Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
CVC Capital Partners
CVC Capital Partners is a leading British private equity firm with US$111 billion in secured commitments since inception across European and Asian private equity and growth funds. In total, the CVC Group manages US$70 billion of assets. Since 1981, CVC has completed over 300 investments across a wide range of countries. CVC was founded in 1981 and today has over 400 employees working across its network of 24 offices throughout Europe and the Americas. American banking giant, had established an investment arm in 1968 to focus on venture capital investments. By the late 1970s and early 1980s, Citicorp Venture Capital, at that time under the leadership of chairman William T. Comfort, continued to invest in early-stage businesses but expanded into the emerging leveraged buyout business. CVC Capital Partners was founded in 1981 as the European arm of Citicorp Venture Capital. Among Citicorp Venture Capital's early employees and in Europe were Jon Moulton, Mike Smith, Frank Neale. Of the group's original European leadership, most would leave by the late 1980s.
Moulton left the firm to co-found Schroder Ventures the predecessor of Permira in 1985. Neale departed to form Phildrew Ventures. By the early 1990s, Michael Smith, who joined Citicorp in 1982, was leading Citicorp Venture Capital in Europe along with other managing directors Steven Koltes, Hardy McLain, Donald Mackenzie, Iain Parham, Rolly Van Rappard. In 1993, Smith and the senior investment professionals of Citicorp Venture Capital negotiated a spinout from Citibank to form an independent private equity firm, CVC Capital Partners. In 2006, the US arm of Citigroup Venture Capital spun out of the bank to form a new firm, known as Court Square Capital Partners. CVC operated offices in London and Frankfurt. Following the spinout, CVC raised its first investment fund with $300 million of commitments, half coming from Citicorp and the rest from high-net-worth individuals and institutional investors. Now independent, CVC completed its transition from venture capital investments to leveraged buyouts and investments in mature businesses.
CVC would follow up with its second fund in 1996, its first independent of Citibank, with $840 million of capital commitments. By 2000, CVC was one of the best known private equity firms in Europe. In 2001, CVC completed fundraising for its third investment fund, the largest private equity fund raised in Europe at the time, just ahead of funds raised by other leading firms, Apax Partners and BC Partners Also, around the same time, CVC expanded into Asia with a $750 million fund focusing on investments in Asian companies. From November 2005 to March 2006, CVC purchased 63.4% of the shares of the Formula One Group, owner of the Formula One auto racing championship. In 2007, CVC expanded to the U. S. opening an office in New York City, headed by Christopher Stadler and overseen by Rolly van Rappard. In 2012, CVC reduced its shares in the Formula One Group to 35.5%. In January 2013, Smith retired from the role of chairman and Koltes and Van Rappard were appointed co-chairmen of the group. In February 2015, CVC made its first investment from CVC Growth Partners in Wireless Logic, Europe's largest machine-to-machine managed service provider, acquiring it from ECI PartnersIn March 2015, CVC bought 80% of shares of gambling company Sky Betting & Gaming.
In June 2015, CVC acquired the German perfume retailer Douglas AG for an disclosed fee from private equity firm Advent International. In September 2015, CVC opened an office in Warsaw. In November 2015, CVC and the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board both acquired American pet supplier Petco for a fee of around $4.6 billion. In April 2016, CVC Capital Partners acquired German betting operator Tipico. In August 2016, CVC Capital Partners agreed to buy a 15% stake in PT Siloam International Hospitals TbK, among Indonesia's and South East Asia's largest corporate chains of hospitals In September 2016, CVC Capital Partners agreed to sell control of the Formula One Group to John Malone’s Liberty Media in a deal worth US$4.4bn. The two-part deal would see the US media group buy 18.7 per cent of the F1 parent company Delta Topco for $746mn in cash from a consortium of shareholders led by CVC. In 2017, a second payment of $354mn in cash and $3.3bn in newly issued shares in a Liberty Media tracking stock will see Liberty Media assume full control of Formula One once the deal is approved by regulators, the FIA and Liberty’s shareholders.
