Snooker is a cue sport which originated in India in the latter half of the 19th century. It is played on a covered with a green cloth, or baize, with pockets at each of the four corners. Using a cue and 22 coloured balls, players must strike the ball to pot the remaining balls in the correct sequence. An individual game, or frame, is won by the player who scores the most points, a match is won when a player wins a predetermined number of frames. In the 1870s, billiards was a sport played by members of the British Army stationed in India. Snooker gained its own identity in 1884 when officer Sir Neville Chamberlain, while stationed in Ooty, devised a set of rules that combined pyramid, the word snooker was a long used military term used to describe inexperienced or first year personnel. The game grew in popularity in England, cemented by the formation of the Billiards Association and it is now governed by the World Professional Billiards and Snooker Association. The World Snooker Championship has taken place since 1927, with Joe Davis becoming a key figure in the growth of the sport with 15 championship wins from 1927 to 1946.
Top professional players now compete regularly around the world and attain multi-million-pound career earnings, the sport has become increasingly popular in China. The origin of snooker dates back to the half of the nineteenth century. In the 1870s, billiards was a popular activity amongst British Army officers stationed in India, one such variation originated at the officers mess of the 11th Devonshire Regiment in Jabalpur in 1875, which combined the rules of two pocket billiards games and life pool. The former was played with fifteen red balls and one positioned in a triangle, while the latter involved the potting of designated coloured balls. The name instantly stuck with the players, in 1887, snooker was given its first definite reference in England in a copy of Sporting Life which caused a growth in popularity. Chamberlain came out as the inventor in a letter to The Field published on 19 March 1938,63 years after the fact. To accommodate the growing interest and more open snooker-specific clubs were formed, in 1919, the Billiards Association and the Billiards Control Board merged to form the Billiards Association and Control Club and a new, standard set of rules for snooker first became official.
Davis won every championship until 1946 when he retired. The game went into a decline through the 1950s and 1960s with little interest generated outside of those who played, in 1959, Davis introduced a variation of the game, known as snooker plus to try to improve the games popularity by adding two extra colours. The TV series became a success and was for a time the second most popular show on BBC Two
Parker's Car Guides
Parkers Car Price Guide is a monthly magazine and, more recently, a website with reviews and price lists for new and used cars in the United Kingdom. Initial searches are free, with payment required to access further details and it was founded in 1972 and is the longest-running price guide available to the public. It expanded over the years to offer reviews, technical data, the portfolio of products has been edited by Kieren Puffett since 2004. More recently it has specialised in testing high-performance luxury cars, leaving reviews of more vehicles in car ownership to sister publications such as CAR magazine. Parkers offers valuations for commercial vehicles, and the section is headed by Liam Campbell, since 2008, Parkers is owned and published by the German company Bauer Media Group. 1972, Launch of the Parkers Car Price Guide, 1st issue, March 1972, priced at 20p 1973, Full colour front page 1997, Emap buys Parkers portfolio from Parker Mead. Last Parker Mead edition of the Price Guide was August 19971998, Winter 1998 was the first edition of Parkers Car Chooser Magazine which ran until 20061999, parkers. co
Grazia is a weekly womens magazine that originated in Italy with international editions printed in Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany. Greece, India, Macedonia, the Netherlands, Portugal, Serbia, South Korea, Thailand, the Italian edition of Grazia was first published Mondadori in November 1938. The magazine was modelled on the American magazine Harpers Bazaar, the start of Grazia was a return in Italy to traditionalist values such as cooking and child-rearing. During the fascist rule in the country the magazine followed the Fascist policies, following World War II the magazine was renewed, but its conservative stance remained. From its beginning in 1938 to September 1943, Bruno Munari served as the art director for the magazine and for another Mondadori title and this brought international condemnation from animal lovers owing to the number of unwanted pets which are killed in overcrowded shelters each week. A press statement from the British Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was critical of Grazia, Grazia has international editions in several countries.
