Karl Friedrich Schinkel
Karl Friedrich Schinkel was a Prussian architect, city planner, painter who designed furniture and stage sets. Schinkel was one of the most prominent architects of Germany and designed both neoclassical and neogothic buildings, his most famous buildings are found around Berlin. Schinkel was born in Margraviate of Brandenburg; when he was six, his father died in the disastrous Neuruppin fire of 1787. He became his father, David Gilly, in Berlin. After returning to Berlin from his first trip to Italy in 1805, he started to earn his living as a painter; when he saw Caspar David Friedrich's painting Wanderer above the Sea of Fog at the 1810 Berlin art exhibition he decided that he would never reach such mastery of painting and turned to architecture. Working for the stage, in 1816 he created a star-spangled backdrop for the appearance of the "Königin der Nacht" in Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's opera The Magic Flute, quoted in modern productions of this perennial piece. After Napoleon's defeat, Schinkel oversaw the Prussian Building Commission.
In this position, he was not only responsible for reshaping the still unspectacular city of Berlin into a representative capital for Prussia, but oversaw projects in the expanded Prussian territories from the Rhineland in the west to Königsberg in the east, such as New Altstadt Church. From 1808 to 1817 Schinkel renovated and reconstructed Schloss Rosenau, Coburg, in the Gothic Revival style, he rebuilt the ruins of Chorin Abbey. Schinkel's style, in his most productive period, is defined by a turn to Greek rather than Imperial Roman architecture, an attempt to turn away from the style, linked to the recent French occupiers, he believed that in order to avoid sterility and have a soul, a building must contain elements of the poetic and the past, have a discourse with them. His most famous extant buildings are found around Berlin; these include the Neue Wache, the National Monument for the Liberation Wars, the Schauspielhaus at the Gendarmenmarkt, which replaced the earlier theatre, destroyed by fire in 1817, the Altes Museum on Museum Island.
He carried out improvements to the Crown Prince's Palace and to Schloss Charlottenburg. Schinkel was responsible for the interior decoration of a number of private Berlin residences. Although the buildings themselves have long been destroyed portions of a stairwell from the Weydinger House could be rescued and built into the Nicolaihaus on Brüderstr. and its formal dining hall into the Palais am Festungsgraben. Between 1825–1827, he collaborated with Carl Theodor Ottmer on designs for the Berliner Singakademie for Sing-Akademie zu Berlin. Since 1952, it has been known as the Maxim Gorki Theatre. Schinkel moved away from classicism altogether, embracing the Neo-Gothic in his Friedrichswerder Church. Schinkel's Bauakademie, his most innovative building, eschewed historicist conventions and seemed to point the way to a clean-lined "modernist" architecture that would become prominent in Germany only toward the beginning of the 20th century. Schinkel died in Province of Brandenburg. Schinkel, however, is noted as much for his theoretical work and his architectural drafts as for the few buildings that were executed to his designs.
Some of his merits are best shown in his unexecuted plans for the transformation of the Athenian Acropolis into a royal palace for the new Kingdom of Greece and for the erection of the Orianda Palace in the Crimea. These and other designs may be studied in his Sammlung architektonischer Entwürfe and his Werke der höheren Baukunst, he designed the famed Iron Cross medal of Prussia, Germany. It has been speculated, that due to the difficult political circumstances – French occupation and the dependency on the Prussian king – and his early death, which prevented him from seeing the explosive German industrialization in the second half of the 19th century, he was not able to live up to the true potential exhibited by his sketches. Karl Friedrich Schinkel's paintings Selection of Karl Friedrich Schinkel's works Schinkelplatz Statue of Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Berlin References SourcesKarl Friedrich Schinkel 1781 - 1841: the drama of architecture, ed. by John Zukowsky. With essays by Kurt W. Forster and Wolfgang Pehnt, ISBN 0-86559-105-9.