The current European and US portfolio contains a number of companies, including: AlixPartners: Management Consulting Firm Avast: IT security company. UnitedLex The current Asia Pacific portfolio includes: The Executive Centre: Hong Kong-based serviced office operator. In January 2015, CVC Capital Partners and Bencis Capital Partners were sentenced to pay fines by the Dutch Authority for Consumers and Markets after it charged the former Dutch portfolio company of the two firms, Meneba Beheer, with breaking competition rules through price fixing; the Dutch regulator ruled that the two firms must pay between €450,000 and €1.5 million after Meneba Beheer, itself fined €9 million by the authority, was involved in a collective agreement with competitors to keep prices stable between 2001 and 2007. CVC Capital Partners
Kerrang! is a British weekly magazine devoted to rock music and heavy metal music published by Wasted Talent. It was first published on 6 June 1981 as a one-off supplement in the Sounds newspaper. Named after the onomatopoeic word that derives from the sound made when playing a power chord on a distorted electric guitar, Kerrang! was devoted to the new wave of British heavy metal and the rise of hard rock acts. In the early 2000s it became the best-selling British music weekly. Kerrang! was founded in 1981. The magazine commenced publication on 6 June 1981 and was edited by Geoff Barton as a one-time supplement in the Sounds newspaper, which focused on the new wave of British heavy metal phenomenon and on the rise of other hard rock acts. Angus Young of AC/DC appeared on Kerrang!'s first cover. Launched as a monthly magazine, Kerrang! began to appear on a fortnightly basis and in 1987 it went weekly. The original owner was United Newspapers who sold it to EMAP in 1991. During the 1980s and early 1990s the magazine placed many thrash and glam metal acts on the cover but discarded them when grunge acts such as Nirvana rose to fame.
Readers criticise the magazine for repeating this process every time a new musical subgenre becomes trendy. The term "thrash metal" was first coined in the music press by Kerrang! journalist Malcolm Dome while making a reference to the Anthrax song "Metal Thrashing Mad" in issue number 62, page 8, published on 23 February 1984. Prior to this Metallica's James Hetfield referred to their sound as power metal. Kerrang!'s popularity rose again with the hiring of editor Paul Rees circa 2000 when the nu metal genre, featuring bands including Limp Bizkit and Slipknot, was becoming more popular. Rees went on to edit Q magazine and former Kerrang! Reviews editor Ashley Bird was appointed editor from 2003 to 2005. Following his departure, Paul Brannigan took over as editor in May 2005. With the emergence of emo and metalcore during the mid to late-2000s, Kerrang! began to feature this musical trend. The revamp was not welcomed by all readers and many complaints were received about Kerrang!'s sudden emphasis on emo and metalcore music.
However, following this change, Brannigan took the magazine into its most commercially successful period with a record ABC for the title of 80,186 copies. In 2008, EMAP sold its consumer magazines to current owner Bauer Media Group. Brannigan left Kerrang! in 2009 and Nichola Browne was appointed editor. She stepped down in April 2011. Former NME features editor and GamesMaster deputy editor James McMahon was appointed as editor on 6 June 2011. In April 2017, Kerrang! magazine, its website, the K! Awards were purchased by Mixmag Media, publisher of dance monthly Mixmag, along with assets related to defunct style magazine The Face. Mixmag has since formed parent company Wasted Talent, which relaunched Kerrang! as a digital-first title, while continuing to publish a weekly print edition. Former Editor-in-Chief Phil Alexander was appointed Global Creative Director on 3 August 2017. Bauer retained ownership of Kerrang! Radio and the Box Plus Network will continue to operate Kerrang! TV as before; the magazine received a logo change in mid-2017 before receiving a complete redesign during 2018.
