A string quartet is a musical ensemble consisting of four string players – two violin players, a viola player and a cellist – or a piece written to be performed by such a group. The string quartet is one of the most prominent chamber ensembles in classical music, with most major composers, from the mid 18th century onwards, writing string quartets; the string quartet was developed into its current form by the Austrian composer Joseph Haydn, with his works in the 1750s establishing the genre. Since Haydn's day the string quartet has been considered a prestigious form and represents one of the true tests of the composer's art. With four parts to play with, a composer working in anything like the classical key system has enough lines to fashion a full argument, but none to spare for padding; the related characters of the four instruments, while they cover in combination an ample compass of pitch, do not lend themselves to indulgence in purely colouristic effects. Thus, where the composer of symphonies commands the means for textural enrichment beyond the call of his harmonic discourse, where the concerto medium offers the further resource of personal characterization and drama in the individual-pitted-against-the-mass vein, the writer of string quartets must perforce concentrate on the bare bones of musical logic.
Thus, in many ways the string quartet is pre-eminently the dialectical form of instrumental music, the one most suited to the activity of logical disputation and philosophical enquiry. Quartet composition flourished in the Classical era, with Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Schubert following Haydn in each writing a number of quartets. A slight slackening in the pace of quartet composition occurred in the 19th century, in part due to a movement away from classical forms by composers such as Franz Liszt, Richard Wagner and Richard Strauss, it received a resurgence in the 20th Century with the Second Viennese School, Béla Bartók, Dmitri Shostakovich and Elliott Carter producing regarded examples of the genre. In the 21st century it remains an refined musical form; the standard structure for a string quartet as established in the Classical era is four movements, with the first movement in Sonata form, Allegro, in the tonic key. Some quartets play together for many years in ensembles which may be named after the first violinist, a composer or a location.
Some have fanciful names such as the JACK Quartet. Well-known string quartets can be found in the list of string quartet ensembles; the early history of the string quartet is in many ways the history of Haydn's journey with the genre. Not that he composed the first quartet of all: before Haydn alighted on the genre there had been several spasmodic examples of divertimenti for two solo violins and cello by Viennese composers such as Georg Christoph Wagenseil and Ignaz Holzbauer. David Wyn Jones cites the widespread practice of playing works written for string orchestra, such as divertimenti and serenades, with just four players, one to a part, there being no separate contrabass part in string scoring before the 19th century. However, these composers showed no interest in exploring the development of the string quartet as a medium; the origins of the string quartet can be further traced back to the Baroque trio sonata, in which two solo instruments performed with a continuo section consisting of a bass instrument and keyboard.
A early example is a four-part sonata for string ensemble by Gregorio Allegri that might be considered an important prototype. By the early 18th century, composers were adding a third soloist, thus when Alessandro Scarlatti wrote a set of six works entitled "Sonata à Quattro per due Violini, Violetta, e Violoncello senza Cembalo", this was a natural evolution from the existing tradition. The string quartet in its now accepted form came about with Haydn. If the combination of two violins and cello was not unknown before Haydn, when it occurred in chamber music it was more through circumstance than conscious design; the composition of Haydn's earliest string quartets owed more to chance than artistic imperative. During the 1750s, when the young composer was still working as a teacher and violinist in Vienna, he would be invited to spend time at the nearby castle at Weinzierl of the music-loving Austrian nobleman Karl Joseph Weber, Edler von Fürnberg. There he would play chamber music in an ad hoc ensemble consisting of Fürnberg's steward, a priest and a local cellist, when the Baron asked for some new music for the group to play, Haydn's first string quartets were born.
It is not clear whether any of these works ended up in the two sets published in the mid-1760s and known as Haydn's Opp.1 and 2, but it seems reasonable to assume that they were at least similar in character. Haydn's early biographer Georg August Griesinger tells the story thus: The following purely
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention and treatment of disease, illness and other physical and mental impairments in people. Health care is delivered by health professionals in allied health fields. Physicians and physician associates are a part of these health professionals. Dentistry, nursing, optometry, pharmacy, occupational therapy, physical therapy and other health professions are all part of health care, it includes work done in providing primary care, secondary care, tertiary care, as well as in public health. Access to health care may vary across countries and individuals influenced by social and economic conditions as well as health policies. Health care systems are organizations established to meet the health needs of targeted populations. According to the World Health Organization, a well-functioning health care system requires a financing mechanism, a well-trained and adequately paid workforce, reliable information on which to base decisions and policies, well maintained health facilities to deliver quality medicines and technologies.
