Arba'ah Turim called the Tur, is an important Halakhic code composed by Jacob ben Asher. The four-part structure of the Tur and its division into chapters were adopted by the code Shulchan Aruch; this was the first book to be printed in the Near East. The title of the work in Hebrew means "four rows", in allusion to the jewels on the High Priest's breastplate; each of the four divisions of the work is a "Tur", so a particular passage may be cited as "Tur Orach Chayim, siman 22", meaning "Orach Chayim division, chapter 22". This was misunderstood as meaning "Tur, Orach Chayim, chapter 22", so that "Tur" came to be used as the title of the whole work; the Arba'ah Turim, as the name implies, consists of four divisions. The four Turim are as follows: Orach Chayim - laws of prayer and synagogue, holidays Yoreh De'ah - miscellaneous ritualistic laws, such as shechita and kashrut Even Ha'ezer - laws of marriage, divorce Choshen Mishpat - laws of finance, financial responsibility and legal procedureIn the Arba'ah Turim, Rabbi Jacob traces the practical Jewish law from the Torah text and the dicta of the Talmud through the Rishonim.
He used the code of Rabbi Isaac Alfasi as his starting point. Unlike Maimonides' Mishneh Torah, the Tur is not limited to normative positions, but compares the various opinions on any disputed point; the Arba'ah Turim differs from the Mishneh Torah, in that, unlike Maimonides' work, it deals only with areas of Jewish law that are applicable in the Jewish exile. The best-known commentary on the Arba'ah Turim is the Beit Yosef by rabbi Joseph ben Ephraim Karo: this goes beyond the normal functions of a commentary, in that it attempts to review all the relevant authorities and come to a final decision on every point, so as to constitute a comprehensive resource on Jewish law. Other commentaries are Bayit Chadash by rabbi Joel Sirkis, Darkhei Moshe by Moses Isserles, Beit Yisrael by rabbi Joshua Falk, as well as works by a number of other Acharonim; these defend the views of the Tur against the Beit Yosef. The Tur continues to play an important role in Halakha. Joseph Caro's Shulchan Aruch, the fundamental work of Halakha, is a condensation of his Beit Yosef and follows the basic structure of the Arba'ah Turim, including its division into four sections and chapters - Tur's structure down to the siman is retained in the Shulchan Aruch.
The views in the other commentaries are relevant in ascertaining or explaining the Ashkenazi version of Jewish law, as codified by Moses Isserles in his Mappah. Students of the Shulchan Aruch in Orthodox Semikhah programs study the Tur and the Beit Yosef concurrently with the Shulchan Aruch itself: in some editions the two works are printed together, to allow comparison of corresponding simanim. Mishneh Torah Shulchan Aruch Mishnah Berurah Shulchan Aruch HaRav Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Aruch HaShulchan Arba'ah Turim, Prof. Eliezer Segal "Question 3.38: What is the Arba'ah Turim?". Faqs.org
Perea or Peraea, was the portion of the kingdom of Herod the Great occupying the eastern side of the Jordan River valley, from about one third the way down from the Sea of Galilee to about one third the way down the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. Herod the Great's kingdom was bequeathed to four heirs, of which Herod Antipas received both Perea and Galilee, he dedicated the city Livias in the north of the Dead Sea. In 39 CE, Perea and Galilee were transferred from disfavoured Antipas to Agrippa I by Caligula. With his death in 44 CE, Agrippa's merged territory was made province again, including Judaea and for the first time, Perea. From that time Perea was part of the shifting Roman provinces to its west: Judaea, Syria Palaestina and Palaestina Prima. Attested in Josephus' books, the term was in rarer use in the late Roman period, it appears in Eusebius' Greek language geographical work, but in the Latin translation by Jerome, Transjordan is used. Gadara of Perea was metropolis of Perea. Following the Roman conquest of Judea led by Pompey in 63 BCE, Aulus Gabinius, proconsul of Syria, split the former Hasmonean Kingdom into five districts of legal and religious councils known as Sanhedrin and based at Jerusalem, Sepphoris and Gadara.
C. 78 CE Pliny the Elder in his work, Naturalis Historia, Book 5 wrote. Peraea is covered with rugged mountains, is separated from the other parts of Judaea by the river Jordan c. 75 CE Josephus in his work, The Jewish War, Book 3 wrote. In some parts, however the soil is loamy and prolific, trees of various kinds cover the plains, it is sufficiently irrigated by mountain streams. In length, it extends from Machaerus to Pella: in breadth, from Philadelphia to the Jordan: its northern districts being bounded, as we have said, by Pella; the land of Moab forms its southern limit. Ptolemy does not use the term Perea in his Geography, but rather the periphrasis "across the Jordan", and he enumerates the "Perean" cities. Perea was the area inhabited by the Israelite Tribes Reuben and the half tribe of Manasseh. New Testament commentators speak of Jesus' "Perean Ministry", beginning with his departure from Galilee and ending with the anointing by Mary in Bethany or his journey towards Jerusalem commencing from Mark 10:32.