This change saw several of the magazine's long-running features dropped, including the Ultimate Rockstar Test, while new features were added in their place. In March 2018, following a magazine redesign, Kerrang! announced it would be expanding to the United States, with an office in New York run by Ethan Fixell. The goal would be to generate US-centric content and brand partnerships. Kerrang!'s website, www.kerrang.com, was launched in summer 2001 by Dan Silver. Kerrang!'s parent company Emap acquired the domain name from a Norwegian cybersquatter by the name of Steingram Stegane for a token sum of £666. Kerrang!'s website features news and features on both contemporary and classic rock bands, as well as previewing upcoming events. The website hosts Kerrang!'s online shop, message board, TV and radio segments ensuring more opportunities to sell associated merchandise and products. In 2001, Kerrang! launched its own online forum with the "rants and raves" section taking up most of the traffic.
Though extremely popular, the number of users began to peter out around 2005 with the number of people online dropping to as low as 10 when it had been closer to the 100 figure. According to Alexa www.kerrang.com is ranked 83,545th globally, 33,532nd in the U. S. Since 1993, the magazine has held an annual awards ceremony to mark the most successful bands in the interests of their readers; the awards became one of Britain's most recognised events by the now defunct Guinness Book of British Hit Singles & Albums listing some of the winners in their annual round-up of the previous year. The event is presented by major music celebrities, with many others outside the industry who attend the event. After a year hiatus, the Awards were relaunched in 2018, with notable guests that included Johnny Depp, Joe Perry, Tony Iommi, Corey Taylor, Dave Grohl, among many others. In 2000, EMAP launched Kerrang! as a digital radio station, across the United Kingdom. This was principally a'jukebox' station, playing a back-to-back sequence of rock and alternative music.
On 10 June 2004, Kerrang! 105.2 was launched as a regional radio station in Birmingham with an advertising campaign by London-based creative agency ODD. The radio had a number of specialist programmes dedicated to the many subgenres of rock music; the radio output included interviews with those affecting popular culture and society as well as those involved with m
Rebel Melanie Elizabeth Wilson is an Australian actress and producer. After graduating from the Australian Theatre for Young People in 2003, she began appearing as Toula on the Special Broadcasting Service comedy series Pizza and the sketch comedy series The Wedge. In 2008, Wilson wrote and starred in the musical comedy series Bogan Pride; the following year, she won the Tropfest best actress award for her role in Bargain and made a guest appearance in City Homicide. Shortly after moving to the United States, Wilson was cast as Brynn in the feature film Bridesmaids. Wilson appeared in A Few Best Men, What to Expect When You're Expecting and Struck by Lightning, leading Variety to name her one of their "Top Ten Comics to Watch for 2011", she appeared as Becky in Bachelorette and starred in the musical comedy Pitch Perfect film series as Fat Amy, a role that earned her several award nominations and wins, including the MTV Best Breakthrough Performance Award and a Teen Choice Award for Choice Movie Actress.
She has created and starred in Super Fun Night, a television comedy that aired for one season on ABC. Wilson was born on 2 March 1980 in Australia, her mother is a professional dog handler. Wilson grew up in the suburbs of Kenthurst and Castle Hill, she attended Tara Anglican School for Girls. She completed her Higher School Certificate in 1997, including second place in the state in food technology. Wilson has three siblings: sisters Liberty and Annaleise and a brother, who uses the name "Ryot". Liberty and Ryot appeared on the first season of The Amazing Race Australia in 2011, where they were the first team eliminated. Wilson has stated that her great-aunt was Lillian Bounds, married to Walt Disney until his death in 1966. Despite Wilson standing by this belief in court, it continues to be disputed by genealogist Dale Sheldon. Wilson's first career choice was mathematics, she told The Sydney Morning Herald, "I was academic at high school and was always good with numbers." She attended the University of New South Wales, graduating in 2009 with Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Laws degrees.
