wars. Despite his victory and appointment as dictator for life, Caesar was murdered in 44 BC. Caesar's heir Octavian and lieutenant Mark Antony defeated Caesar's assassins Brutus and Cassius in 42 BC, but turned against each other; the final defeat of Mark Antony and his ally Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, the Senate's grant of extraordinary powers to Octavian as Augustus in 27 BC – which made him the first Roman emperor – thus ended the Republic. Since the foundation of Rome, its rulers had been monarchs, elected for life by the patrician noblemen who made up the Roman Senate; the last Roman king was Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. In the traditional histories, Tarquin was expelled in 509 because his son Sextus Tarquinius had raped the noblewoman Lucretia, who afterwards took her own life. Lucretia's father, her husband Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, Tarquin's nephew Lucius Junius Brutus mustered support from the Senate and army, forced Tarquin into exile in Etruria.
The Senate agreed to abolish kingship. Most of the king's former functions were transferred to two consuls, who were elected to office for a term of one year; each consul had the capacity to act as a check on his colleague, if necessary through the same power of veto that the kings had held. If a consul abused his powers in office, he could be prosecuted. Brutus and Collatinus became Republican Rome's first consuls. Despite Collatinus' role in the creation of the Republic, he belonged to the same family as the former king, was forced to abdicate his office and leave Rome, he was replaced as co-consul by Publius Valerius Publicola. Most modern scholarship describes these events as the quasi-mythological detailing of an aristocratic coup within Tarquin's own family, not a popular revolution, they fit a narrative of a personal vengeance against a tyrant leading to his overthrow, common among Greek cities and theorised by Aristotle
The Lusitanians were an Indo-European people living in the west of the Iberian Peninsula prior to its conquest by the Roman Republic and the subsequent incorporation of the territory into the Roman province of Lusitania. Classical sources mention Lusitanian leader Viriathus as the leader of the Celtiberians, in their war against the Romans; the Greco-Roman historian Diodorus Siculus attributed them a name of another Celtic tribe: "Those who are called Lusitanians are the bravest of all Cimbri". The Lusitanians were called Belitanians, according to the diviner Artemidorus. Strabo differentiated the Lusitanians from the Iberian tribes. Pliny the Elder and Pomponius Mela distinguished the Lusitanians from neighboring Celtic groups in their geographical writings; the original Roman province of Lusitania included the territories of Asturia and Gallaecia, but these were soon ceded to the jurisdiction of the Provincia Tarraconensis in the north, while the south remained the Provincia Lusitania et Vettones.
After this, Lusitania's northern border was along the Douro River, while its eastern border passed through Salmantica and Caesarobriga to the Anas river. Categorising Lusitanian culture including the language, is proving difficult and contentious; some believe it was a pre-Celtic Iberian culture with substantial Celtic influences, while others argue that it was an Celtic culture with strong indigenous pre-Celtic influences. The Lusitanians worshiped various gods in a diverse polytheism, using animal sacrifice, they represented their warriors in rudimentary sculpture. Endovelicus, was the most important god: his cult spread across the Iberian peninsula and beyond, to the rest of the Roman Empire and his cult was maintained until the fifth century; the goddess Ataegina was popular in the south. Lusitanian mythology was influenced or related to Celtic mythology. Well attested in inscriptions are the names Bandua with a second name linked to a locality such as Bandua Aetobrico, Nabia a goddess of rivers and streams.
The Lusitanian language was a Paleohispanic language that belongs to the Indo-European family. The precise affiliation of the Lusitanian language inside the Indo-European family is still in debate: there are those who endorse that it is a Celtic language with an obvious ‘celticity’ to most of the lexicon, over many anthroponyms and toponyms. A second theory relates Lusitanian with the Gallo-Italic languages; the Lusitanians were a people formed by several tribes that lived between the rivers Douro and Tagus, in most of today's Beira and Estremadura regions of central Portugal, some areas of the Extremadura region. They were a tribal confederation, not a single political entity. However, they had a common name for the tribes; each tribe was ruled by chief. Many members of the Lusitanian tribal aristocracy were warriors as happened in many other pre-Roman peoples of the Iron Age. Only when an external threat occurred did the different tribes politically unite, as happened at the time of the Roman conquest of their territory when Viriathus became the single leader of the Lusitanian tribes.