Jörg Trempler: Schinkels Motive, Matthes & Seitz, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-88221-866-4. Christoph Werner: Schloss am Strom. Die Geschichte vom Leben und Sterben des Baumeisters Karl Friedrich Schinkel. Bertuch-Verlag, Weimar 2004, ISBN 3-937601-11-2. Christoph von Wolzogen: Karl Friedrich Schinkel: Unter dem bestirnten Himmel. Biographie. Edition Fichter, Frankfurt 2016, ISBN 978-3-943856-33-0. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Schinkel, Karl Friedrich". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Carter, Rand. "Karl Friedrich Schinkel, The Last Great Architect". Prefatory essay from Collection of Architectural Designs including those designs which have been executed and objects whose execution was intended by Karl Friedrich Schinkel. Used as a reference
Bertelsmann is a German multinational corporation based in Gütersloh, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is one of the world's largest mass media companies and active in the service sector and education. Bertelsmann was founded as a publishing house by Carl Bertelsmann in 1835. After World War II, under the leadership of Reinhard Mohn, went from being a medium-sized enterprise to a major conglomerate, offering not only books but television, music and business services. Bertelsmann is an unlisted and capital market-oriented company, which remains controlled by the Mohn family. Since 2016, major divisions of Bertelsmann are RTL Group, Penguin Random House, Gruner + Jahr, BMG, Bertelsmann Printing Group, Bertelsmann Education Group and Bertelsmann Investments; the nucleus of the corporation is the C. Bertelsmann Verlag, a publishing house established in 1835 by Carl Bertelsmann in Gütersloh. Carl Bertelsmann was a representative of the "Minden-Ravensberger Erweckungsbewegung", a Protestant revival movement, whose writings he published.
The C. Bertelsmann Verlag specialized in theological literature, expanded its publications to include school and textbooks, in the 1920s and 1930s entered into the field of light fiction. During the Third Reich, the publishing house gained a prominent position with its affordable "Bertelsmann Volksausgaben". In particular, war adventure books such as Werner von Langsdorff's "Fliegerbuch" on aviation were a commercial success. Heinrich Mohn belonged to the patrons' circle of the paramilitary Schutzstaffel organization and sought to turn his company into a National Socialist model enterprise. During World War II, the C. Bertelsmann Verlag became a leading supplier to the Wehrmacht surpassing the central publishing house of the NSDAP Franz Eher. In the years between 1939 and 1941, the revenues of the C. Bertelsmann Verlag skyrocketed. Jewish slave laborers were not forced to work in Gütersloh, but in printing plants in Lithuania with which the C. Bertelsmann Verlag cooperated. In 1944, the Reichsschrifttumskammer closed the publishing house to "mobilize all powers for victory".
Another essential reason for this was criminal paper racketeering by some publisher's employees, which led to a trial in 1944. After the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler and World War II, the company portrayed itself to the Allied Control Authority as a Christian publisher, part of the resistance to Nazism and persecuted. Ties to National Socialist organizations were denied. After it became known that erroneous, or at least inadequate, statements had been made, Heinrich Mohn stepped down as the head of the publishing house. Reinhard Mohn, one of his three sons, took over the C. Bertelsmann Verlag, as Hans Heinrich Mohn had been killed in the war and Sigbert Mohn was still a prisoner of war. In 1947, the Allies granted the company a publishing license. After the currency reform in 1948, there was a market slump in the book trade that led to the next existential crisis for the C. Bertelsmann Verlag. Under these conditions, in 1950 Bertelsmann launched the Lesering to stimulate sales; the customers ordered books via subscription, in return, received discounted prices.
The business shifted from the publishing house to the sale of books, decisive to further growth. In 1959, the C. Bertelsmann Verlag was restructured: From that point on, theological literature was published in the Gütersloher Verlagshaus, a new publishing house, consolidated with the Rufer Verlag. Fiction and art came under the roof of Sigbert Mohn Verlag; the C. Bertelsmann Verlag focused on nonfiction books, in particular dictionaries, reference books and journals; the 1950s and 1960s, Bertelsmann expanded its activities into new business areas: Thus, 1956, the company entered the music market with the Bertelsmann Schallplattenring. Two years Ariola, one of the most successful German record labels was launched, at the same time, the Sonopress record pressing plant was established. With the Kommissionshaus Buch & Ton, from which the Vereinigte Verlagsauslieferung emerged, Bertelsmann laid the cornerstone for its service business. In 1964, Bertelsmann purchased the broken-up UFA from the Deutsche Bank and built on its presence in cinema and television.
