14th Infantry Regiment (United States)
The 14th Infantry Regiment is a United States Army light infantry regiment. It has served in the American Civil War, Boxer Rebellion, World War II, Korean War, Vietnam War, Operation Restore Hope, Operation Uphold Democracy, Operation Joint Guard, Operation Desert Storm, Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Gothic Serpent, Operation New Dawn, Operation Resolute Support, Operation Iraqi Freedom; the 14th Infantry Regiment did not take part in combat during World War I. It has conducted peacekeeping and humanitarian missions in the Sinai Peninsula, Guantánamo Bay in Cuba and Kosovo. Only the 2nd Battalion of the 14th Infantry Regiment is active, assigned to 2nd Brigade, 10th Mountain Division at Fort Drum, New York. In May 1861, President Abraham Lincoln called for the creation of nine additional Regular Army infantry regiments in preparation for the looming civil war; these regiments were designated the 11th through the 19th Infantry and organized as "three-battalion" regiments, each battalion containing eight companies of infantry, in contrast to the original ten regular regiments of infantry, which were organized on the traditional ten-company line.
The 14th Infantry Regiment was organized on 3 May 1861 at Fort Trumbull, Connecticut, in two battalions with the third added in April 1862. Part of the Army of the Potomac, the regiment saw its first combat action in the Peninsula Campaign 17 May 1862; the Regiment was assigned to 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 5th Corps, Army of the Potomac and fought at Antietam, Gettysburg and Petersburg. In recognition of the regiment's heroic performance of duty during twelve of the bloodiest campaigns of the American Civil War, General George Meade, awarded the 14th Infantry Regiment the place of honor at the "Right of the Line" in the Grand Review of the Armies in Washington, DC at the end of the war; this is where the regiment takes its motto "The Right of the Line". Following the Civil War, the Army was reorganized by Congress in July 1866, the 14th was divided into three regiments, each battalion receiving two additional companies and being organized along traditional lines; the 1st Battalion retained the designation of the 14th Infantry, while the 2nd Battalion became the 23rd Infantry and the 3rd Battalion the 32nd Infantry.
The regiment was sent to the Presidio of San Francisco following the Civil War and from there line companies were posted to stations in Arizona, California and Washington. The regiment took part in two Indian campaigns and detachments were in two other campaigns but not in sufficient strength to entitle the regiment as a whole to participation credit. Campaign participation credit during this time includes Arizona 1866. Several companies fought the Apaches in 1866 in Arizona. In 1874, elements of the regiment operated against Indian tribes raiding ranches and mines in the Wyoming territory. Several companies participated in the 1876 campaign. Soon after the Battle of the Little Bighorn in June 1876, four companies from the regiment participated in the Horsemeat March, one of the most grueling marches in American military history, the Battle of Slim Buttes. Captain James Kennington led Company B during the Battle of Slim Buttes; the regiment was at the capture of Manila in the Spanish–American War, in the fighting around the same city in 1899.
During the early years of the 20th century, the 14th Infantry Regiment was deployed to China to help put down the Boxer Rebellion. The 14th was the spearhead in winning a victory over the Chinese army at the Battle of Yangcun. At the Tung Pien Gate in Peking, the Regiment was taking heavy fire and was unable to engage the enemy. To counteract, volunteers were called for to scale the wall and lay down suppressive fire from the better vantage point while the rest of the regiment followed. Corporal Calvin P. Titus, a band member and chaplains assistant from E Company and with rope slung over his shoulder scaled the wall and laid down the suppressive fire that allowed more and more soldiers behind him to follow. For his actions, he was awarded the Medal of Honor as well as receiving an appointment to West Point. For their conduct of the operation, the 14th Infantry Regiment was rewarded by the Chinese government a large amount of silver bullion, fashioned into an ornamented punchbowl with matching cups and other dinnerware, still kept in 2nd Battalion, 14th Infantry Regiment headquarters.