An efficient health care system can contribute to a significant part of a country's economy and industrialization. Health care is conventionally regarded as an important determinant in promoting the general physical and mental health and well-being of people around the world. An example of this was the worldwide eradication of smallpox in 1980, declared by the WHO as the first disease in human history to be eliminated by deliberate health care interventions; the delivery of modern health care depends on groups of trained professionals and paraprofessionals coming together as interdisciplinary teams. This includes professionals in medicine, physiotherapy, dentistry and allied health, along with many others such as public health practitioners, community health workers and assistive personnel, who systematically provide personal and population-based preventive and rehabilitative care services. While the definitions of the various types of health care vary depending on the different cultural, political and disciplinary perspectives, there appears to be some consensus that primary care constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process and may include the provision of secondary and tertiary levels of care.
Health care can be defined as either private. Primary care refers to the work of health professionals who act as a first point of consultation for all patients within the health care system; such a professional would be a primary care physician, such as a general practitioner or family physician. Another professional would be a licensed independent practitioner such as a physiotherapist, or a non-physician primary care provider such as a physician assistant or nurse practitioner. Depending on the locality, health system organization the patient may see another health care professional first, such as a pharmacist or nurse. Depending on the nature of the health condition, patients may be referred for secondary or tertiary care. Primary care is used as the term for the health care services that play a role in the local community, it can be provided in different settings, such as Urgent care centers which provide same day appointments or services on a walk-in basis. Primary care involves the widest scope of health care, including all ages of patients, patients of all socioeconomic and geographic origins, patients seeking to maintain optimal health, patients with all types of acute and chronic physical and social health issues, including multiple chronic diseases.
A primary care practitioner must possess a wide breadth of knowledge in many areas. Continuity is a key characteristic of primary care, as patients prefer to consult the same practitioner for routine check-ups and preventive care, health education, every time they require an initial consultation about a new health problem; the International Classification of Primary Care is a standardized tool for understanding and analyzing information on interventions in primary care based on the reason for the patient's visit. Common chronic illnesses treated in primary care may include, for example: hypertension, asthma, COPD, depression and anxiety, back pain, arthritis or thyroid dysfunction. Primary care includes many basic maternal and child health care services, such as family planning services and vaccinations. In the United States, the 2013 National Health Interview Survey found that skin disorders and joint disorders, back problems, disorders of lipid metabolism, upper respiratory tract disease were the most common reasons for accessing a physician.
In the United States, primary care physicians have begun to deliver primary care outside of the managed care system through direct primary care, a subset of the more familiar concierge medicine. Physicians in this model bill patients directly for services, either on a pre-paid monthly, quarterly, or annual basis, or bill for each service in the office. Examples of direct primary care practices include Foundation Health in Colorado and Qliance in Washington. In context of global population aging, with increasing numbers of older adults at greater risk of chronic non-communicable diseases increasing demand for primary care services is expected in both developed and developing countries; the World Health Organization attributes the provision of essential primary care as an integral component of an inclusive primary health care strategy. Secondary care includes acute care: nec
Optical mark recognition
Optical mark recognition is the process of capturing human-marked data from document forms such as surveys and tests. They are used to read questionnaires, multiple choice examination paper in the form of lines or shaded areas. Many traditional OMR devices work with a dedicated scanner device that shines a beam of light onto the form paper; the contrasting reflectivity at predetermined positions on a page is used to detect these marked areas because they reflect less light than the blank areas of the paper. Some OMR devices use forms that are preprinted onto "transoptic" paper and measure the amount of light which passes through the paper. In contrast to the dedicated OMR device, desktop OMR software allows a user to create their own forms in a word processor and print them on a laser printer; the OMR software works with a common desktop image scanner with a document feeder to process the forms once filled out. OMR is distinguished from optical character recognition by the fact that a complicated pattern recognition engine is not required.
That is, the marks are constructed in such a way that there is little chance of not reading the marks correctly. This does require the image to have high contrast and an recognizable or irrelevant shape. A related field to OMR and OCR is the recognition of barcodes, such as the UPC bar code found on product packaging. One of the most familiar applications of optical mark recognition is the use of #2 pencil bubble optical answer sheets in multiple choice question examinations. Students mark their answers, or other personal information, by darkening circles marked on a pre-printed sheet. Afterwards the sheet is automatically graded by a scanning machine. In the United States and most European countries, a horizontal or vertical "tick" in a rectangular "lozenge" is the most used type of OMR form. Lozenge marks are a technology and have the advantage of being easier to mark and easier to erase; the large "bubble" marks are legacy technology from early OMR machines that were so insensitive a large mark was required for reliability.