Its first international edition was published in Bulgaria in March 2004, the British edition of the magazine began publication in February 2005 and is owned in the UK under licence by Bauer Consumer Media. The Greek version was launched in April 2005, in November of the same year its edition in the United Arab Emirates was first issued. The magazine had an edition in Croatia from February 2006 and in Serbia from June 2006, the Russian edition began publication in March 2007, while the Netherlands followed in August 2007. Grazia India was launched in May 2008 and its Australian edition began publication in July 2008, but folded in February 2013. In February 2009 the Chinese version of Grazia was started, being its twelfth international edition, the French version of the magazine was first published in August 2009. The inaugural issue of Grazia Korea was launched on 20 February 2013 and it features a photospread of actors Lee Byung-hun, Bae Soo-bin and Kim Do-hyun for the play based on the film Masquerade.
Grazia Pakistan was launched in February 2017, Grazia had a circulation of 374,213 copies in 1984. The Italian version of the magazine had a circulation of 240,000 copies from January to August 2003, the 2007 circulation of the Italian edition was 218,083 copies. In Italy, the circulation of the rose to 382,000 copies in the first half of 2011. During the same period the British edition of the magazine had a circulation of 219,741 copies, the circulation in the UK for the second half of 2013 was 160,019 copies
Heat is a British entertainment magazine published by German company Bauer Media Group. As of 2004 it is one of the biggest selling magazines in the UK and its mix of celebrity news, beauty advice and fashion is primarily aimed at women, although not as directly as in other womens magazines. It features movie and music reviews, TV listings and major celebrity interviews, the magazine is headquartered in London. Heat was launched in February 1999 as a general interest entertainment magazine, unlike other Emap magazine launches before and after, it was not an immediate success, with a circulation below 100,000. A series of revamps quickly repositioned the magazine as a serious, more gossip-oriented magazine aimed at women. In 2009–10 Heat spearheaded a campaign alongside Girls Alouds Nicola Roberts advocating the banning of sunbed use in the UK for under-18s, the campaign was a success and a bill was passed by Parliament shortly before the 2010 General Election. The site crashed after the magazine was mentioned on Channel 4s The Million Pound Drop, barry McIlheney Mark Frith Julian Linley Sam Delaney Lucie Cave, Editor-in-Chief across the heat brand Jeremy Mark Suzy Cox An edition of the magazine is published in South Africa.
Heatworld. com launched on 22 May 2007 and was edited by Julian Linley, the site is an online interpretation of the magazine, emulating the mix of celebrity news and fashion. However, heatworld. com does not replicate magazine content and bases itself more on video and audio content, on 25 September 2007, Heat Radio launched. The station is owned by Bauer Radio, a division of the company, the station can be listened to through Freeview on channel number 716, across the UK on DAB Digital Radio, on their app or at heatradio. com. On 3 July 2012, Heat launched, featuring celebrity news, the channel comes from Box Television, a joint venture between Bauer and Channel Four. It replaced Q on Sky, Smallworld Cable and Virgin Media in the UK, in Ireland on Sky and UPC Ireland, in May 2016, the channel was rebranded as Box Upfront. As Heat magazine grew in popularity, spin off merchandise was released to cash in on its success, the magazines editor Mark Frith made an apology for the offence caused by the sticker, and an apology was posted on the magazines website.