In 1969, Bertelsmann acquired shares in the magazine publisher Gruner + Jahr. A merger with Axel Springer planned at the time, for which a loan for millions had been taken out temporarily from Westdeutsche Landesbank, failed in 1970. Starting in 1971, Bertelsmann operated as a joint-stock company, becoming Bertelsmann AG; the diversifying book publishers were bundled in the Verlagsgruppe Bertelsmann publishing group at the end of the 1960s. In 1972, this company moved from Gütersloh to Munich. Key divisions remained in Gütersloh, for which a new office building was built in 1976 at the Group's official location. To this day, it has remained the Bertelsmann headquarters, referred to as the Bertelsmann Corporate Center; the rapid growth of Bertelsmann led to financial problems. In the 1970s, financing requirements reached their peak. From 1975 to 1980, for example, the return on sales fell below one percent. Bertelsmann encountered new regulatory rules in its home market, in particular through laws governing mergers.
Larger acquisitions became impossible. At the same time, there was an increasing saturation of the German market for the Bertelsmann Lesering, whereas the foreign book clubs earned the lion's share of revenues in this corporate division; the int
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Johann Philipp Eduard Gaertner was a German painter who specialized in depictions of urban architecture. In 1806, he moved with his mother to Kassel, they returned to Berlin in 1813 and he took up a six-year apprenticeship at the Royal Porcelain Factory. Although many artists had begun their careers at the Factory, he felt that the instruction provided was superficial and took drawing classes at the Academy of Arts. In 1821, he accepted a position as a decorative painter in the studios of Carl Wilhelm Gropius, the Royal Court Theater painter, where he remained until 1825. During this time, he became attracted to architectural painting, he was able to finance a study trip to Paris by selling a portrait of King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia to the Royal family. While there, he acquired more skill in the manipulation of light and atmosphere, was inspired by the magnificent vistas of medieval buildings to devote himself entirely to painting vedute. Upon his return to Berlin, he became a free-lance painter.
In 1829, he married and had twelve children. Over the next ten years, he devoted himself to documenting the Biedermeier style buildings of Berlin and, with Royal customers in mind, produced a series of scenes depicting the castles in Bellevue and Glienicke. In 1833, he was admitted to the Academy and designated a "Perspective Painter"; the following year, he began his most famous work: a six panel panorama of Berlin. It was painted from the roof of the Friedrichswerder Church, flat; this work was purchased by the King and a second version was bought by the King's daughter, Tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna. Its purchase became the occasion for a trip to Moscow and St. Petersburg, during which Gaertner painted extensively. In 1840, King Friedrich Wilhelm III died, his successor, Friedrich Wilhelm IV, preferred Italian-style paintings with Greek landscapes and bought little from Gaertner who, without the income from his principal client, soon began to have financial difficulties. He made contact with a group, interested in the protection and restoration of monuments and needed to have an illustrated inventory of them.
As a result, Gaertner travelled to villages and towns throughout Prussia, making watercolor sketches, including scenic views meant to be sold on his return to Berlin. By this means, he was able to attract some middle-class customers, but they proved to be no substitute for Royal patronage, he began to turn away from architecture, producing romantic scenes full of steep cliffs, Gypsies and oak trees, but never restored that patronage. His paintings from this period are considered to be inferior; as the century progressed, he suffered from competition with the newly emerging art of photography. In 1870, he and his family decided to leave the hectic atmosphere of Berlin and settle in Flecken Zechlin, a rural area near Rheinsberg, it was there that he died in 1877. His widow requested an annual allowance of 150 Marks from the Artist Support Fund of the Academy, but her application was denied, his works were forgotten until the "Deutschen Jahrhundert-Ausstellung" of 1906, when they were shown again.
Major exhibitions were staged in 1968, 1977 and 2001. It is believed. Although this is not expressly mentioned in his working notes, he does make oblique references to a "drafting machine" and some of his sketches are done on tracing paper, he possessed a collection of photographs, but there is no indication that these were used as models. Robert Dohme, "Gärtner, Eduard", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 8, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, p. 381 Irmgard Wirth, "Gaertner, Johann Philipp Eduard", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 6, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, p. 24. Der Berliner Architekturmaler. Propyläen, Frankfurt 1979, ISBN 3-549-06636-8. Dominik Bartmann: Eduard Gaertner 1801–1877. Begleitband zur Ausstellung im Museum Ephraim-Palais, Berlin, 2001. Nicolai, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-87584-070-4. Frauke Josenhans: Gaertner, Eduard, in: Bénédicte Savoy, France Nerlich: Pariser Lehrjahre. Ein Lexikon zur Ausbildung deutscher Maler in der französischen Hauptstadt. Vol. 1: 1793-1843. De Gruyter, Berlin/Boston 2013, ISBN 978-3-11-029057-8, S. 86–90.