Punicus was another important Lusitanian chief before the Roman conquest. He ruled the Lusitanians for some time, leading the tribes in the resistance against Roman attempts of conquest, was successful; the known Lusitanian tribes were: Arabrigenses Aravi Coelarni/Colarni Interamnienses Lancienses Lancienses Oppidani Lancienses Transcudani Ocelenses Lancienses Meidubrigenses Paesuri - Douro and Vouga Palanti Calontienses Caluri Coerenses Tangi Elbocori Igaeditani Tapori/Tapoli - River Tagus, around the border area of Portugal and Spain TaluresIt remains to be known if the Turduli Veteres, Turduli Oppidani, Turduli Bardili, Turduli were Lusitanian tribes, were related Celtic peoples, or were instead related to the Turdetani and came from the south. The name Turduli Veteres, a tribe that dwelt in today's Aveiro District, seems to indicate they came from the north and not from the south. Several Turduli peoples or tribes were originally not Lusitanians, but instead were Callaeci tribes that came from the north towards the south along the coast and migrated inland along the Tagus and the Anas valleys.
More Lusitanian tribes are but their names are unknown. The Lusitanians were considered by historians to be adept at guerrilla warfare; the strongest amongst. They used hooked javelins or saunions made of iron, wielded swords and helmets like those of the Celtiberians, they threw their darts from some distance, yet hit their marks and wounded their targets deeply. Being active and nimble warriors, they would decapitate them. In times of peace, they ha
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces. Under the Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. During the Principate, Hispania Ulterior was divided into two new provinces and Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Hispania Tarraconensis. Subsequently, the western part of Tarraconensis was split off, first as Hispania Nova renamed "Callaecia". From Diocletian's Tetrarchy onwards, the south of remaining Tarraconensis was again split off as Carthaginensis, then too the Balearic Islands and all the resulting provinces formed one civil diocese under the vicarius for the Hispaniae; the name, was used in the period of Visigothic rule. The modern placenames Hispaniola are both derived from Hispania; the origin of the word Hispania is much disputed and the evidence for the various speculations are based upon what are at best mere resemblances to be accidental, suspect supporting evidence. One theory holds it to be from the Phoenician language of colonizing Carthage.
It may derive from a Punic cognate of Hebrew אי-שפניא meaning "island of the hyrax" or "island of the hare" or "island of the rabbit". Some Roman coins of the Emperor Hadrian, born in Hispania, depict a rabbit. Others derive the word from Phoenician span, meaning "hidden", make it indicate "a hidden", that is, "a remote", or "far-distant land". Another theory, proposed by the etymologist Eric Partridge in his work Origins, is that it is of Iberian derivation and that it is to be found in the pre-Roman name for Seville, which hints at an ancient name for the country of *Hispa, an Iberian or Celtic root whose meaning is now lost. Isidore of Sevilla considered Hispania derived from Hispalis. Hispalis may alternatively derive from Heliopolis. According to Manuel Pellicer Catalán, the name derives from Phoenician Spal "lowland", rendering this explanation of Hispania dubious. Hispania was called Hesperia Ultima, "the last western land" in Greek, by Roman writers, since the name Hesperia had been used by the Greeks to indicate the Italian peninsula.
Another theory holds that the name derives from Ezpanna, the Basque word for "border" or "edge", thus meaning the farthest area or place. During Antiquity and Middle Ages, the literary texts derive the term Hispania from an eponymous hero named Hispan, mentioned for the first time in the work of the Roman historian Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus, in the 1st century BC. Although "Hispania" is the Latin root for the modern name "Spain", substituting Spanish for Hispanicus or Hispanic, or Spain for Hispania, should be done and taking into account the correct context; the Estoria de España written on the initiative of Alfonso X of Castile "El Sabio", between 1260 and 1274, during the Reconquest of Spain, is believed to be the first extended history of Spain in Old Spanish using the words "España" and "Españoles" to refer to Medieval Hispania. The use of Latin "Hispania", Castilian "España", Catalan "Espanya" and French "Espaigne", between others, to refer to Roman Hispania or Visigothic Hispania was common throughout all the Late Middle Ages.
A document dated 1292 mentions the names of foreigners from Medieval Spain as "Gracien d'Espaigne". Latin expressions using "Hispania" or "Hispaniae" like "omnes reges Hispaniae" are used in the Middle Ages at the same time as the emerging Spain Romance languages during the Reconquista use the Romance version interchangeably. In James Ist Chronicle Llibre dels fets, written between 1208 and 1276, there are many instances of this: when it talks about the different Kings, "los V regnes de Espanya"; the Latin term Hispania used during Antiquity and the Low Middle Ages as a geographical name, starts to be used with political connotations, as shown in the expression "Laus Hispaniae" to describe the history of the peoples of the Iberian Peninsula of Isidore of Seville's "Historia de regibus Gothorum, Vandalorum et Suevorum".: You are, Oh Spain and always happy mother of princes and peoples, the most beautiful of all the lands that extend far from the West to India. You, by right, are now the queen of all provinces, from whom the lights are given not only the sunset, but the East.