A spokesperson for the Press Complaints Commission confirmed that Katie Price was planning to make a complaint about the matter, the magazine was criticized in the press over the incident, with one editorial describing it as the lowest point in British journalism. In another issue released on 6–12 September 2014, Heat published a photograph of Justin Timberlake, husband to Jessica Biel, the star was photographed partying with women at the club as the title named it Justin Timberlake gets flirty with another woman, It is not his wife. Once the article, as well as the pictures surfaced it caused his marriage with Jessica to be manipulated. The singer and actor lodged a claim in the courts in Ireland against the publishers of the celebrity title over an article, photographs. The article included purported statements improperly attributed to Biel which the publishers said Heat now understands the actor never made, Heat launched heats Twitter Awards in 2013 that it says will celebrate “the joyful collision of celebrities and social media”
Motor Cycle News
MCN or Motor Cycle News is a UK weekly motorcycling newspaper published by Bauer Consumer Media, based in Peterborough, United Kingdom. It claims to be the world’s biggest weekly motorcycle newspaper, the title was founded in late 1955 as Motorcycle News by Cyril Quantrill, a former employee of Motor Cycling, and was sold to EMAP in 1956. Bauer bought Emaps consumer media division in 2008, in 2009, average weekly circulation was 114,304 copies according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, and 2010 it was 106,446 copies. The figure for 2013 was 85,651, Cyril Quantrill was an employee of Motor Cycling under famous editor Graham Walker, learning his trade both pre and post-war. The British motorcycle media was dominated by two rival publishing houses - Temple Press with Motor Cycling and Iliffe with The Motor Cycle. Both were weekly magazine-format Thursday publications, limited by a 3,000 issue print-run capability and underfunding, Quantrill arranged to sell to EMAP in 1956. Under new ownership the issues were priced at fourpence.
Quantrill stayed on as editor and with EMAPs backing the brand flourished, by the time of Quantrills resignation in 1961 circulation was at 67,000. Quantrill continued working as a journalist, including as editor of Motor Cyclist Illustrated, published by City Magazines Ltd of London, continuing Quantrills earlier motivation of sports reporting, it had the strapline the sporting monthly. Motorcycle News as a newspaper was pitched to beat the rivals to the newsstands by one day. Both of the rivals were still magazine-format and remained traditionally producing practical, by 1962, the front page had been restyled by replacing the centred-title with a left-corner masthead box. In 1962, rival Motor Cycling had gone to newspaper format having more sporting coverage, the two publications continued as rival papers. From the late 1960s, the MCN corner-masthead became blue, turning to the red for the 1970s. Rival Motor Cycle became Motor Cycle Weekly, which reverted to a format in 1983 in an effort to boost sales figures by then-publisher IPC before eventual closure in late 1983. MCN continued from strength to strength, MCN have been presenting an annual awards ceremony almost since they were founded in 1955.
These included the popularity poll Man of the Year and the overall MCN Machine of the Year award, Official website
CVC Capital Partners
CVC Capital Partners is a private equity firm with approximately US$80 billion in secured commitments across European and Asian private equity and growth funds. In total, the CVC Group manages over US$52 billion of assets, since 1981, CVC has completed over 300 investments across a wide range of industries and countries. CVC was founded in 1981 and today has over 400 employees working across its network of 24 offices throughout Europe, American banking giant, had established an investment arm in 1968 to focus on venture capital investments. CVC Capital Partners was founded in 1981 as the European arm of Citicorp Venture Capital, among Citicorp Venture Capitals early managing directors in Europe were John Botts, Otto Van der Wyck, Jon Moulton and Frank Neale. Of the groups original European leadership, most would leave by the late 1980s, Botts left in 1987 to found his own boutique investment banking firm, Botts & Company. Moulton left the bank to co-found Schroder Ventures in 1985, the following year, Van der Wyck left to co-found European private equity firm BC Partners in 1986 and today serves as chairman of AlpInvest and a senior advisor to Coller Capital.
Neale departed to join Phildrew Ventures, which subsequently became UBS Capital, in 1993, Smith and the senior investment professionals of Citicorp Venture Capital negotiated a spinout from Citibank to form an independent private equity firm, CVC Capital Partners. In 2006, the US arm of Citigroup Venture Capital spun out of the bank to form a new firm, CVC operated offices in London and Frankfurt. Following the spinout, CVC raised its first investment fund with $300 million of commitments, half coming from Citicorp, now independent, CVC completed its transition from venture capital investments to leveraged buyouts and investments in mature businesses. CVC would follow up with its second fund in 1996, its first fully independent of Citibank, by 2000, CVC was one of the largest and best known private equity firms in Europe. In 2007, CVC expanded to the U. S. opening an office in New York City, headed by Christopher Stadler, in January 2013, Smith retired from the role of chairman and Koltes and Van Rappard were appointed co-chairmen of the group.