In most Asian countries, a special marker is used to fill in an optical answer sheet. Students mark answers or other information by darkening circles marked on a pre-printed sheet; the sheet is automatically graded by a scanning machine. Many of today's OMR applications involve people filling in specialized forms; these forms are optimized for computer scanning, with careful registration in the printing, careful design so that ambiguity is reduced to the minimum possible. Due to its low error rate, low cost and ease-of-use, OMR is a popular method of tallying votes. OMR marks are added to items of physical mail so folder inserter equipment can be used; the marks are added to each page of a mail document and consist of a sequence of black dashes that folder inserter equipment scans in order to determine when the mail should be folded inserted in an envelope. OMR software is a computer software application that makes OMR possible on a desktop computer by using an Image scanner to process surveys, attendance sheets and other plain-paper forms printed on a laser printer.
OMR software is used to capture data from OMR sheets. While data capturing scanning devices focus on many factors like thickness of paper dimensions of OMR sheet and designing pattern. Commercial OMR software One of the first OMR software packages that used images from common image scanners was Remark Office OMR, made by Gravic, Inc.. Remark Office OMR 1.0 was released in 1991. The need for OMR software originated because early optical mark recognition systems used dedicated scanners and special pre-printed forms with drop-out colors and registration marks; such forms cost US$0.10 to $0.19 a page. In contrast, OMR software users design their own mark-sense forms with a word processor or built-in form editor, print them locally on a printer, can save thousands of dollars on large numbers of forms. Identifying optical marks within a form, such as for processing census forms, has been offered by many forms-processing companies since the late 1980s; this is based on a bitonal image and pixel count with minimum and maximum pixel counts to eliminate extraneous marks, such as those erased with a dirty eraser that when converted into a black-and-white image can look like a legitimate mark.
So this method can cause problems when a user changes his mind, so some products started to use grayscale to better identify the intent of the marker—internally scantron and NCS scanners used grayscale. OMR software is used for adding OMR marks to mail documents so they can be scanned by folder inserter equipment. An example of OMR software is Mail Markup from UK developer Funasset Limited; this software allows the user to configure and select an OMR sequence apply the OMR marks to mail documents prior to printing. Some commercial OMR software products are as follows. FormReturn OMR Software Verificare OMR Software eVAL OMR Software PaperSurvey.io: Cloud OMR Software Addmen OMR Software Remark Office OMR Everlasting OMR Software ABBYY FlexiCapture, technical article about OMR software in general. Some OMR software products are distributed under open source licenses. FormScanner: multiplatform Java application, supports custom forms FormScanner has user support at www.formscanner.org. QueXF which can be used alone or in conjunction with surveys exported from LimeSurvey.
An essay is a piece of writing that gives the author's own argument — but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of a paper, an article, a pamphlet, a short story. Essays have traditionally been sub-classified as informal. Formal essays are characterized by "serious purpose, logical organization, length," whereas the informal essay is characterized by "the personal element, graceful style, rambling structure, unconventionality or novelty of theme," etc. Essays are used as literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life and reflections of the author. All modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays. While brevity defines an essay, voluminous works like John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Thomas Malthus's An Essay on the Principle of Population are counterexamples. In some countries, essays have become a major part of formal education. Secondary students are taught structured essay formats to improve their writing skills.
The concept of an "essay" has been extended to other media beyond writing. A film essay is a movie that incorporates documentary filmmaking styles and focuses more on the evolution of a theme or idea. A photographic essay covers a topic with a linked series of photographs that may have accompanying text or captions. An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse", it is difficult to define the genre into. Aldous Huxley, a leading essayist, gives guidance on the subject, he notes that "the essay is a literary device for saying everything about anything", adds that "by tradition by definition, the essay is a short piece". Furthermore, Huxley argues that "essays belong to a literary species whose extreme variability can be studied most within a three-poled frame of reference"; these three poles are: The personal and the autobiographical: The essayists that feel most comfortable in this pole "write fragments of reflective autobiography and look at the world through the keyhole of anecdote and description".
