Sigismund I the Old
Sigismund I of Poland, of the Jagiellon dynasty, reigned as King of Poland and as the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1506 until 1548. Earlier, Sigismund had been invested as Duke of Silesia. A successful monarch and a great patron of arts, he established Polish suzerainty over Ducal Prussia and incorporated the duchy of Mazovia into the Polish state, securing the nation's wealth and power. Sigismund I, the fifth son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Habsburg, had ruled Głogów, since 1499 and became margrave of Lusatia and governor of all Silesia in 1504. In a short time his judicial and administrative reforms transformed those territories into model states, he succeeded his brother Alexander I as grand prince of Lithuania and king of Poland in 1506. Although he established fiscal and monetary reforms, he clashed with the Polish Diet over extensions of royal power. At the Diet’s demand he married Barbara, daughter of Prince Stephen Zápolya of Hungary, in 1512, to secure a defense treaty and produce an heir.
She died three years however, leaving only daughters. In 1518 Sigismund married the niece of the Holy Roman emperor Maximilian, Bona Sforza of Milan, by whom he had one son, Sigismund II Augustus, four daughters, his daughter Catherine married John III of Sweden, from whom the Vasa kings of Poland were descended. In 1521 Sigismund made peace with his nephew Albert, Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, a paramilitary religious order that ruled East Prussia. Albert became a Lutheran and converted the Teutonic state to Protestantism in 1525, defecting from both the Papacy and Holy Roman Emperor and agreeing to do public homage to Sigismund in return for being granted the title of secular duke of Prussia and Ducal Prussia coming under Polish suzerainty. Sigismund added the Duchy of Masovia to the Polish state in 1529, after the death of Janusz III, the last of its Piast dynasty rulers. Under the command of Jan Tarnowski, Sigismund’s army defeated the invading forces of Moldavia at Obertyn in 1531 and of Muscovy in 1535, thereby safeguarding Poland’s eastern borders.
Sigismund, influenced by his wife, brought Italian artists to Kraków and promoted the development of the Polish variety of the Italian Renaissance. Although a devout Catholic, he accorded religious toleration to Greek Orthodox Christians and royal protection to Jews. At first he vigorously opposed Lutheranism but resigned himself to its growing power in Poland. Sigismund I was a member of the Order of the Golden Fleece; the son of King Casimir IV Jagiellon and Elisabeth of Austria, Sigismund followed his brothers John Albert and Alexander to the Polish throne. Their eldest brother Vladislaus became king of Bohemia and Croatia. Sigismund was christened as the namesake of his Habsburg maternal great-grandfather, Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund. After his father's death, Sigismund was the only son. In the years 1495–1496, he addressed his older brother, the Lithuanian Grand Duke Alexander, demanded the separation of a domain from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, but was refused. Queen Dowager Elisabeth Habsburg tried without success to ensure the succession of her son to the throne of Austria.
And the disastrous and unsuccessful invasion of Bukovina led by his older brother King John I Albert dispelled the plans for placing Sigismund on the Moldavian throne. Sigismund came under the care of his eldest brother Vladislaus II, King of Bohemia and Hungary, from whom he received the duchies of Głogów and Opava, in 1504 became governor of Silesia and Lower Lusatia. After the death of King Alexander I, Sigismund arrived in Vilnius, where he was elected by the Lithuanian Ducal Council on 13 September 1506 as Grand Duke of Lithuania, contrary to the Union of Mielnik, which proposed a joint Polish-Lithuanian election of a monarch. On 8 December 1506, during the session of the Polish Senate in Piotrków, Sigismund was elected King of Poland, he arrived in Kraków on 20 January 1507 and was crowned four days in Wawel Cathedral by Primate Andrzej Boryszewski. The internal situation in Poland was characterised by broad authorisation of the Chamber of Deputies and extended in the constitution of Nihil novi.
During Alexander's reign, the law of Nihil novi had been instituted, which forbade kings of Poland from enacting laws without the consent of the Sejm. Sigismund had little control over the act, unlike the senators, whom he appointed. During his reign, Sigismund benefited from the advice of the local nobility, competent ministers in charge of the royal judiciary system, the wealthy and influential treasurers of Kraków. Although he was reluctant to the parliamentary system and political independence of the nobility, he recognised the authority of legal norms, supported legalism and summoned annual sessions of the Sejm obtaining funds on state defence; however he was unsuccessful at attempting to create a permanent fund for defence from the annual income tax. Despite this "Achilles heel", in 1527 he established a conscript army and the bureaucracy needed to finance it, he set up the legal codes that formalised serfdom in Poland, locking the peasants into the estates of nobles. Related to tax matters was an unsuccessful attempt on the life of the king, made on 5 May 1523.