A former Rotary International Youth Ambassador for Australia, she was based in South Africa for one year, where she contracted malaria. She has spoken of malaria-induced hallucinations, where she saw herself as an actress who had won an Oscar, convincing her to pursue an acting career. Wilson studied at the Australian Theatre for Young People. In 2003 she moved to New York after winning the ATYP International scholarship, funded by Nicole Kidman. While she was in New York, Wilson trained with The Second City, she appeared with the Sydney Theatre Company and performed at the Melbourne International Comedy Festival. She first came to the public's attention in 2002 with her stage musical The Westie Monologues, which she wrote, starred in and produced in Sydney, her follow-up stage productions, which she wrote and starred in include Spunks and Confessions of an Exchange Student. In Australia, Wilson is most known for her roles as Toula on the SBS comedy series Pizza and as various characters including Lucy, Fat Mandi and Karla Bangs on the sketch comedy series The Wedge.
She played an Australian Idol mad schoolgirl in a series of Telstra advertisements shown during Australian Idol from 2004 to 2005. She had roles in the feature films Fat Pizza and Ghost Rider. In 2008, Wilson created, wrote and starred in the musical comedy series Bogan Pride on SBS One and starred in the improvisational Nine Network series Monster House. In 2009 Wilson won the Tropfest Best Actress award for her role in the film Bargain, she has made appearances on the improvisational comedy show Thank God You're Here and the comedy game show Talkin"Bout Your Generation. She performed stand-up on the television special The Breast Darn Show In Town and guest starred in the Seven Network drama City Homicide and performed improv at the Upright Citizens Brigade in Los Angeles. After moving to the United States, Wilson signed to talent and literary agents William Morris Endeavor. Wilson's next film role came in the Judd Apatow film, Bridesmaids, in which she played Brynn, the sister of Matt Lucas' character.
The role was written for her. Wilson appeared in the CBS sitcom Rules of Engagement and on the Comedy Central series, Workaholics, she co-hosted the 2010 ARIA Music Awards and performed at the inaugural Variety’s Power of Comedy event in Los Angeles with Lucas and Russell Brand. In early 2011, Wilson filmed A Few Best Men at Fox Studios Australia, she filmed a role in Small Apartments. Wilson was named one of Variety magazine's "Top Ten Comics to Watch for 2011". In 2012, Wilson had a role in the ensemble comedy What to Expect When You're Expecting, as Janice, co-starred in the indie film Struck By Lightning. On 19 August 2011, Borys Kit of The Hollywood Reporter reported that Wilson had replaced Casey Wilson in Bachelorette. In 2012, Wilson voiced a character in Ice Age: Continental Drift and played Fat Amy in Pitch Perfect. For the latter role, she received critical acclaim and earned various award nominations, including Best Supporting Actress from the San Diego Film Critics Society and Best Actress in a Comedy from the Broadcast Film Critics Association.
She won the MTV Movie Award for Best Actor in a Movie and shared the Best Musical Moment award with her Pitch Perfect co-stars. Wilson was nominated for MTV Movie Award for Best Performance. Wilson won the Choice Movie Actress: Comedy award for Pitch Perfect at the 2013 Teen Choice Awards, she had been nominated for Choice Comedian at the 2013 Teen Choice Awards. In January 2012, Michael Ausiello of TVLine announced that Wilson wo
Heat is a entertainment magazine published by Bauer Media Group. Its mix of celebrity news, beauty advice and fashion is aimed at women, although not as directly as in other women's magazines, it features movie and music reviews, TV listings and major celebrity interviews. Heat was launched in February 1999 as a general interest entertainment magazine, at a cost of more than £4m. However, unlike other Emap magazine launches before and after, it was not an immediate success, with a circulation below 100,000. A series of revamps repositioned the magazine as a less serious, more gossip-oriented magazine aimed at women, circulation grew. A series of high-profile celebrity relationships, such as Jennifer Aniston and Brad Pitt provided ample material, while reality shows such as Big Brother and Pop Idol grew popular at just the right time to help fill pages. Heat achieved record sale figures when Jade Goody had a make-over and was first on the front cover after her stint in Big Brother 3 and when Nikki Grahame and Pete Bennett from Big Brother 7 split and Grahame was interviewed for Heat in 2006.