The objective, the factual, the concrete particular: The essayists that write from this pole "do not speak directly of themselves, but turn their attention outward to some literary or scientific or political theme. Their art consists of setting forth, passing judgment upon, drawing general conclusions from the relevant data"; the abstract-universal: In this pole "we find those essayists who do their work in the world of high abstractions", who are never personal and who mention the particular facts of experience. Huxley adds that the most satisfying essays "...make the best not of one, not of two, but of all the three worlds in which it is possible for the essay to exist." The word essay derives from the French infinitive essayer, "to try" or "to attempt". In English essay first meant "a trial" or "an attempt", this is still an alternative meaning; the Frenchman Michel de Montaigne was the first author to describe his work as essays. Inspired in particular by the works of Plutarch, a translation of whose Œuvres Morales into French had just been published by Jacques Amyot, Montaigne began to compose his essays in 1572.
For the rest of his life, he continued revising published essays and composing new ones. Francis Bacon's essays, published in book form in 1597, 1612, 1625, were the first works in English that described themselves as essays. Ben Jonson first used the word essayist in English in 1609, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. English essayists included Sir Thomas Browne. In France, Michel de Montaigne's three volume Essais in the mid 1500s contain over 100 examples regarded as the predecessor of the modern essay. In Italy, Baldassare Castiglione wrote about courtly manners in his essay Il Cortigiano. In the 17th century, the Jesuit Baltasar Gracián wrote about the theme of wisdom. During the Age of Enlightenment, essays were a favored tool of polemicists who aimed at convincing readers of their position. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Edmund Burke and Samuel Taylor Coleridge wrote essays for the general public; the early 19th century, in particular, saw a proliferation of great essayists in English – William Hazlitt, Charles Lamb, Leigh Hunt and Thomas de Quincey all penned numerous essays on diverse subjects.
In the 20th century, a number of essayists tried to explain the new movements in art and culture by using essays. Virginia Woolf, Edmund Wilson, Charles du Bos wrote literary criticism essays; as with the novel, essays existed in Japan several centuries before they developed in Europe with a genre of essays known as zuihitsu — loosely connected essays and fragmented ideas. Zuihitsu have existed since the beginnings of Japanese literature. Many of the most noted early works of Japanese literature are
William Jack Baumol was an American economist. He was a professor of economics at New York University, Academic Director of the Berkley Center for Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Professor Emeritus at Princeton University, he was a prolific author of more than eighty books and several hundred journal articles,Baumol wrote extensively about labor market and other economic factors that affect the economy. He made significant contributions to the theory of entrepreneurship and the history of economic thought, he is among the most influential economists in the world according to IDEAS/RePEc. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1971. Baumol was considered a candidate for the Nobel Prize in Economics for 2003, Thomson Reuters cited him as a potential recipient in 2014, but he died without receiving the prize. Baumol was born in the South Bronx, his parents and Lillian, were both immigrants from Eastern Europe. Baumol studied at the City College of New York and was awarded his bachelor's degree in 1942.
After college, he served in the U. S. Army in World War II and worked for the Department of Agriculture as an economist, he was denied entry to the doctoral studies at the London School of Economics and was instead admitted to the Master's program. After witnessing his debating skills at Lord Lionel Robbins' seminars, he was within weeks switched to the doctoral program and admitted to the faculty as an Assistant Lecturer, his Ph. D. oral exam lasted five hours. While a professor at Princeton University he supervised some graduate students who would become well-known economists, including Burton Malkiel, William G. Bowen, Harold Tafler Shapiro. Among his better-known contributions are the theory of contestable markets, the Baumol-Tobin model of transactions demand for money, Baumol's cost disease, which discusses the rising costs associated with service industries, Baumol's sales revenue maximization model and Pigou taxes, his research on environmental economics recognized the fundamental role of non-convexities in causing market failures.
William Baumol contributed to the transformation of the field of finance, published contributions to the areas of efficiency of capital markets, portfolio theory, capital budgeting. The place of the disruptive innovations and innovative entrepreneurs in traditional economic theory presents theoretic quandaries. Baumol contributed to this area of economic theory; the 2006 Annual Meetings of the American Economic Association held a special session in his name, honoring his many years of work in the field of entrepreneurship and innovation, where 12 papers on entrepreneurship were presented. The Baumol Research Centre for Entrepreneurship Studies at Zhejiang Gongshang University is named after William Baumol. In 2003, Baumol received the Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research "or his persistent effort to give the entrepreneur a key role in mainstream economic theory, for his theoretical and empirical studies of the nature of entrepreneurship, for his analysis of the importance of institutions and incentives for the allocation of entrepreneurship."The British news magazine, The Economist published an article about William Baumol and his lifelong work to develop a place in economic theory for the entrepreneur, much of which owes its genesis to Joseph Schumpeter.
