Battle of the Netherlands

The Battle of the Netherlands was a military campaign part of Case Yellow, the German invasion of the Low Countries and France during World War II. The battle lasted from 10 May 1940 until the surrender of the main Dutch forces on 14 May. Dutch troops in the province of Zealand continued to resist the Wehrmacht until 17 May when Germany completed its occupation of the whole country; the Battle of the Netherlands saw some of the earliest mass paratroop drops, to occupy tactical points and assist the advance of ground troops. The German Luftwaffe used paratroopers in the capture of several airfields in the vicinity of Rotterdam and The Hague, helping to overrun the country and immobilise Dutch forces. After the devastating bombing of Rotterdam by the Luftwaffe on 14 May, the Germans threatened to bomb other Dutch cities if the Dutch forces refused to surrender; the General Staff knew it could not stop the bombers and ordered the Dutch Army to cease hostilities. The last occupied parts of the Netherlands were liberated in 1945.

The United Kingdom and France declared war on Germany in 1939, following the German invasion of Poland, but no major land operations occurred in Western Europe during the period known as the Phoney War in the winter of 1939–1940. During this time, the British and French built up their forces in expectation of a long war, the Germans completed their conquest of Poland. On 9 October, Adolf Hitler ordered plans to be made for an invasion of the Low Countries, to use them as a base against Great Britain and to pre-empt a similar attack by the Allied forces, which could threaten the vital Ruhr Area. A joint Dutch-Belgian peace offer between the two sides was rejected on 7 November; the Dutch were ill-prepared to resist such an invasion. When Hitler came to power, the Dutch had begun to re-arm, but more than France or Belgium. Successive Dutch governments tended to avoid identifying Germany as an acute military threat; this was caused by a wish not to antagonise a vital trade partner to the point of repressing criticism of Nazi policies.

Hendrikus Colijn, prime minister between 1933 and 1939, was convinced Germany would not violate Dutch neutrality. International tensions grew in the late 1930s. Crises were caused by the German occupation of the Rhineland in 1936; these events forced the Dutch government to exercise greater vigilance, but they limited their reaction as much as they could. The most important measure was a partial mobilisation of 100,000 men in April 1939. After the German invasion of Poland in September 1939 and the ensuing outbreak of the Second World War, the Netherlands hoped to remain neutral, as they had done during the First World War 25 years earlier. To ensure this neutrality, the Dutch army was entrenched. Large sums were spent on defence, it proved difficult to obtain new matériel in wartime, however as the Dutch had ordered some of their new equipment from Germany, which deliberately delayed deliveries. Moreover, a considerable part of the funds were intended for the Dutch East Indies, much of it related to a plan to build three battlecruisers.

The strategic position of the Low Countries, located between France and Germany on the uncovered flanks of their fortification lines, made the area a logical route for an offensive by either side. In a 20 January 1940 radio speech, Winston Churchill tried to convince them not to wait for an inevitable German attack, but to join the Anglo-French Entente. Both the Belgians and Dutch refused though the German attack plans had fallen into Belgian hands after a German aircraft crash in January 1940, in what became known as the Mechelen Incident; the French supreme command considered violating the neutrality of the Low Countries if they had not joined the Anglo-French coalition before the planned large Entente offensive in the summer of 1941, but the French Cabinet, fearing a negative public reaction, vetoed the idea. Kept in consideration was a plan to invade if Germany attacked the Netherlands alone, necessitating an Entente advance through Belgium, or if the Netherlands assisted the enemy by tolerating a German advance into Belgium through the southern part of their territory, both possibilities discussed as part of the hypothèse Hollande.