On the eve of the US entry into World War I, the 14th Infantry Regiment was stationed in Yuma, although the 1st Battalion was on detached duty in Alaska. The regiment was subsequently transferred to Washington. In 1918 the 14th was moved to Montana to guard the Anaconda copper mines. Although a regular army unit the regiment did not see active service during the war. In June 1943 the Golden Dragons were ordered to Camp Carson, Colorado where the Regiment was assigned to the 71st Light Division on 10 July 1943; the 14th along with the rest of the 71st Division underwent unit combat training at Camp Carson at Camp Roberts, California and at Fort Benning Georgia. At Fort Benning the 71st was redesignated as the 71st Infantry Division. On 25 January the Golden Dragons sailed from New York, with the rest of the 71st Division arriving in Le Havre on 7 February 1945; the 14th moved some 350 miles across France. At Ratzwiller the 71st Division relieved the 100th Division. On 21 March 1945 the 14th took par
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Battle of Chochiwon
The Battle of Chochiwon was an early engagement between United States and North Korean forces during the Korean War, taking place in the villages of Chonui and Chochiwon in western South Korea on July 10–12, 1950. After three days of intense fighting, the battle ended in a North Korean victory; the United States Army's 21st Infantry Regiment, 24th Infantry Division was assigned to delay two advancing North Korean People's Army divisions following communist victories at Osan and Chonan earlier in the month. The regiment deployed along roads and railroads in between the two villages, attempting to slow the advance as much as possible. Aided by air strikes, U. S. Army units were able to inflict substantial damage on the North Korean armor and other vehicles, but were overwhelmed by North Korean infantry; the two understrength U. S. battalions fought in several engagements over the three-day period and suffered massive losses in personnel and equipment, but were able to delay the North Korean forces for several days, allowing the remainder of the 24th Infantry Division to set up blocking positions along the Kum River near the city of Taejon.
On the night of June 25, 1950, 10 divisions of the North Korean People's Army launched a full-scale invasion on the nation's neighbor to the south, the Republic of Korea. Advancing with 89,000 men in six columns, the North Koreans caught the South Korean Army by surprise, resulting in a disastrous rout for the South Koreans who were disorganized, ill-equipped, unprepared for war. Numerically superior, North Korean forces destroyed isolated resistance, pushing down the peninsula against the South Koreans who could muster just 38,000 men to the front-line to oppose them; the majority of the South Korean forces retreated in the face of the invasion, by June 28 the North Koreans had captured the capital Seoul, forced the government and its shattered forces to withdraw further southwards. Meanwhile, the United Nations Security Council voted to send assistance to the collapsing country and United States President Harry S. Truman subsequently ordered ground troops into the nation. However, U. S. forces in the Far East had been decreasing since the end of World War II, five years earlier.
At the time, the closest force was the 24th Infantry Division of the Eighth United States Army, stationed in Japan under the command of William F. Dean. Tellingly, the division was under strength and most of its equipment was antiquated due to reductions in military spending, yet in spite of these deficiencies the division was ordered into South Korea, tasked with taking the initial "shock" of the North Korean advances until the rest of the Eighth Army could arrive and establish a defense. The plan was to airlift one battalion of the 24th Infantry Division into South Korea via C-54 Skymaster transport aircraft and block advancing North Korean forces while the remainder of the division was transported on ships; the 21st Infantry Regiment was identified as the most combat-ready of the 24th Infantry Division's three regiments, the 21st Infantry's 1st Battalion was selected because its commander, Lieutenant Colonel Charles B. Smith, was the most experienced, having commanded a battalion at the Battle of Guadalcanal during World War II.