In 2009–10 Heat spearheaded a campaign alongside Girls Aloud's Nicola Roberts advocating the banning of sunbed use in the UK for under-18s. The campaign was a success and a bill was passed by Parliament shortly before the 2010 General Election; the site crashed. Barry McIlheney Mark Frith Julian Linley Sam Delaney Lucie Cave. Heatworld.com launched on 22 May 2007 and was edited by Julian Linley, deputy editor of Heat magazine for five years. The site is an online interpretation of the magazine, emulating the mix of celebrity news and fashion. However, heatworld.com does not replicate magazine content and bases itself more on video and audio content and breaking news. The site is advertising funded. On 25 September 2007, Heat Radio launched; the station is owned by Bauer Radio, a division of the company, which owns Heat magazine. The station can be listened to through Freeview on channel number 716, across the UK on DAB Digital Radio, on their app or at heatradio.com. On 3 July 2012, Heat launched, featuring celebrity music.
The channel comes from a joint venture between Bauer and Channel Four. It replaced Q on Sky, Smallworld Cable and Virgin Media in the UK, in Ireland on Sky and UPC Ireland and in Iceland on Síminn. In May 2016, the channel was rebranded as Box Upfront; as Heat magazine grew in popularity, spin off merchandise was released to cash in on its success. Current items carrying the Heat brand name are an exercise DVD titled Heat: Get That Celeb Look, released in 2003, an interactive DVD game featuring celebrity questions, an annual for the year 2007 and in 2003 a set of mini books titled Say What were released containing quotes from celebrities such as Gareth Gates. In an issue, released on 27 November 2007, Heat used a photograph of Katie Price's disabled son, who suffers from septo-optic dysplasia, a rare condition which means he is visually impaired and suffers from hormonal deficiencies, causing him to gain weight and means he is blind, on a sticker, included with the magazine, with the slogan "Harvey wants to eat me!"
The magazine's editor Mark Frith made an apology for the offence caused by the sticker, an apology was posted on the magazine's website. A spokesperson for the Press Complaints Commission confirmed that Katie Price was planning to make a complaint about the matter; the magazine was criticized in the press over the incident, with one editorial describing it as "the lowest point in British journalism". In another issue released on 6–12 September 2014, Heat published a photograph of Justin Timberlake, husband to Jessica Biel, at a nightclub in Paris on the night after his performance; the star was photographed partying with women at the club as the title named it "Justin Timberlake gets flirty with another woman, "It is not his wife!". Once the article, as well as the pictures surfaced it caused his marriage with Jessica to be manipulated; the singer and actor lodged a defamation claim in the courts in Ireland against the publishers of the celebrity title over an article and quotes attributed to Total Recall actor Biel.
In the agreed statement read in the high court, a lawyer for the Heat publisher-Bauer group admitted the article – headlined and "The flirty photos that rocked Justin and Jessica’s marriage" – was based on an unfounded report. The article included purported statements improperly attributed to Biel which the publishers said Heat now understands the actor never made; these allegations were fixed as Bauer media group apologized on Heat Magazine's behalf, a settlement was made in a hearing before the president of the High Court, Mr Justice Nicholas Kearns. Heat launched heat's Twitter Awards in 2013 that it says will celebrate “the joyful collision of celebrities and social media”. It’s what social media has been waiting for! Heat promotes its celebrity Twitter awards via Heat’s TV, radio and social media platforms as well as a marketing campaign, which will include press, digital, PR and retail activity. There will be specially created videos for each category that will be released as the campaign progresses.
The videos are designed to bring each category to life. The winners will announced via Heatworld.com and its YouTube Channel. Every year since 2006, Heat opens a poll to find the nation's o
Channel 4 is a British public-service free-to-air television network that began transmission on 2 November 1982. Although commercially-self-funded, it is publicly-owned. With the conversion of the Wenvoe transmitter group in Wales to digital terrestrial broadcasting on 31 March 2010, Channel 4 became a UK-wide TV channel for the first time; the channel was established to provide a fourth television service to the United Kingdom in addition to the licence-funded BBC One and BBC Two, the single commercial broadcasting network ITV. Before Channel 4 and S4C, Britain had three terrestrial television services: BBC1, BBC2, ITV; the Broadcasting Act 1980 began the process of adding a fourth, Channel 4, along with its Welsh counterpart, was formally created by an Act of Parliament in 1982. After some months of test broadcasts, it began scheduled transmissions on 2 November 1982; the notion of a second commercial broadcaster in the United Kingdom had been around since the inception of ITV in 1954 and its subsequent launch in 1955.