They note that traditional microeconomic theory holds a place for'prices' and'firms' but not for that important engine of innovation, the entrepreneur. Baumol is given credit for helping to remedy this shortcoming: "Thanks to Mr. Baumol's own painstaking efforts, economists now have a bit more room for entrepreneurs in their theories." William Baumol's book, The Microtheory of Innovative Entrepreneurship is the first formal theoretical analysis of the role of innovative entrepreneurs. Baumol wrote several textbooks in economics, including an introductory textbook with Alan Blinder titled Macroeconomics: Principles and Policy, his economics textbook on operations research was internationally well-received: In the 1960s and 1970s, nearly every economics department offered a course in operations research methods in economics, the usual textbook used was Economic Theory and Operations Analysis by W. J. Baumol. An entire generation of economics students was familiar with this book.... Baumol was a trustee of Economists for Security.
Baumol was known for his interests in the economics of art, including the economics of the performing arts. Baumol died on May 4, 2017 at the age of 95. "Community Indifference", 1946, RES "A Community Indifference Map: A construction", 1949, RES. "A Formalization of Mr. Harrod's Model", 1949, EJ. "The Analogy between Producer and Consumer Equilibrium Analysis", with Helen Makower, 1950, Economica. Economic Dynamics, with R. Turvey, 1951. "The Transaction Demand for Cash: An inventory-theoretic approach", 1952, QJE. "The Classical Monetary Theory: The outcome of the discussion", with G. S. Becker, 1952, Economica. Welfare Economics and the Theory of the State, 1952. "Firms with Limited Money Capital", 1953, Kyklos. Economic Processes and Policies, with L. V. Chandler, 1954. "More on the Multiplier Effect of a Balanced Budget", with M. H. Peston, 1955, AER. "Acceleration without Magnification", 1956, AER. "Variety in Retailing", with E. A. Ide, 1956 Management Science. "Speculation and Stability", 1957, REStat.
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Performing arts are a form of art in which artists use their voices, bodies or inanimate objects to convey artistic expression. It is different from visual arts, when artists use paint, canvas or various materials to create physical or static art objects. Performing arts include a range of disciplines. Theatre, music and object manipulation, other kinds of performances are present in all human cultures; the history of music and dance date to pre-historic times whereas circus skills date to at least Ancient Egypt. Many performing arts are performed professionally. Performance can be in purpose built buildings, such as theatres and opera houses, on open air stages at festivals, on stages in tents such as circuses and on the street. Live performances before an audience are a form of entertainment; the development of audio and video recording has allowed for private consumption of the performing arts. The performing arts aim to express one's emotions and feelings. Artists who participate in performing arts in front of an audience are called performers.
Examples of these include actors, dancers, circus artists and singers. Performing arts are supported by workers in related fields, such as songwriting and stagecraft. A performer who excels in acting and dancing is referred to as a triple threat. Well-known examples of historical triple threat artists include Gene Kelly, Fred Astaire, Judy Garland. Performers adapt their appearance, such as with costumes and stage makeup, stage lighting, sound. Performing arts may include dance, opera and musical theatre, illusion, spoken word, circus arts, performance art. There is a specialized form of fine art, in which the artists perform their work live to an audience; this is called performance art. Most performance art involves some form of plastic art in the creation of props. Dance was referred to as a plastic art during the Modern dance era. Theatre is the branch of performing arts. Any one or more of these elements is performing arts. In addition to the standard narrative dialogue style of plays. Theater takes such forms as plays, opera, illusion, classical Indian dance, mummers' plays, improvisational theatre, stand-up comedy and non-conventional or contemporary forms like postmodern theatre, postdramatic theatre, or performance art.
In the context of performing arts, dance refers to human movement rhythmic and to music, used as a form of audience entertainment in a performance setting. Definitions of what constitutes dance are dependent on social, aesthetic artistic and moral constraints and range from functional movement to codified, virtuoso techniques such as ballet. There is one another modern form of dance that emerged in 19th- 20th century with the name of Free-Dance style; this form of dance was structured to create a harmonious personality which included features such as physical and spiritual freedom. Isadora Duncan was the first female dancer who argued about “woman of future” and developed novel vector of choreography using Nietzsche’s idea of “supreme mind in free mind”. Dance is a powerful impulse, but the art of dance is that impulse channeled by skillful performers into something that becomes intensely expressive and that may delight spectators who feel no wish to dance themselves; these two concepts of the art of dance—dance as a powerful impulse and dance as a skillfully choreographed art practiced by a professional few—are the two most important connecting ideas running through any consideration of the subject.