On July 5, Task Force Smith engaged North Korean forces at the Battle of Osan, delaying over 5,000 North Korean infantry for seven hours before being routed and forced back. During that time, the U. S. 34th Infantry Regiment set up a line between the villages of Pyongtaek and Ansong, 10 miles south of Osan, to fight the next delaying action against the advancing North Korean forces. The 34th Infantry Regiment was unprepared for a fight; the 1st Battalion, left alone against the North Koreans resisted their advance in the brief and disastrous Battle of Pyongtaek. The 34th Infantry was unable to stop North Korean armor. After a 30-minute fight, the 34th mounted a disorganized retreat in which many soldiers abandoned equipment and retreated without resisting the North Korean forces; the Pyongtaek—Ansong line was unable to delay the North Korean force or inflict heavy casualties on them. The regiment subsequently retreated to Chonan, the next night the 3rd Battalion was engaged in another delaying action.
The 34th Infantry lost its commander, Colonel Robert R. Martin as well as two thirds of its 3rd Battalion's strength; the exhausted 34th Infantry Regiment retreated to the Kum River, near the 24th Infantry Division's headquarters. The 24th Infantry Division would make one final delaying action before it would be forced to make its final stand around Taejon, the only major defensible city left before the Pusan Perimeter being established by the Eighth Army. Having pushed back U. S. forces at Osan and Chonan, the North Korean 4th Infantry Division, supported by elements of the 105th Armored Division, continued its advance down the Osan—Chonan road, up to 12,000 men strong under division commander Lee Kwon Mu in two infantry regiments supported by dozens of tanks. Behind it, the North Korean 3rd Infantry Division had yet to engage the American forces. By July 7, the 21st Infantry Regiment had been established at Chochiwon, one of two roads to the Kum River and Taejon; the regiment was ordered to keep the road through the region open so supplies and ammunition could flow through it to the 34th Infantry Regiment on the front lines.
The Americans spent several days unloading supplies from locomotives in the village. After blowing up all bridges north of the town, 1st Battalion was established on the Chochiwon road at Chonui, 12 miles south of Chonan. Supporting it were one battery of 155-mm howitzers from the 11th Field Artillery Battalion and A Company of t
Battle of Chumonchin Chan
The Battle of Chumonchin Chan or the Action of 2 July 1950 was the battle fought between surface combatants during the main phase of the Korean War. It began. On 2 July 1950, USS Juneau, HMS Black Swan, HMS Jamaica were sailing along the coast of the Sea of Japan when they encountered four North Korean torpedo and gunboats that had just finished escorting a flotilla of ten ammunition ships up the coast; the North Korean torpedo boats began an attack on the allied ships. Before their torpedoes could be fired however, they were met with a salvo of gunfire from the United Nations ships which destroyed three of the torpedo boats; the surviving North Korean craft fled. In July, Juneau encountered the same ammunition ships and destroyed them. Naval Battles of the Korean War. Archived 2 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
Battle of Yongju
The Battle of Yongju known as the Battle of the Apple Orchard, took place from 21 to 22 October 1950 as part of the United Nations offensive towards the Yalu River, against the North Korean forces which had invaded South Korea during the Korean War. The battle was fought between the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade and the North Korean 239th Regiment, encircled east of Yongju, where it was attacking the US 187th Airborne Regimental Combat Team. On 20 October US 187 RCT had parachuted ahead of the advancing UN spearheads into drop zones in Sukchon and Sunchon, 40 kilometres north of the capital Pyongyang, with the objectives of cutting off the retreating North Korean forces that were withdrawing up the west coast of the Korean Peninsula and releasing US and South Korean prisoners of war. Although the airborne drop itself was a success, the operation came too late to intercept any significant North Korean elements and the US landings met little resistance. However, on 21 October as US 187 RCT began to advance south to the clear the Sukchon to Yongju road towards Pyongyang the Americans came under heavy attack from the North Korean 239th Regiment, requested assistance.
The 27th British Commonwealth Brigade, leading the US Eighth Army general advance, was subsequently ordered forward to assist the US paratroopers. The British and Australians crossed the Taedong River at Pyongyang at noon on 21 October, moved north on the main highway to Sukchon with the task of reaching the Chongchon River; the 1st Battalion and Sutherland Highland Regiment, subsequently pushed up the road until fired upon by North Korean forces in the hills to the south of Yongju. By nightfall the hills were cleared by the Argylls, while the 3rd Battalion, US 187 RCT occupied Yongju. Cut-off, about midnight the North Korean 239th Regiment attempted to break out, resulting in heavy fighting between the Americans and North Koreans; the North Korean attacks drove the US paratroopers from Yongju, forcing them back onto the battalion's main defensive position to the north. 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment was ordered to take the lead the following morning. By dawn the Americans again requested assistance.