Indeed, television sets sold throughout the 1970s and early 1980s had a spare tuning button labelled "ITV/IBA 2". Throughout ITV's history and until Channel 4 became a reality, a perennial dialogue existed between the GPO, the government, the ITV companies and other interested parties, concerning the form such an expansion of commercial broadcasting would take, it was most politics which had the biggest impact in leading to a delay of three decades before the second commercial channel became a reality. One clear benefit of the "late arrival" of the channel was that its frequency allocations at each transmitter had been arranged in the early 1960s, when the launch of an ITV2 was anticipated; this led to good coverage across most of the country and few problems of interference with other UK-based transmissions. At the time the fourth service was being considered, a movement in Wales lobbied for the creation of dedicated service that would air Welsh-language programmes only catered for at "off peak" times on BBC Wales and HTV.
The campaign was taken so by Gwynfor Evans, former president of Plaid Cymru, that he threatened the government with a hunger strike were it not to honour the plans. The result was that Channel 4 as seen by the rest of the United Kingdom would be replaced in Wales by Sianel Pedwar Cymru. Operated by a specially created authority, S4C would air programmes in Welsh made by HTV, the BBC and independent companies. Limited frequency space meant that Channel 4 could not be broadcast alongside S4C, though some Channel 4 programmes would be aired at less popular times on the Welsh variant, a practice that carried on up until the closure of S4C's analogue transmissions in 2010 when S4C became a Welsh channel. Since carriage on digital cable and digital terrestrial has introduced Channel 4 to Welsh homes where it is now universally available; the first voice heard on Channel 4's opening day of Tuesday 2 November 1982 was that of continuity announcer Paul Coia who said: Good afternoon. It's a pleasure to be able to say to you, welcome to Channel Four.
Following the announcement, the channel headed into a montage of clips from its programmes set to the station's signature tune, "Fourscore", written by David Dundas, which would form the basis of the station's jingles for its first decade. The first programme to air on the channel was the teatime game show Countdown, at 16:45 produced by Yorkshire Television; the first person to be seen on Channel 4 was Richard Whiteley with Ted Moult being the second. The first woman on the channel, contrary to popular belief, was not Whiteley's Countdown co-host Carol Vorderman but a lexicographer only identified as Mary. Whiteley opened the show with the words: As the countdown to a brand new channel ends, a brand new countdown begins. On its first day, Channel 4 broadcast controversial soap opera Brookside, which ran until 2003. On its launch, Channel 4 committed itself to providing an alternative to the existing channels, an agenda in part set out by its remit which required the provision of programming to minority groups.
In step with its remit, the channel became well received both by minority groups and the arts and cultural worlds during this period under founding chief executive Jeremy Isaacs, where the channel gained a reputation for programmes on the contemporary arts. Channel 4 co-commissioned Robert Ashley's ground-breaking television opera Perfect Lives, which it premiered over several episodes in 1984; the channel did not receive mass audiences for much of this period, however, as might be expected for a station focusing on minority interest. Channel 4 began the funding of independent films, such as the Merchant-Ivory docudrama The Courtesans of Bombay, during this time. In 1992, Channel 4 faced its first libel case by Jani Allan, a South African journalist, who objected to her representation in Nick Broomfield's documentary The Leader, His Driver and the Driver's Wife. In September 1993, the channel broadcast the direct-to-TV documentary film Beyond Citizen Kane, in which it displayed the dominant position of the Rede Globo television network, discussed its influence and political connections in Brazil.
After control of the station passed from the Channel Four Television Co