The identity of the would-be assassin - who shot the ruler while he was strolling in the evening around the cloisters of the Wawel castle - and his potential supporters was never established. Unclear motives remained after the assassination attempt; the only clue was the fact that three weeks before the event, Sigismund I introduced a new edict, unfav
Suceava is the largest city and the seat of Suceava County, situated in the historical region of Moldavia, north-eastern Romania, at the crossroads of Central and Eastern Europe respectively. During the late Middle Ages, more from 1388 to 1564, the city was the third capital of the Principality of Moldavia. Between 1775 and 1918, Suceava was the third most populous urban settlement of the Duchy of Bukovina, a constituent province of the Austrian Empire and subsequently a crown land within Austria-Hungary, being surpassed by Cernăuți and Rădăuți, both located to the north. Throughout this period of time, Suceava fulfilled the task of an important, strategically-located commercial border town with the Romanian Old Kingdom, receiving a large influx of German-speaking settlers in the process of the Josephine colonization. After 1918, along with the rest of Bukovina, Suceava became part of the enlarged Kingdom of Romania. Nowadays, within the economic framework of the European Union, the city is one of the most significant economic and historical urban centres of the Romanian North-East development region.
Moldavian chronicler Grigore Ureche presumed the name of the city came from the Hungarian Szűcsvár, combined of the words szűcs and vár. This was taken over by Dimitrie Cantemir, who in his work Descriptio Moldaviae gave the same explanation of the origin of the city's name, there are neither historical nor vernacular evidences for this. According to another theory, the city bears the name of the river with the same name, supposed to be of Ukrainian origin. In Old German the city was known as Sedschopff, in modern German sources it can be found under such variations as Sotschen, Sutschawa, or Suczawa, in Hungarian as Szucsáva or Szőcsvásár, in Polish as Suczawa, in Ukrainian as Сучава, while in Yiddish as שאָץ; the present-day territory of the city of Suceava and the adjacent surroundings were inhabited since the Paleolithic period. Stemming from the late Antiquity, there are traces of Dacian oppidum of the 2nd century. In stark contrast to several historical regions of Romania, Suceava was not conquered by the legions of the Roman Empire and was one of the lands of the Free Dacian tribes during the late Ancient Age.
Nonetheless, according to Ptolemy, at that time in the region dwelled two Celtic-speaking tribes the Anartes and the Taurisci, as well as the Germanic Bastarnae, who have been attested there. After the fall of Rome and during the Migration Period, the predominantly Carpiani population was successively invaded by East Germanic peoples, Slavs, Magyars and Cumans. During the Late Middle Ages, the city of Suceava was the capital of the Principality of Moldavia and the main residence of the Moldavian princes for nearly two centuries; the city was the capital of the lands of Stephen the Great, one of the pivotal figures in Romanian history, who died in Suceava in 1504. During the rule of Alexandru Lăpuşneanu, the seat was moved to Iaşi in 1565 and Suceava failed to become the capital again. Michael the Brave captured the city in 1600 during the Moldavian Magnate Wars as he became the ruler of Wallachia and Transylvania, but he was defeated the same year. Together with the rest of Bukovina, Suceava was under the rule of the Habsburg Monarchy from 1775 to 1918.
During the late 19th century and early 20th century, the city was the third largest in the Duchy of Bukovina, after Cernăuți and Rădăuți. At the end of World War I, it became part of Greater Romania. Throughout the interwar period, the city of Suceava undergone further infrastructural development within the enlarged Kingdom of Romania, it had briefly belonged to Ținutul Suceava, one of the 10 lands established during King Carol II of Romania's reign. Subsequently, from the 1950s onwards, Suceava was industrialized and a significant series of historical buildings from its old city centre were demolished in order for Plattenbau-like blocks of flats to be constructed at the orders of the Communist officials; the city covers two types of geographical areas, the hills and the meadows of the Suceava River valley. The unique setting of the urban settlement includes two groves, Zamca and Șipote, which are both located within the city limits. Burdujeni, one of the neighbourhoods, is connected to the rest of the city by a prominent avenue, which makes the neighbourhood appear to be a separate satellite town.