At first light on 22 October, two companies of Argylls advanced into Yongju, before the Australians passed through them riding on US M4 Sherman tanks. Now leading the brigade, at 09:00 the Australians came under fire from a North Korean rearguard position in an apple orchard on their right flank. An encounter battle developed as 3 RAR carried out an aggressive quick attack off the line of march from the road, with US tanks in support. Despite fire support from mortars and artillery being unavailable due to the location of US 3/187 RCT being unknown, the Australian attack succeeded and the North Korean forces were forced to withdraw from the high ground, having suffered heavy casualties. Meanwhile, 3 RAR's tactical headquarters came under attack and was forced to fight off a group of North Koreans. Having been forced off the high ground, the North Koreans were now caught between the advancing Australians and the US paratroopers to the north. Attacking the North Koreans from the rear, 3 RAR subsequently relieved the US paratroopers, with the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade linked up with them by 11:00.
Following three hours of fighting the battle was over by midday. The Australians proceeded to sweep the area, kicking over stacks of straw and shooting the North Korean soldiers they found hiding in them as they attempted to flee. Caught between the US paratroopers and the British and Australians, the North Korean 239th Regiment was destroyed. In their first major battle in the Korean War where the Australians had distinguished themselves, the battalion was praised for its performance; the Korean War began early in the morning of 25 June 1950, following the surprise invasion of the Republic of Korea by its northern neighbour, the communist Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Numerically superior and better-equipped, the Korean People's Army crossed the 38th Parallel and advanced south overcoming the South Koreans. In response, the United Nations decided to intervene on behalf of South Korea, inviting member states to send forces to restore the situation; as a consequence, American ground forces were hastily deployed in an attempt to prevent the South Koreans from collapsing, however they too were understrength and poorly equipped, by early August had been forced back by the North Koreans to an enclave around Pusan, known as the Pusan Perimeter.
Key US allies—Britain and Australia—also committed forces, although these were limited to naval contingents and were viewed as token efforts in the US. Under diplomatic pressure the British agreed to deploy an infantry brigade in July, would dispatch a second brigade as the crisis worsened; the Canadians agreed to provide an infantry brigade, although the first battalion would not arrive until December 1950. A total of 21 UN member states contributed forces. Australia was one of the first nations to commit units to the fighting, playing a small but sometimes significant part in the United Nations Command, led by General Douglas MacArthur. Forces deployed in Japan as part of the British Commonwealth Occupation Force formed the basis of the Australian response, with P-51 Mustang fighter-bombers from No. 77 Squadron RAAF flying their first missions on 2 July, while the frigate HMAS Shoalhaven and the destroyer HMAS Bataan were committed to naval operations. During this time the 3rd
Battle of Pyongtaek
The Battle of Pyongtaek was the second engagement between United States and North Korean forces during the Korean War, occurring on July 6, 1950 in the village of Pyongtaek in western South Korea. The fight ended in a North Korean victory following unsuccessful attempts by American forces to inflict significant damage or delays on advancing North Korean units, despite several opportunities to do so; the United States Army's 34th Infantry Regiment, 24th Infantry Division was assigned to delay elements of the North Korean People's Army's 4th Infantry Division as it advanced south following its victory at the Battle of Osan the day before. The regiment emplaced at Pyongtaek and Ansong attempting to form a line to hold the North Koreans in an area where the terrain formed a bottleneck between mountains and the Yellow Sea. Half of the regiment's strength was ordered to retreat from its position before the North Korean force was encountered, leaving the flank open for the remaining force, 1st Battalion at Pyongtaek.