You are the honor and ornament of the orb and the most illustrious portion of the Earth... And for this reason, long ago, the golden Rome desired you In modern history and Spanish have become associated with the Kingdom of Spain alone, although this process took several centuries. After the union of the central peninsular Kingdom of Castile with the eastern peninsular Kingdom of Aragon in the 15th century under the Catholic Monarchs in 1492, onl
The Guadalquivir is the fifth longest river in the Iberian Peninsula and the second longest river with its entire length in Spain. The Guadalquivir river is the only great navigable river in Spain, it is navigable from the Gulf of Cádiz to Seville, but in Roman times it was navigable to Córdoba. The Spanish river is 657 km long and drains an area of about 58,000 km2, it begins at Cañada de las Fuentes in the Cazorla mountain range, passes through Córdoba and Seville and ends at the fishing village of Bonanza, in Sanlúcar de Barrameda, flowing into the Gulf of Cádiz, in the Atlantic Ocean. The marshy lowlands at the river's end are known as "Las Marismas"; the river borders Doñana National Park reserve. The modern name of Guadalquivir comes from the Arabic al-wādi al-kabīr, meaning "great river". Classical Arabic Wadi is pronounced in present-day Maghrebi Arabic as Oued. There were a variety of names for the Guadalquivir in pre-Classical times. According to Titus Livius, The History of Rome, Book 28, the native people of Tartessians or Turdetanians called the river by two names: Kertis/Certis and Rerkēs.
Greek geographers sometimes called it the river of Tartessos, after the city of that name. The Romans called it by the name Baetis; the Phoenicians dealt in precious metals. The ancient city of Tartessos was said to have been located at the mouth of the Guadalquivir, although its site has not yet been found; the Romans, whose name for the river was Baetis, settled in Hispalis, in the 2nd century BC, making it into an important river port. By the 1st century BC Hispalis was a walled city with shipyards building longboats to carry wheat. In the 1st century AD the Hispalis was home to entire naval squadrons. Ships sailed to Rome with various products: minerals, fish, etc. During Arab rule between 712 and 1248, the Moors left a stone dock and the Torre del Oro, to reinforce the port defences. In the 13th century, Ferdinand III expanded the shipyards and from Seville's busy port, oil, wool, cheese, wax and dried fruit, salted fish, silk and dye were exported throughout Europe. A reconstructed waterwheel is located at Córdoba on the Guadalquivir River.
The Molino de la Albolafia waterwheel built by the Romans provided water for the nearby Alcázar gardens as well as being used to mill flour. After the discovery of the Americas, Seville became the economic centre of the Spanish Empire as its port monopolised the trans-oceanic trade and the Casa de Contratación wielded its power; as navigation of the Guadalquivir River became difficult Seville's trade monopoly was transferred to Cádiz. The construction of the artificial canal known as the Corta de Merlina in 1794 marked the beginning of the modernisation of the port of Seville. In late November 2010 the new Seville lock began to function as a regulator of the tides after five years of work; the Guadalquivir River Basin occupies an area of 63,085 km2 and has a long history of severe flooding. During the winter of 2010 heavy rainfall caused severe flooding in rural and agricultural areas in the provinces of Seville, Córdoba and Jaén in the Andalusia region; the accumulated rainfall in the month of February was above 250 mm, double the precipitation for Spain for that month.
In March 2010 several tributaries of the Guadalquivir flooded, causing over 1,500 people to flee their homes as a result of increased flow of the Guadalquivir, which on 6 March 2010 reached a volume of 2,000 m3/s in Córdoba and 2,700 m3/s in Seville. This was below that recorded in Seville in the flood of 1963 when a volume of 6,000 m3/s. was reached. During August 2010 when flooding occurred in Jaén, Córdoba and Seville; the Doñana disaster known as the Aznalcóllar Disaster or Guadiamar Disaster was an industrial accident in Andalusia. In April 1998 a holding dam burst at the Los Frailes mine, near Aznalcóllar, Seville Province, releasing 4 to 5 million cubic metres of mine tailings; the Doñana National Park was affected by this event. Of the numerous bridges spanning the Guadalquivir, one of the oldest is the Roman bridge of Córdoba. Significant bridges at Seville include the Puente del Alamillo, Puente de Isabel II or Puente de Triana, Puente del V Centenario; the El Tranco de Beas Dam at the head of the river was built between 1929 and 1944 as a hydroelectricity project of the Franco regime.