At the 1930 census, the recorded population amounted to c. 17,000 inhabitants with the following ethno-linguistic composition: Romanians: 60.2% Germans: 16.7% Jews: 15.4% Ukrainians: 3.7% Poles: 2.0%According to the 2011 census data, Suceava had a population of 92,121, a decrease from the figure recorded at the 2002 census, making it the 23rd largest city in Romania at that time. Additionally, the ethnic composition was as follows: Romanians: 98.3% Roma: 0.7% Ukrainians: 0.3% Germans: 0.2% Poles: 0.1% Lipovans: 0.1% Others: 0.3% The mayors who have administered the ci
Vladislaus II of Hungary
Vladislaus II known as Vladislav II, Władysław II or Wladislas II, was King of Bohemia from 1471 to 1516, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1490 to 1516. As the eldest son of Casimir IV Jagiellon, he was expected to inherit Lithuania. George of Poděbrady, the Hussite ruler of Bohemia, offered to make Vladislaus his heir in 1468. Poděbrady needed Casimir IV's support against the rebellious Catholic noblemen and their ally, Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary; the Diet of Bohemia elected Vladislaus king after Poděbrady's death, but he could only rule Bohemia proper, because Matthias occupied Moravia and Lusatia. Vladislaus tried to reconquer the three provinces with his father's assistance, but Matthias repelled them. Vladislaus and Matthias divided the Lands of the Bohemian Crown in the Peace of Olomouc in 1479; the Estates of the realm had strengthened their position during the war between the two kings. Vladislaus's attempts to promote the Catholics caused a rebellion in Prague and other towns in 1483, forcing him to acknowledge the dominance of the Hussites in the municipal assemblies.
The Diet confirmed the right of the Bohemian noblemen and commoners to adhere either to Hussitism or Catholicism in 1485. After Matthias Corvinus seized Silesian duchies to grant them to his illegitimate son, John Corvinus, Vladislaus made new alliances against him in the late 1480s. Vladislaus laid claim to Hungary after Matthias's death; the Diet of Hungary elected. The other two claimants, Maximilian of Habsburg and Vladislaus's brother, John Albert, invaded Hungary, but they could not assert their claim and made peace with Vladislaus in 1491, he settled in Buda, enabling the Estates of Bohemia, Moravia and Lusatia to take full charge of state administration. In Hungary, Vladislaus always approved the decisions of the Royal Council, hence his nickname Dobzse László. Due to the concessions he had made before his election, the royal treasury could not finance a standing army and Matthias Corvinus's Black Army was dissolved after a rebellion, although the Ottomans made regular raids against the southern border.
They annexed territories in Croatia after annihilating the united army of the Croatian barons in the Battle of Krbava Field in 1493. Vladislaus was the eldest son of Casimir IV, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, Elizabeth of Habsburg, she was the daughter of Albert, King of the Romans and Bohemia. Vladislaus was born in Kraków on 1 March 1456, his mother and father laid claim to Hungary and Bohemia after her childless brother, Ladislaus the Posthumous, died on 23 November 1457. However, their claims were ignored in both Bohemia; the Diet of Hungary elected Matthias Corvinus king on 24 January 1458. The Bohemian Estates of the realm proclaimed the Hussite George of Poděbrady king on 2 March. Vladislaus was his father's heir in Lithuania. Casimir IV wanted to prepare all his sons for ruling a realm and tasked renowned scholars with their education; the historian Jan Długosz was Vladislaus's tutor. Pope Paul II proclaimed a crusade against him; the Czech Catholic noblemen rose up against the "heretic" George of Poděbrady and sought assistance from Matthias Corvinus.
Matthias invaded Moravia. On 16 May 1468, George of Poděbrady offered Casimir IV to make Vladislaus his heir if Casimir mediated a peace treaty between Bohemia and Hungary. Matthias refused Casimir's offer, but George of Poděbrady forced him to sign a truce in early 1469. Fearing of losing Matthias's support, the Catholic nobles proclaimed him king of Bohemia in Olomouc on 3 May. After George of Poděbrady repeated his offer of bequeathing Bohemia to Vladislaus, Casimir IV entered into negotiations with the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick III on George of Poděbrady's behalf. George of Poděbrady died on 22 March 1471. After the fifteen-year-old Vladislaus pledged to respect the liberties of the Estates of the realm, the Bohemian Diet elected him king at Kutná Hora on 27 May 1471, he was required to acknowledge the existence of two "nations" in his realm in accordance with the Compacts of Basel, although the Holy See had condemned the Compacts in 1462. The Holy See regarded Vladislaus's election invalid and the papal legate, Lorenzo Roverella, confirmed Matthias Corvinus's claim to Bohemia on 28 May.