The battalion encountered North Korean forces the morning of July 6, after a brief fight, was unable to repel them effectively. The battalion mounted a disorganized retreat to Cheonan several miles away, having failed to delay the North Korean forces in their movement south. On the night of June 25, 1950, 10 divisions of the North Korean People's Army launched a full-scale invasion on the nation's neighbor to the south, the Republic of Korea; the force of 89,000 men moved in six columns, catching the Republic of Korea Army by surprise, resulting in a disastrous rout for the South Koreans, who were disorganized, ill-equipped, unprepared for war. Numerically superior, North Korean forces destroyed isolated resistance from the 38,000 South Korean soldiers on the front, advancing south. Most of South Korea's forces retreated in the face of the invasion, by June 28, the North Koreans had captured Seoul, South Korea's capital, forcing the government and its shattered forces to withdraw south; the United Nations Security Council voted to send assistance to the collapsing country.
US President Harry S. Truman subsequently ordered ground troops into the nation. However, US forces in the Far East had been decreasing since the end of World War II five years earlier. At the time, the closest forces were the 24th Infantry Division of the Eighth United States Army, headquartered in Japan under the command of Major General William F. Dean. However, the division was under strength, most of its equipment was antiquated due to reductions in military spending following World War II. In spite of these deficiencies, the 24th Infantry Division was ordered into South Korea. From the 24th Infantry Division, one battalion was assigned to be airlifted into Korea via C-54 Skymaster transport aircraft and move to block advancing North Korean forces while the remainder of the division could be transported to South Korea on ships; the 21st Infantry Regiment was determined to be the most combat-ready of the 24th Infantry Division's three regiments, the 21st Infantry's 1st Battalion was selected because its commander, Lieutenant Colonel Charles B.
Smith, was the most experienced, having commanded a battalion at the Battle of Guadalcanal during World War II. On July 5, Task Force Smith engaged North Korean forces at the Battle of Osan, delaying over 5,000 North Korean infantry for seven hours before being routed and forced back. During that time, the 24th Division's 34th Infantry Regiment, with 2,000 men organized into the 1st and 3rd Battalions, was the second US unit into Korea, was sent by rail north from Pusan; the 1st Battalion, 34th Infantry emplaced at Pyongtaek, 10 miles south of Osan, to block the next North Korean advance. Pyongtaek was a village consisting of wooden huts and muddy roads In the meantime, 3rd Battalion, 34th Infantry was emplaced at Anseong, several miles east; the two battalions were assigned to form a line to block any North Korean advance. Terrain south of the Ansong–Pyongtaek line was more open, meaning the line sat on a bottleneck, with mountain ranges to the east and an inlet of the Yellow Sea to the west.
Therefore, Dean considered the line vital to his defensive plans. The 1st Battalion was unprepared for a fight as it was poorly trained and had no tanks or anti-tank guns to fight North Korean armor. Shortages of equipment hampered the entire division's efforts. Shortages in heavy guns reduced artillery support to the entire division. Communications equipment and ammunition was absent, large amounts of equipment were en route but the division had been under-equipped in Japan. Most of the radios available to the division did not work, batteries, communication wire, telephones to communicate among units were in short supply; the division had no tanks: its new M26 Pershing and older M4A3 Sherman tanks had not yet arrived. One of the few weapons that could penetrate the North Korean T-34, high explosive anti-tank ammunition, was in short supply; the paucity of radios and wire hampered communication among the American units. The battalion's new commander, Lieutenant Colonel Ayres, was given faulty intelligence, he told his command that the Koreans advancing south were poorly trained and poorly equipped.
The battalion formed a line 2 miles north of Pyongtaek, in a series of grassy hills and rice paddies where it dug in and prepared for advancing North Korean forces. The soldiers of the battalion were equipped with only M1 Garand rifles or other weapons, C-rations, less than 100 rounds of ammunition each, whilst only one M2 Browning machine gun was available to each platoon. There were no grenades and little to no ammunition for any of the heavier weapons which could be used against North Korean tanks. Additio