In June 2015, CVC acquired the German perfume retailer Douglas AG for a fee from US private equity firm Advent International. In September 2015, CVC opened an office in Warsaw, in November 2015, CVC and the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board both acquired American pet supplier Petco for a fee of around $4.6 billion. In April 2016, CVC Capital Partners acquired German betting operator Tipico, in September 2016, CVC Capital Partners agreed to sell control of Formula One to John Malone’s Liberty Media in a deal worth $4. 4bn. The two-part deal would see the US media group buy 18.7 per cent of the F1 parent company Delta Topco for $746mn in cash from a consortium of shareholders led by CVC
TVTimes is a television listings magazine published in the United Kingdom by Time Inc. It is known for its access to actors and their programmes. In 2006 it was refreshed for a modern look, increasing its emphasis on big-star interviews. TVTimes belongs to Time UKs family of magazines including Whats on TV and TV & Satellite Week. The magazine was launched on 22 September 1955, at the start of transmissions of ITV, prior to 1968, several of the regional ITV companies – Westward Television, Scottish Television, Tyne Tees Television, Ulster Television, TWW and Teledu Cymru – produced their own listings magazines. The Midlands originally had their own edition of TVTimes listing ATV and ABC programmes, until television listings were deregulated in 1991, TVTimes was the only place where complete listings of ITV and, from 1982, Channel 4 for the week ahead could be published. In 1989, the magazine was acquired by IPC Media, its current owners which became Time Inc
Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November 1982. With the conversion of the Wenvoe transmitter group in Wales to digital on 31 March 2010, before Channel 4 and S4C, Britain had three terrestrial television services, BBC1, BBC2, and ITV. The Broadcasting Act 1980 began the process of adding a fourth, after some months of test broadcasts, it began scheduled transmissions on 2 November 1982. Indeed, television sets throughout the 1970s and early 1980s had a spare channel called ITV/IBA2. It was most likely politics which had the biggest impact in leading to a delay of almost three decades before the commercial channel became a reality. The campaign was taken so seriously by Gwynfor Evans, former president of Plaid Cymru, the result was that Channel 4 as seen by the rest of the United Kingdom would be replaced in Wales by Sianel Pedwar Cymru. Operated by a specially created authority, S4C would air programmes in Welsh made by HTV, since then, carriage on digital cable and digital terrestrial has introduced Channel 4 to Welsh homes where it is now universally available.
The first programme to air on the channel was the game show Countdown. The first person to be seen on Channel 4 was Richard Whiteley with Ted Moult being the second, the first woman on the channel, contrary to popular belief, was not Carol Vorderman and was a lexicographer only ever identified as Mary. Whiteley opened the show with the words, On its first day, Channel 4 broadcast controversial soap opera Brookside, which ran until 2003. On its launch, Channel 4 committed itself to providing an alternative to the existing channels, Channel 4 co-commissioned Robert Ashleys ground-breaking television opera Perfect Lives, which it premiered over several episodes in 1984. The channel often did not receive mass audiences for much of period, however. Channel 4 for many years had a poorer quality signal compared to other channels, Channel 4 began the funding of independent films, such as the Merchant-Ivory docudrama The Courtesans of Bombay, during this time. In 1992, Channel 4 faced its first libel case by Jani Allan, a South African journalist, who objected to her representation in the documentary The Leader, His Driver and the Drivers Wife.