However, Emperor Frederick III refused to acknowledge Matthias as the lawful king of Bohemia. Vladislaus was crowned king in Prague on 22 August 1471, he could only secure his position with the noblemen's support, because no army had accompanied him to Bohemia. The Diet developed into the most influential body of state administration during his reign; the Diet started to work as a legislative assembly and passed decrees that were recorded in specific registers. Casimir IV supported Vladislaus, he allowed his second son, Vladislaus's brother Casimir, to invade Upper Hungary from Poland after a group of Hungarian barons and prelates offered Casimir the Hungarian throne in late 1471. Matthias forced him to withdraw from Hungary before the end of the year. On 1 March 1472, Pope Sixtus IV authorized his legate, Marco Barbo, to excommunicate Vladislaus and his father if they continued to wage war against Matthias; the first truce
Chernivtsi Oblast is an oblast in western Ukraine, consisting of the northern parts of the regions of Bukovina and Bessarabia. It has an international border with Moldova; the oblast is the smallest in Ukraine. The oblast has a large variety of landforms: the Carpathian Mountains and picturesque hills at the foot of the mountains change to a broad forested plain situated between the Dniester and Prut rivers, its capital is the city Chernivtsi. The region spans 8,100 km². Population: 909,893 Chernivtsi Oblast covers an area of 8,097 km², it is the smallest oblast in Ukraine, representing 1.3% of Ukrainian territory. In the oblast there are 75 rivers longer than 10 kilometers; the largest rivers are the Dnister and Siret. The oblast covers three geographic zones: a forest steppe region between Prut and Dnister rivers, a foothill region between the Carpathian Mountains and Prut river, a mountain region known as the Bukovinian part of the Carpathian Mountains. Chernivtsi Oblast is bordered by Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Ternopil Oblast, Khmelnytskyi Oblast, Vinnytsia Oblast and Moldova.
Within the oblast the national border of Ukraine with Romania extends 226 km, with Moldova 198 km. Chernivtsi oblast was created on August 7, 1940 in the wake of the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina; the oblast was organized out of the northeast part of Ţinutul Suceava of Kingdom of Romania, joining parts of three historical regions: northern half of Bukovina, northern half of the Hotin County county of Bessarabia, Hertza region, part of the Dorohoi county of proper Moldavia. Archaeological sites in the region date back to 43,000-45,000 BC, with finds including a mammoth bone dwelling from the Middle Paleolithic; the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture flourished in the area. In the Middle Ages, the region was part of the Principality of Moldavia, which in the late middle age became a vassal of the Ottoman Empire. In 1775, two counties of Moldavia, since known as Bukovina, were annexed by the Habsburg Monarchy's Holy Roman Empire, which became the Austrian Empire. In 1812, one half of Moldavia, since known as Bessarabia, was annexed by the Russian Empire.
Hertza region remained in Moldavia until its union with Wallachia in 1859, a union which in 1881 became the Kingdom of Romania. In 1918 both provinces of Bukovina and Bessarabia united with the Kingdom of Romania; the Soviet occupation began on June 28, 1940. In addition to Bessarabia, the USSR demanded northern Bukovina as compensation for the occupation of Bessarabia by Romania from 1918 to 1940. Hertza region was not included in the demands that the Soviet Union addressed to Romania, but was occupied at the same time. Most of the occupied territories were organized on August 2, 1940 as the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, while the remainder, including the Chenivtsi Oblast, formed on August 7, 1940, were included in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Throughout 1940-1941 several tens of thousands of Bukovinians were deported to Siberia and Kazakhstan, some 13,000 of them on June 13, 1941 alone; this and deportations were based on social class difference, it targeted intellectuals, people employed by the state, clergymen, railworkers.