The Dutch government never formulated a policy on how to act in case of either contingency. The Dutch tried on several occasions to act as an intermediary to reach a negotiated peace settlement between the Entente and Germany. After the German invasion of Norway and Denmark, followed by a warning by the new Japanese naval attaché Captain Tadashi Maeda that a German attack on the Netherlands was certain, it became clear to the Dutch military that staying out of the conflict might prove impossible, they started to prepare for war, both mentally and physically. Dutch border troops were put on greater alert. Reports of the presumed actions of a Fifth Column in Scandinavia caused widespread fears that the Netherlands too had been infiltrated by German agent

Hawijch Elders

Hawijch Elders is a Dutch violinist born on 31 October 1998. Elders started violin lessons at the age of six at Mea Fontijn, from 2011-2016 she received violin lessons and chamber music lessons from Benzion Shamir, she has been following her violin training with Ilya Grubert at the Conservatorium van Amsterdam since 2016, where she has been selected to follow an Excellence program, Bachelor Classical Music. She received many awards at national and international violin competitions. In 2018, Hawijch Elders wins four prizes at the prestigious international competition'Rodolfo Lipizer' in Italy. Beside the second prize she was awarded for three special prizes: the prize for best performance of a Sivori etude, the prize for most talented young violinist and the prize for best performance of a 20th century sonata. During 2018, at the Netherlands violin competition "Oskar Back", Hawijch Elders won the second prize and the Audience Award. Hawijch Elders performs in the Netherlands and abroad, she was concert master of the Netherlands Youth String Orchestra.

As a soloist she played with the Real Filharmonía de Galicia, Domestica Rotterdam, the Amsterdam Symphony Orchestra, the Nieuwe Philharmonie Utrecht, the Netherlands Philharmonic Orchestra, the Residentie Orchestra and the Orquestra Clássica da Madeira. Hawijch Elders plays a Gennaro Gagliano violin and a Jean-Pierre Persoit bow on loan from the Nationaal Muziekinstrumenten Fonds; the violin belongs to the'collection Willem G. Vogelaar'. 2019 – Kersjes-vioolbeurs 2019 – 3rd Oleh Krysa International Violin Competition, Laureate 2018 – 37th International Violin Competition ‘Premio Rodolfo Lipizer’, 2nd Prize 2018 – Netherlands Violin Competition "Oskar Back", 2nd Prize and Audience Prize 2014 – Classic Young Master Award 2014 2013 – Prinses Christina Concours - National Finals, 2nd Prize and Audience Prize 2010 – Iordens Viooldagen, 1st Prize Official website

√Črica Matos

Erica dos Santos Matos in is an amateur Brazilian boxer. Hailing from Salvador, capital of the state of Bahia, Matos first practiced futsal before a classmate invited her to attend boxing classes with him in 2005. Liking the sport, Matos would decide further dedication to it after winning a national championship in Salvador, she was guided by Luiz Dórea, best known for coaching world champion Acelino Freitas. While Matos fell in the round of 16 of the 2012 AIBA Women's World Boxing Championships, her consistent results in the 2011-12 cycle earned her an International Boxing Association invitational spot to represent Brazil in the 2012 Summer Olympics taking place in London in the Flyweight Division. In the Round of 16 she lost to Karlha Magliocco of Venezuela 14-15. Matos is married to fellow Salvador boxer Robson Conceição, who fought in London and would become the first Brazilian boxing Olympic champion in 2016; the couple have Sophia. Following the Games, Matos declared she would take a sabbatical from boxing to take care of her family, while not discarding a return to the sport to fight in the 2020 Summer Olympics.

2013 – Brazilian Women's National Championships 1st place – 51 kg 2012 – Panamerican Women's Championships 2nd place – 51 kg 2010 – Panamerican Women's Championships 1st place – 46 kg 2009 – Panamerican Women's Championships 1st place – 46 kg 2007 – Panamerican Women's Championships 1st place – 46 kg 2012 – Three Nations Women's Meeting 3rd place – 51 kg 2011 – Stars Tournament 2nd place – 51 kg 2011 – 2nd Panamerican Games Qualification Tournament 3rd place – 51 kg 2010 – Stars Tournament 2nd place – 51 kg 2010 – Brazilian Women's National Championships 1st place – 48 kg 2007 – Brazilian Women's National Championships 1st place – 46 kg 2010 – South American Games 1st place – 51 kg 2009 – Brazilian Women's National Championships 1st place – 48 kg 2005 – Brazilian Women's National Championships 1st place – 46 kg