Doña Aldonza Dam is located in the Guadalquivir riverbed, in the Andalusian municipalities of Úbeda, Peal de Becerro and Torreperogil in the province of Jaén. The Port of Seville is the primary port on the Guadalquivir River; the Port Authority of Seville is responsible for developing, managing and marketing the Port of Seville. The entrance to the Port of Seville is protected by a lock that regulates the water level, making the port free of tidal influences; the Port of Seville contains over 2,700 m of 1,100 m of private berths. These docks and berths are used for solid and liquid bulk cargoes, roll-on/roll-off cargoes, private vessels and cruise ships. In 2001, the Port of Seville handled 4.9 million tonnes of cargo, including 3.0 million tonnes of solid bulk, 1.6 million tonnes of general cargo, over 264,000 tonnes (291,000
Sulla's first civil war
Sulla's first civil war was one of a series of civil wars in ancient Rome, between Gaius Marius and Sulla, between 88 and 87 BC. This was the first in a succession of several internal conflicts, which led to the dissolution of the Roman Republic and establishment of Julius Caesar as dictator; the Social War was fought against the Socii, Roman allies in Italy, was the result of Rome's intransigence in regarding the civil liberties of its own citizens as superior to those of the citizens of the rest of Italy. Subjects of the Roman Republic, these Italian provincials might be called to arms in its defence or might be subjected to extraordinary taxes, but they had no say in the expenditure of these taxes or in the uses of the armies that might be raised in their territories; the Social War was, in part, caused by the assassination of Marcus Livius Drusus the Younger. His reforms were intended to grant to the Roman allies in Italy full Roman citizenship, which would have given the provincials a say in the external and internal policies of the Roman Republic.
When Drusus was assassinated, most of his reforms addressing these grievances were declared invalid. This declaration angered the Roman provincials, in consequence, most allied against Rome. At the beginning of the Social War, the Roman aristocracy and Senate began fearing Marius' ambition, which had given him six consulships from 104 BC to 100 BC, they felt determined. In this last rebellion of the Italian allies, Sulla served with brilliance as a general, he outshone the consul Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo. For example, in 89 BC Sulla captured Aeclanum, the chief town of Hirpini, by setting the wooden breastwork on fire; as a result of his success in bringing the Social War to a successful conclusion, he was elected consul for the first time in 88 BC, with Quintus Pompeius Rufus as his colleague. As the consul of Rome, Sulla prepared to depart once more for the East to fight against King Mithridates VI of Pontus, a command that Marius had coveted. Marius convinced the tribune Publius Sulpicius Rufus to call an assembly and revert the Senate's decision on Sulla's command.
Sulpicius used the assemblies to eject Senators from the Roman Senate until there were not enough senators to form a quorum. Violence in the Forum ensued and the efforts of the nobles to effect a public lynching similar to that which had happened to the brothers Gracchi and Saturninus were smashed by the gladiatorial bodyguard of Sulpicius. Sulla was forced to take refuge in Marius' house, made a personal plea to stop the violence, ignored. Sulla's own son-in-law was killed in those riots. Sulla fled Rome and went to the camp of his victorious Social War veterans, waiting to cross to Greece from the south of Italy, he announced the measures, taken against him, his soldiers stoned the envoys of the assemblies who came to announce that the command of the Mithridatic War had been transferred to Marius. Sulla took six of his most loyal legions and marched on Rome; this action was an unprecedented event. No general before him had crossed the city limits, the pomerium, with his army, it was so unethical.
Sulla justified his actions on the grounds that the Senate had been neutered and the mos maiorum had been offended by the negation of the rights of the consuls of the year to fight the wars of that year. A force of armed gladiators raised by the Marians failed to resist Sulla's organized military force and Marius and his followers fled the city. Sulla and his supporters in the Senate passed a death sentence on Marius, Sulpicius and a few other allies of Marius. A few men were executed, but Marius narrowly escaped capture and death on several occasions and found safety in Africa. Sulla consolidated his position, declared Marius and his allies hostes and addressed the Senate in harsh tones, portraying himself as a victim to justify his violent entrance into the city. After restructuring the city's politics and with the Senate's power strengthened, Sulla returned to his camp and proceeded with the original plan of fighting Mithridates in Pontus. Sulpicius was betrayed and killed by one of his slaves, whom Sulla subsequently freed executed.
Marius, fled to safety in Africa. With Sulla out of Rome, Marius plotted his return. During his period of exile Marius became determined that he would hold a seventh consulship, as foretold by the Sybil decades earlier. Fighting broke out between the conservative supporters of Sulla, led by Gnaeus Octavius, the popularis supporters of Cinna. Marius along with his son returned from exile in Africa with an army he had raised there and by the end of 87 BC combined with Cinna and the Roman war hero Quintus Sertorius to enter Rome, oust Octavius and take control of the city. Based on the orders of Marius, some of his soldiers went through Rome killing the leading supporters of Sulla, including Octavius, their heads were exhibited in the Forum. After five days, Quintus Sertorius and Cinna ordered their more disciplined troops to kill Marius's rampaging slave army. All told. Marius declared Sulla's reforms and laws invalid, o