The majority of those targeted were ethnic Romanians, but there were many representatives of other ethnicities, as well. The protests of the Romanian population of Bukovina that found themselves under the Soviet rule brought about serious Soviet reprisals, including of ethnic character. In the winter and spring of 1941, the Soviet troops opened fire on many groups of locals trying to cross the border into Romania. Between September 17 and November 17, 1940, by a mutual agreement between USSR and Germany, 43,641 "ethnic Germans" from the Chernivtsi region were moved to Germany, although the total ethnic German population was only 34,500, of these some 3,500 did not go to Germany. Upon their arrival in Germany, the Nazi government sent most of non-ethnic Germans to concentration camps. Only some of them were freed after the protests of the Romanian government. During World War II, when the region returned under the control of the Romanian administration, the Jewish community of the area was destroyed by the deportations to ghettos and Nazi concentration camps, where about 60% died.
Despite the anti-Semitic policies of the Ion Antonescu's government of Romania, the mayor of Cernăuți, Traian Popovici, now honored by Israel's Yad Vashem memorial as one of the Righteous Among the Nations, saved ca. 20,000 Jews. In 1944, when the Soviet troops returned to Bukovina, many inhabitants fled to Romania, Soviet persecutions resumed, with the result that the region was depopulated. In demographic terms, these war-time and post-war-time factors changed the region's ethnic composition. Today the number of Jews and Poles is statistically insignificant, while the number of Romanians has decreased substantially. Ruthenian communities in Bukovina date back to at least 16th century. In 1775, Ukrainians represented some 8,000 out of a 75,000 population of Bukovina. By 1918, as a result of immigration of Ukrainian peasants from nearby villages in Galicia and Podolia, there were over 200,000 Ukrainians, out of a total of 730,000. Most of Ukrainians settled in the northern parts of Bukovina, their number was large in the area between the Dniester and Prut rivers, where they became a majority.
A similar process occurred in northern Bessarabia. Throughout the history of the region, there
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location. Any assets that could be used by the enemy may be targeted, for example food sources, water supplies, communications, industrial resources, the local people themselves; the practice can be carried out by the military in enemy territory, or in its own home territory. It may overlap with, but it is not the same as, punitive destruction of the enemy's resources, done for purely strategic/political reasons rather than strategic/operational reasons. Notable historic examples of scorched-earth tactics include the Russian army's strategy during the failed Swedish invasion of Russia, the failed Napoleonic invasion of Russia, William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea in the American Civil War, colonel Kit Carson's subjugation of the American Navajo Indians, Lord Kitchener's advance against the Boers, the initial Soviet retreat commanded by Joseph Stalin during the German Army's invasion of the Soviet Union in the Second World War, the subsequent Nazi German retreat on the Eastern Front.
The strategy of destroying the food and water supply of the civilian population in an area of conflict has been banned under Article 54 of Protocol I of the 1977 Geneva Conventions. The relevant passage says: It is prohibited to attack, remove, or render useless objects indispensable to the survival of the civilian population, such as foodstuffs, agricultural areas for the production of foodstuffs, livestock, drinking water installations and supplies, irrigation works, for the specific purpose of denying them for their sustenance value to the civilian population or to the adverse Party, whatever the motive, whether in order to starve out civilians, to cause them to move away, or for any other motive; the concept of scorched earth is sometimes applied figuratively to the business world, where a firm facing a takeover attempt will make itself a lesser prize by selling off its assets. The Scythians used scorched-earth methods against King Darius the Great of Persia, during his European Scythian campaign.
The Scythians, who were nomadic herders, evaded the Persians and retreated into the depths of the Steppes, destroying food supplies and poisoning wells. Many of Darius' troops died from starvation and dehydration; the Greek general Xenophon records in his Anabasis that the Armenians burned their crops and food supplies as they withdrew before the advance of the Ten Thousand. The Greek mercenary general Memnon suggested to the Persian Satraps the use of the scorched-earth policy against Alexander as he moved into Asia Minor, he was refused. The system of punitive destruction of property and subjugation of people when accompanying a military campaign was known as vastatio. Two of the first uses of scorched earth recorded both happened in the Gallic Wars; the first was used when the Celtic Helvetii were forced to evacuate their homes in Southern Germany and Switzerland due to incursions of unfriendly Germanic tribes: to add incentive to the march, the Helvetii destroyed everything they could not bring.