After control of the station passed from the Channel Four Television Company to the Channel Four Television Corporation in 1993, instead of aiming for the fringes of society, it began to focus on the edges of the mainstream, and the centre of the mass market itself. It began to show many US programmes in peak viewing time and it gave such shows as Friends and ER their UK premières. In the early 2000s, Channel 4 began broadcasting reality formats such as Big Brother and obtained the rights to broadcast mass appeal sporting events like cricket and this new direction increased ratings and revenues. In addition, the corporation launched a number of new channels through its new 4Ventures offshoot, including Film4, At the Races, E4
Kerrang. is a UK-based magazine devoted to rock music, currently published by Hamburg based Bauer Media Group. It was first published on 6 June 1981 as a supplement in the Sounds newspaper. In the early 2000s it became the best-selling British music newspaper, angus Young of AC/DC appeared on Kerrang. s first cover. Launched as a magazine, Kerrang. began to appear on a fortnightly basis later. The original owner was United Newspapers who sold it to EMAP in 1991, during the 1980s and early 1990s the magazine placed many thrash and glam metal acts on the cover but discarded them when grunge acts such as Nirvana rose to fame. Readers often criticise the magazine for repeating this process every time a new musical trend becomes popular, Kerrang. s popularity rose again with the hiring of editor Paul Rees circa 2000 when the nu metal genre, featuring bands like Limp Bizkit and Slipknot were becoming more popular. Rees went on to edit Q magazine and Ashley Bird took over as editor from 2003 to 2005, however the magazines sales went quickly into decline in 2003 and Paul Brannigan took over as editor in May 2005.
Prior to this Metallicas James Hetfield referred to their sound as power metal, with the emergence of emo and metalcore, Kerrang. began to heavily feature this musical trend. However, the revamp was not welcomed by all readers and many complaints were received about Kerrang. s sudden emphasis on emo, Brannigan took the magazine into its most commercially successful period with a record ever ABC for the title of 80,186 copies. In 2008, EMAP sold its magazine to current owner Bauer Media Group. Brannigan left Kerrang. in 2009 and Nichola Browne was appointed editor and she stepped down in April 2011. Former NME features editor and GamesMaster deputy editor James McMahon was appointed as editor on 6 June 2011, Kerrang. s website, www. kerrang. com, was launched in summer 2001 by Dan Silver. Kerrang. ’s parent company Emap acquired the name from a Norwegian cybersquatter by the name of Steingram Stegane for a token sum of £666. Kerrang. s website is dedicated to finding out information to do with the magazine and the latest information on the current bands.
The website hosts Kerrang. s online shop, message board, TV and radio segments ensuring even more opportunities to sell associated merchandise, launched its own online forum with the rants and raves section taking up most of the traffic. Though initially extremely popular, the number of users began to peter out around 2005 with the number of people online dropping to as low as 10 when previously it had been closer to the 100 figure. According to Alexa www. kerrang. com generates 60,000 pageviews per month and is ranked 66, since 1993, the magazine has held an annual awards ceremony to mark the most successful bands in the interests of their readers. The event is presented by music celebrities, with many others outside the industry who attend the event
Cosmopolitan is an international fashion magazine for women. Often referred to as Cosmo, its content as of 2011 includes articles on issues, sex, careers, self-improvement, fashion. Published by Hearst Corporation, Cosmopolitan has 64 international editions, is printed in 35 languages, Cosmopolitan began as a family magazine, launched in 1886 by Schlicht & Field of New York as The Cosmopolitan. There was a department for the members of the family. Cosmopolitans circulation reached 25,000 that year, but by November 1888, John Brisben Walker acquired the magazine in 1889. That same year, he dispatched Elizabeth Bisland on a race around the world against Nellie Bly to draw attention to his magazine. Under John Brisben Walkers ownership, E. D. Walker, formerly with Harpers Monthly, took over as the new editor, introducing colour illustrations and book reviews. It became a market for fiction, featuring such authors as Annie Besant, Ambrose Bierce, Theodore Dreiser, Rudyard Kipling, Jack London, Willa Cather.