"Works by Eduard Gaertner". Zeno.org. Eduard Gaertner – Exhibition in the Museum Ephraim-Palais, Berlin Literature by and about Eduard Gaertner in the German National Library catalogue
The Weimar Republic is an unofficial historical designation for the German state from 1918 to 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar; the official name of the republic remained Deutsches Reich unchanged from 1871, because of the German tradition of substates. Although translated as "German Empire", the word Reich here better translates as "realm", in that the term does not have monarchical connotations in itself; the Reich was changed from a constitutional monarchy into a republic. In English, the country was known as Germany. Germany became a de facto republic on 9 November 1918 when Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated the German and Prussian thrones with no agreement made on a succession by his son Crown Prince Wilhelm, became a de jure republic in February 1919 when the position of President of Germany was created. A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for Germany was written and adopted on 11 August 1919. In its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism as well as contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War.
Resentment in Germany towards the Treaty of Versailles was strong on the political right where there was great anger towards those who had signed the Treaty and submitted to fulfill the terms of it. The Weimar Republic fulfilled most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles although it never met its disarmament requirements and paid only a small portion of the war reparations. Under the Locarno Treaties, Germany accepted the western borders of the country by abandoning irredentist claims on France and Belgium, but continued to dispute the eastern borders and sought to persuade German-speaking Austria to join Germany as one of Germany's states. From 1930 onwards President Hindenburg used emergency powers to back Chancellors Heinrich Brüning, Franz von Papen and General Kurt von Schleicher; the Great Depression, exacerbated by Brüning's policy of deflation, led to a surge in unemployment. In 1933, Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as Chancellor with the Nazi Party being part of a coalition government.
The Nazis held two out of the remaining ten cabinet seats. Von Papen as Vice Chancellor was intended to be the "éminence grise" who would keep Hitler under control, using his close personal connection to Hindenburg. Within months, the Reichstag Fire Decree and the Enabling Act of 1933 had brought about a state of emergency: it wiped out constitutional governance and civil liberties. Hitler's seizure of power was permissive of government by decree without legislative participation; these events brought the republic to an end – as democracy collapsed, the founding of a single-party state began the dictatorship of the Nazi era. The Weimar Republic is so called because the assembly that adopted its constitution met at Weimar, from 6 February 1919 to 11 August 1919, but this name only became mainstream after 1933. Between 1919 and 1933 there was no single name for the new state that gained widespread acceptance, why the old name Deutsches Reich remained though hardly anyone used it during the Weimar period.
To the right of the spectrum the politically engaged rejected the new democratic model and cringed to see the honour of the traditional word Reich associated with it. The Catholic Centre party, Zentrum favoured the term Deutscher Volksstaat while on the moderate left the Chancellor's SPD preferred Deutsche Republik. By 1925, Deutsche Republik was used by most Germans, but for the anti-democratic right the word Republik was, along with the relocation of the seat of power to Weimar, a painful reminder of a government structure, imposed by foreign statesmen, along with the expulsion of Kaiser Wilhelm in the wake of massive national humiliation; the first recorded mention of the term Republik von Weimar came during a speech delivered by Adolf Hitler at a National Socialist German Worker's Party rally in Munich on 24 February 1929—it was a few weeks that the term Weimarer Republik was first used in a newspaper article. Only during the 1930s did the term become mainstream, both within and outside Germany.