After the Helvetii were defeated by a combined Roman-Gallic force, the Helvetii were forced to rebuild themselves on the shattered German and Swiss plains they themselves had destroyed. The second case shows actual military value: during the Great Gallic War the Gauls under Vercingetorix planned to lure the Roman armies into Gaul and trap and obliterate them. To this end, they ravaged the countryside of what are now the Benelux countries and France; this did cause immense problems for the Romans, but Roman military triumphs over the Gallic alliance showed that this alone was not enough to save Gaul from subjugation by Rome. During the Second Punic War in 218–202 BC, the Carthaginians used this method selectively while storming through Italy. After the end of the Third Punic War in 146 BC, the Roman Senate elected to use this method to permanently destroy the Carthaginian capital city, Carthage; the buildings were torn down, their stones scattered so not rubble remained, the fields were burned.
However, the story that they salted the earth is apocryphal. In the year AD 363, the Emperor Julian's invasion of Sassanid Persia was turned back by a scorched-earth policy: The extensive region that lies between the River Tigris and the mountains of Media...was in a improved state of cultivation. Julian might expect, that a conqueror, who possessed the two forcible instruments of persuasion and gold, would procure a plentiful subsistence from the fears or avarice of the natives. But, on the approach of the Romans, the rich and smiling prospect was blasted. Wherever they moved...the cattle was driven away. This desperate but effectual method of defence can only be executed by the enthusiasm of a people who prefer their independence to their property. British monk Gildas, whose sixth-century treatise "On the Ruin of Britain" wrote about an earlier invasion "For the fire of vengeance … spread from sea to sea … and did not cease, destroying the neighbouring towns and lands, it reached the other side of the island."During the First Islamic Civil War, Muawiyah I sent Busr ibn Abi Artat to a campaign in the Hejaz and Yemen to ravage territory loyal to Muawiyah's opponent Ali ibn Abi Talib.
According to Tabari, 30,000 civilians are estimated to have been killed during this campaign. Muawiyah sen
Kamianets-Podilskyi is a city on the Smotrych River in western Ukraine, to the north-east of Chernivtsi. The administrative center of the Khmelnytskyi Oblast, the city is now the administrative center of the Kamianets-Podilskyi Raion within the Khmelnytskyi Oblast; the city itself is designated as a separate district within the region. The current estimated population is around 101,728; the first part of the city's dual name originates from kamin' or kamen, meaning "stone" in Old Slavic. The second part of the name relates to the historic region of Podolia, who managed to escape from it three times. In 1798, Polish nobleman Antoni Żmijewski founded a Polish theatre in the city, it was one of the oldest Polish theatres. In 1867 the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kamyanets-Podilskyi was abolished by the Russians authorities, it was re-established in 1918 by Pope Benedict XV. According to the Russian census of 1897, Kamianets-Podilskyi remained the largest city of Podolia with a population of 35,934. In 1914, a direct railway line linked the city to Proskurov.
During World War I, the city was occupied by Austria-Hungary in 1915. With the collapse of the Russian Empire in 1917, the city was incorporated into several short-lived Ukrainian states: the Ukrainian People's Republic, the Hetmanate, the Directoriya, before ending up as part of the Ukrainian SSR when Ukraine fell under Bolshevik power. During the Directorate period, the city was chosen as de facto capital of Ukraine after the Russian Communist forces occupied Kiev. During the Polish-Soviet War, the city was captured by the Polish Army and was under Polish administration from November 16, 1919 to July 12, 1920, it was ceded to Soviet Russia in the 1921 Treaty of Riga, which determined the future of the area for the next seven decades as part of the Ukrainian SSR. Poles and Ukrainians have always dominated the city's population. However, as a commercial center, Kamianets-Podilskyi has been a multiethnic and multi-religious city with substantial Jewish and Armenian minorities. Under Soviet rule it became subject to severe persecutions, many Poles were forcibly deported to Central Asia.
Massacres such as the Vinnytsia massacre have taken place throughout the Podillya, the last resort of the independent Ukraine. Early on, Kamianets-Podilskyi was the administrative center of the Ukrainian SSR's Kamianets-Podilskyi Oblast, but the administrative center was moved to Proskuriv. In December 1927, TIME Magazine reported that there were massive uprisings of peasants and factory workers in southern Ukraine, around the cities of Mohyliv-Podilsky
The Prut is a 953 km long river in Eastern Europe. In part of its course it forms Romania's border with Ukraine; the Pruth was known in Scythian Porata, Hierasus or Gerasius. It originates in the Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine; the Prut flows southeast joining the Danube river near Giurgiulești, east of Galați. Between 1918 and 1939, the river was in Poland and in Greater Romania. Prior to World War I, it served as a border between the Russian Empire. After World War II, the river once again demarcated a border, this time between Romania and the Soviet Union. Nowadays, for a length of 695 km, it forms the border between Moldova, it has a hydrographic basin of 27,500 km2, of which 10,990 km2 are in Romania and 7,790 km2 in Moldova. The largest city along its banks is Ukraine; the Stânca-Costești Dam, operated jointly by Moldova and Romania, is built on the Pruth. There is a Hydro-Electric Station in Snyatyn. Ships travel from the river's mouth to the port city of Leova. Herodotus lists the Pruth, under the name of Porata or Pyretus, as being among the five rivers flowing through the Scythian country which swell the Danube.