In dance, the connection between the two concepts is stronger than in some other arts, neither can exist without the other. Choreography is the art of making dances, the person who practices this art is called a choreographer. Music is an art form which combines pitch and dynamic in order to create sound, it can be performed using a variety of instruments and styles and is divided into genres such as folk, hip hop and rock, etc. As an art form, music can occur in live or recorded formats, can be planned or improvised; as music is a protean art, it co-ordinates with words for songs as physical movements do in dance. Moreover, it has a capability of shaping human behaviors. Starting in the 6th century BC, the Classical period of performing art began in Greece, ushered in by the tragic poets such as Sophocles; these poets wrote plays. The Hellenistic period began the widespread use of comedy. However, by the 6th century AD, Western performing arts had been ended, as the Dark Ages began. Between the 9th century and 14th century, performing art in the West was limited to religious historical enactments and morality plays, organized by the Church in celebration of holy days and other important events.
In the 15th century performing arts, along with the arts in general, saw a revival as the Renaissance began in Italy and spread throughout Europe plays, some of which incorporated dance, which were performed and Domenico da Piacenza credited with the first use of the term ballo instead of danza for his baletti or balli. The term became Ballet; the first Ballet per se is thought to be Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx's Ballet Comique de la Reine. By the mid-16th century Commedia Dell'arte became popular in Europe, introducing the use of improvisation; this period introduced the Elizabethan
Workforce productivity is the amount of goods and services that a worker produces in a given amount of time. It is one of several types of productivity. Workforce productivity referred to as labor productivity, is a measure for an organization or company, a process, an industry, or a country. Workforce productivity is to be distinguished from employee productivity, a measure employed at individual level based on the assumption that the overall productivity can be broken down to smaller units until to the individual employee, in order be used for example for the purpose of allocating a benefit or sanction based on individual performance. In 2002, the OECD defined it as "the ratio of a volume measure of output to a volume measure of input". Volume measures of output are gross domestic product or gross value added, expressed at constant prices i.e. adjusted for inflation. The three most used measures of input are: hours worked from the OECD Annual National Accounts database workforce jobs. Workforce productivity can be measured in physical terms or in price terms.
The intensity of labour-effort, the quality of labour effort generally. The creative activity involved in producing technical innovations; the relative efficiency gains resulting from different systems of management, organization, co-ordination or engineering. The productive effects of some forms of labour on other forms of labour; these aspects of productivity refer to the qualitative dimensions of labour input. If an organization is using labour much more intensely, one can assume it's due to greater labour productivity, since the output per labour-effort may be the same; this insight becomes important when a large part of what is produced in an economy consists of services. Management may be preoccupied with the productivity of employees, but the productivity gains of management itself is difficult to prove. While labor productivity growth has been seen as a useful barometer of the U. S. economy’s performance, recent research has examined why U. S. labor productivity rose during the recent downturn of 2008–2009, when U.
S. gross domestic product plummeted. The validity of international comparisons of labour productivity can be limited by a number of measurement issues; the comparability of output measures can be negatively affected by the use of different valuations, which define the inclusion of taxes and costs, or different deflation indexes, which turn current output into constant output. Labor input can be biased by different methods used to estimate average hours or different methodologies used to estimate employed persons. In addition, for level comparisons of labor productivity, output needs to be converted into a common currency; the preferred conversion factors are Purchasing Power Parities, but their accuracy can be negatively influenced by the limited representativeness of the goods and services compared and different aggregation methods. To facilitate international comparisons of labor productivity, a number of organizations, such as the OECD, the Groningen Growth Centre, International Labor Comparisons Program, The Conference Board, prepare productivity data adjusted to enhance the data’s international comparability.
In a survey of manufacturing growth and performance in Britain and Mauritius, it was found that: "The factors affecting labour productivity or the performance of individual work roles are of broadly the same type as those that affect the performance of manufacturing firms as a whole. They include: physical-organic and technological factors, it was further found that: "The emergence of computers has been noted as a significant factor in increasing labor productivity in the late 1990s, by some, as an insignificant factor by others, such as R. J. Gordon. Although computers have existed for most of the 20th century, some economic researchers have noted a lag in productivity growth caused by computers that didn't come until the late 1990s." Overall labor effectiveness Lebergott, Stanley. "Wages and Working Conditions". In David R. Henderson. Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Library of Economics and Liberty. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list OCLC 317650570, 50016270, 163149563 Figures for the US from BLS