According to historian Richard J. Evans: The continued use of the term'German Empire', Deutsches Reich, by the Weimar Republic....conjured up an image among educated Germans that resonated far beyond the institutional structures Bismarck created: the successor to the Roman Empire. After the introduction of the republic, the flag and coat of arms of Germany were altered to reflect the political changes; the Weimar Republic without the symbols of the former Monarchy. This left the black eagle with one head, facing to the right, with open wings but closed feathers, with a red beak and claws and white highlighting. By reason of a decision of the Reich's Government I hereby announce, that the Imperial coat of arms on a gold-yellow shield shows the one headed black eagle, the head turned to the right, the wings open but with closed feathering, beak and claws in red color. If the Reich's Eagle is shown without a frame, the same charg
Prussian Academy of Arts
The Prussian Academy of Arts was a state arts academy first established in Berlin, Brandenburg, in 1694/1696 by prince-elector Frederick III, in personal union Duke Frederick I of Prussia, king in Prussia. After the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome and the Académies Royales in Paris, the Prussian Academy of Art was the oldest institution of its kind in Europe, with a similar mission to other royal academies of that time, such as the Real Academia Española in Madrid, the Royal Society in London, or the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm; the academy had a decisive influence on art and its development in the German-speaking world throughout its existence. For an extended period of time it was the German artists' society and training organisation, whilst the Academy's Senate became Prussia's arts council as early as 1699, it dropped'Prussian' from its name in 1945 and was disbanded in 1955 after the 1954 foundation of two separate academies of art for East Berlin and West Berlin in 1954.
Those two separate academies merged in 1993 to form Berlin's present-day Academy of Arts. Most artists were associated with the academy as members. Membership was an honorary distinction extended to prominent domestic Prussian artists and selected foreign figures as well. A'deliberative' body of senators was chosen from the membership – some elected, some automatically included due to other rank; the academy was not a school, although it had associations with educational institutions, notably the state school that evolved into the present-day Berlin University of the Arts. Joseph Werner Blaise Nicholas Le Sueur Bernhard Rode Daniel Chodowiecki Johann Gottfried Schadow Anton von Werner Franz Heinrich Schwechten Max Liebermann Max von Schillings The academy was founded to include painters and architects as members, reflecting the classical unity of the arts ideal; the scope was expanded in 1704 to include "Mechanical Sciences". The academy's first director was Swiss painter Joseph Werner. Name changes: 1696–1704 Kurfürstliche Academie der Mahler-, Bildhauer- und Architectur-Kunst 1704–1790 Königlich-Preussische Akademie der Künste und mechanischen Wissenschaften 1790–1809 Königliche Akademie der bildenden Künste und mechanischen Wissenschaften zu Berlin Longtime director and sculptor Johann Gottfried Schadow served from 1815 to 1850.
In 1833 the academy added a fine arts division, a music division in 1835. Emil Fuchs studied at the Academy under Fritz Schaper and Anton von Werner, shortly before 1891. Otto Geyer studied there from 1859–1864. Sculptor Wilhelm Neumann-Torborg studied at the academy from 1878 until 1885, under Otto Knille and Fritz Schaper. In 1885, he won the Academy's Rome Scholarship for his thesis, "The Judgment of Paris". Anna Gerresheim studied there from 1876 for four years in the "ladies class" under Karl Gussow. Oskar Frenzel studied there between 1889 under Paul Friedrich Meyerheim and Eugen Bracht, he was from 1904 until his death a member of the Academy. Painter Friedrich Wachenhusen studied there in 1889 under Eugen Bracht. Name changes: 1790–1809 Königliche Akademie der bildenden Künste und mechanischen Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1809–1875 Königlich Preussische Akademie der Künste 1875–1882 Königlich Preussische Akademie der Künste zu Berlin 1882–1918 Königliche Akademie der Künste zu Berlin In 1926 the academy added a Dichtkunst division, a Dichtung division in 1932, the German Academy of Poetry from the beginning of June 1933.
From 1930 until his parting into exile in 1933, novelist Heinrich Mann was its president. Painter and sculptor Paul Wallat studied there from 1902–1909 under Otto Brausewetter and Carl Saltzmann. On December 29, 1906 he received the award of the Ginsberg Foundation of the Berlin Academy. In 1920, Käthe Kollwitz became the first woman elected to the Prussian Academy, but with the coming to power of Adolf Hitler in 1933 she was expelled because of her beliefs and her art. Name changes: 1882–1918 Königliche Akademie der Künste zu Berlin 1918–1926 Akademie der Künste zu Berlin 1926–1931 Preußische Akademie der Künste zu Berlin 1931–1954 Preussische Akademie der Künste