Takes a start from a spring on the slopes of Hoverla, flows into the Danube near the village of Giurgiulesti. Prigirlovaya part of the basin is marshy; the length of 967 km, the area of the basin - 27,5 thousand km². Average water consumption at the city of Leova is 69.2 m³ / s. The slope of the river varies from 100 m / km to 0.05 m / km. In the upper reaches it has a mountainous character, with a steep right bank, sometimes the cross-sectional profile of the channel has the form of a ridge. Near the city of Yaremche is the waterfall of Probiy. Spring floods, summer rain floods, high winter runoff. Sliced from January to February until the beginning of March. In the second volume of the Ottoman-Bulgarian chronicles of Iman "Jagfar Tarihi" the Prut River is referred to as Burat, and in the Byzantine treatise of Constantine Porphyrogennetos "On the management of the empire" it is mentioned as the Brut river or as Burat. The Prut river basin on the hydrograph map of Ukraine The upper current in Ukraine is lower - on the border of Moldova with Romania.
The origins are located on the Carpathian massif near Mount Hoverli. The river flows to the north, after it returns to the northeast, closer to Kolomyia, to the south-east. Having reached the border between Moldova and Romania, it returns more to the south-east, to the south. Falls into the Danube 3 km west of the city of Reni; the rod is navigable from the city of Leovo. On the Prut is a reservoir of Kostešti-Stikka and HPP. Sniatyn HPP is the only hydroelectric power plant on the Prut within Ukraine. Cities: Yaremche, Snyatin, Novoselytsia, Ungheni; the following towns are situated along the river Prut, from source to mouth: Deliatyn, Kolomyia, Chernivtsi, Darabani, Ungheni, Leova and Cahul The following rivers are tributaries to the river Prut: Left: Turka, Sovytsia, Rynhach, Larga, Lopatnic, Racovăț, Camenca, Delia, Nârnova, Lăpușna, Sărata, Larga Right: Pistynka, Cheremosh, Herța, Cornești, Isnovăț, Rădăuți, Volovăț, Badu, Bașeu, Berza Veche, Râioasa, Soloneț, Jijia, Cozmești, Bohotin, Moșna, Pruteț, Horincea, Stoeneasa, Chineja During the Russo-Turkish War of 1710–1711, on 19 July 1711 Russian forces divided among Peter the Great's army on the west bank and Boris Sheremetev's army on the east bank of the Pruth and allied with Dimitrie Cantemir, the ruler of Moldova, met with the Ottoman army led by Grand Vizier Baltaci Mehmed Pasha.
The Turks and Crimean Tatars attacked first against Sheremetev, who retreated to the other side to join Peter the Great. Afterwards the Russian army set up a defensive camp between Stănilești and the river, completely surrounded by the Ottoman army. Negotiations started on 21 July 1711 and the Treaty of the Prut was signed on 23 July 1711. After this treaty, Dimitrie Cantemir had to go in exile at Moscow; this treaty means the end of local dynasties of kings and inauguration of Greek rulers from the Fanar Qunarter of Istanbul (Phanariotes. A bit more than a century in 1821, the Greek Nationalist leader Alexander Ypsilantis crossed the Prut river at Sculeni, with the intention of touching off a rebellion in the Danubian Principalities. Though the Wallachian uprising failed - due to irreconcilable differences between Ypsilantis and his Wallachian ally Tudor Vladimirescu - it did touch off the Greek War of Independence, leading to the Kingdom of Greece gaining independence ten years later. In the Principalities it led to the end of the aforementioned Greek Phanariote rule, indirectly to increasing self-government and to the independence of Romania several decades later.
In Greek history, Ypsilantis' crossing of the Prut is an important historical event, commemorated in a famous painting displayed at Athens. Sydir Vorobkevych: Within that Prut Valley. Within that Prut Valley a c