The magazines circulation climbed to 75,000 by 1892, in 1897, Cosmopolitan announced plans for a free correspondence school, No charge of any kind will be made to the student. All expenses for the present will be borne by the Cosmopolitan, No conditions, except a pledge of a given number of hours of study. When 20,000 immediately signed up, Walker could not fund the school, in 1897, H. G. Wells The War of the Worlds was serialized, as was his The First Men in the Moon. Olive Schreiner contributed an article about the Boer War. And Colorado - New Tricks in an Old Game, Jack Londons novella, The Red One, was published in the October 1918 issue, and a constant presence from 1910-18 was Arthur B. Reeve, with 82 stories featuring Craig Kennedy, the scientific detective, Magazine illustrators included Francis Attwood, Dean Cornwell, Harrison Fisher, and James Montgomery Flagg. Hearst formed Cosmopolitan Productions, a company based in New York City from 1918 to 1923, Hollywood until 1938. Cosmopolitan magazine was titled as Hearsts International Combined with Cosmopolitan from 1925 until 1952.
In 1911, Hearst had bought a middling monthly magazine called World To-Day, in June 1914 it was shortened to Hearsts and was ultimately titled Hearsts International in May 1922. In order to spare serious cutbacks at San Simeon, Hearst merged the magazine Hearsts International with Cosmopolitan effective March 1925, after Hearst died in 1951, the Hearsts International disappeared from the magazine cover altogether in April 1952
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs. The department is the worlds largest broadcast news organisation and generates about 120 hours of radio and television output each day, the service maintains 50 foreign news bureaux with more than 250 correspondents around the world. James Harding has been Director of News and Current Affairs since April 2013, the departments annual budget is in excess of £350 million, it has 3,500 staff,2,000 of whom are journalists. BBC News domestic and online news divisions are housed within the largest live newsroom in Europe, parliamentary coverage is produced and broadcast from studios in Millbank in London. Through the BBC English Regions, the BBC has regional centres across England, as well as national news centres in Northern Ireland, all nations and English regions produce their own local news programmes and other current affairs and sport programmes.
As with all media outlets, though, it has been accused of political bias from across the political spectrum. The British Broadcasting Company broadcast its first radio bulletin from radio station 2LO on 14 November 1922, on Easter weekend in 1930, this reliance on newspaper wire services left the radio news service with no information to report. The BBC gradually gained the right to edit the copy and, in 1934, however, it could not broadcast news before 6 PM until World War II. Gaumont British and Movietone cinema newsreels had been broadcast on the TV service since 1936, a weekly Childrens Newsreel was inaugurated on 23 April 1950, to around 350,000 receivers. The network began simulcasting its radio news on television in 1946, televised bulletins began on 5 July 1954, broadcast from leased studios within Alexandra Palace in London. The publics interest in television and live events was stimulated by Elizabeth IIs coronation in 1953 and it is estimated that up to 27 million people viewed the programme in the UK, overtaking radios audience of 12 million for the first time.
Those live pictures were fed from 21 cameras in central London to Alexandra Palace for transmission and that year, there were around two million TV Licences held in the UK, rising to over three million the following year, and four and a half million by 1955. This was followed by the customary Television Newsreel with a commentary by John Snagge. It was revealed that this had been due to producers fearing a newsreader with visible facial movements would distract the viewer from the story. On-screen newsreaders were finally introduced a year in 1955 – Kenneth Kendall, Robert Dougall, mainstream television production had started to move out of Alexandra Palace in 1950 to larger premises – mainly at Lime Grove Studios in Shepherds Bush, west London – taking Current Affairs with it. It was from here that the first Panorama, a new programme, was transmitted on 11 November 1953. On 28 October 1957, the Today programme, a radio programme, was launched in central London on the Home Service. In 1958, Hugh Carleton Greene became head of News and Current Affairs and he set up a BBC study group whose findings, published in 1959, were critical of what the television news operation had become under his predecessor, Tahu Hole