The Christian Armenians who were deported from Armenia and forcibly settled in the New Julfa/Isfahan region of Iran named a major village "Perea" in honor of the important significance of Perea as the resting place of John the Baptist. Hasmonean dynasty The Herodian kingdom of Judaea Transjordan Transjordan Amathus Livias Machaerus Perea entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. SmithThis article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed.. "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne
The Talmud is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and Jewish theology. Until the advent of modernity, in nearly all Jewish communities, the Talmud was the centerpiece of Jewish cultural life and was foundational to "all Jewish thought and aspirations", serving as "the guide for the daily life" of Jews; the term "Talmud" refers to the collection of writings named the Babylonian Talmud, although there is an earlier collection known as the Jerusalem Talmud. It may traditionally be called Shas, a Hebrew abbreviation of shisha sedarim, or the "six orders" of the Mishnah; the Talmud has two components. The term "Talmud" may refer to either the Gemara alone; the entire Talmud consists of 63 tractates, in standard print is over 6,200 pages long. It is written in Mishnaic Hebrew and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and contains the teachings and opinions of thousands of rabbis on a variety of subjects, including halakha, Jewish ethics, customs, history and many other topics.
The Talmud is the basis for all codes of Jewish law, is quoted in rabbinic literature. Talmud translates as "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study". Jewish scholarship was oral. Rabbis expounded and debated the Torah and discussed the Tanakh without the benefit of written works, though some may have made private notes, for example of court decisions; this situation changed drastically as the result of the destruction of the Jewish commonwealth and the Second Temple in the year 70 and the consequent upheaval of Jewish social and legal norms. As the rabbis were required to face a new reality—mainly Judaism without a Temple and Judea without at least partial autonomy—there was a flurry of legal discourse and the old system of oral scholarship could not be maintained, it is during this period. The oldest full manuscript of the Talmud, known as the Munich Talmud, dates from 1342 and is available online; the process of "Gemara" proceeded in what were the two major centers of Jewish scholarship and Babylonia.
Correspondingly, two bodies of analysis developed, two works of Talmud were created. The older compilation is called the Talmud Yerushalmi, it was compiled in the 4th century in Galilee. The Babylonian Talmud was compiled about the year 500; the word "Talmud", when used without qualification refers to the Babylonian Talmud. While the editors of Jerusalem Talmud and Babylonian Talmud each mention the other community, most scholars believe these documents were written independently. Here the argument from silence is convincing." The Jerusalem Talmud known as the Palestinian Talmud, or Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael, was one of the two compilations of Jewish religious teachings and commentary, transmitted orally for centuries prior to its compilation by Jewish scholars in the Land of Israel. It is a compilation of teachings of the schools of Tiberias and Caesarea, it is written in Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, a Western Aramaic language that differs from its Babylonian counterpart. This Talmud is a synopsis of the analysis of the Mishnah, developed over the course of nearly 200 years by the Academies in Galilee Because of their location, the sages of these Academies devoted considerable attention to analysis of the agricultural laws of the Land of Israel.
Traditionally, this Talmud was thought to have been redacted in about the year 350 by Rav Muna and Rav Yossi in the Land of Israel. It is traditionally known as the Talmud Yerushalmi, but the name is a misnomer, as it was not prepared in Jerusalem, it has more been called "The Talmud of the Land of Israel". Its final redaction belongs to the end of the 4th century, but the individual scholars who brought it to its present form cannot be fixed with assurance. By this time Christianity had become the state religion of the Roman Empire and Jerusalem the holy city of Christendom. In 325, Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, said "let us have nothing in common with the detestable Jewish crowd." This policy made a Jew an pauper. The compilers of the Jerusalem Talmud lacked the time to produce a work of the quality they had intended; the text is not easy to follow. The apparent cessation of work on the Jerusalem Talmud in the 5th century has been associated with the decision of Theodosius II in 425 to suppress the Patriarchate and put an end to the practice of semikhah, formal scholarly ordination.
Some modern scholars have questioned this connection. Despite its incomplete state, the Jerusalem Talmud remains an indispensable source of knowledge of the development of the Jewish Law in the Holy Land, it was an important resource in the study of the Babylonian Talmud by the Kairouan school of Chana
Moses ben Nahman known as Nachmanides, referred to by the acronym Ramban and by the contemporary nickname Bonastruc ça Porta, was a leading medieval Jewish scholar, Sephardic rabbi, physician and biblical commentator. He was raised and lived for most of his life in Girona, Catalonia, he is considered to be an important figure in the re-establishment of the Jewish community in Jerusalem following its destruction by the Crusaders in 1099. "Nachmanides" is a Greek-influenced formation meaning "son of Nahman". He is commonly known by the Hebrew acronym רמב״ן, his Catalan name was Bonastruc ça Porta "Mazel Tov near the Gate". Ramban was born in Girona in 1194, where he grew up and studied, died in the Land of Israel about 1270, he was a descendant of cousin of Jonah Gerondi. Among his teachers in Talmud were Judah ben Yakar and Nathan ben Meïr of Trinquetaille, he is said to have been instructed in Kabbalah by his countryman Azriel of Gerona, in turn a disciple of Isaac the Blind. According to the responsa of Shlomo ibn Aderet Nachmanides studied medicine.
During his teens he began to get a reputation as a learned Jewish scholar. At age 16 he began his writings on Jewish law. In his Milhamot Hashem he defended Alfasi's decisions against the criticisms of Zerachiah ha-Levi of Girona; these writings reveal a conservative tendency that distinguished his works — an unbounded respect for the earlier authorities. In the view of Nachmanides, the wisdom of the rabbis of the Mishnah and Talmud, as well as the Geonim was unquestionable, their words were to be neither criticized. "We bow," he says, "before them, when the reason for their words is not quite evident to us, we submit to them". Nachmanides' adherence to the words of the earlier authorities may be due to piety, or the influence of the northern French Jewish school of thought. However, it is thought that it may be a reaction to the rapid acceptance of Greco-Arabic philosophy among the Jews of Spain and Provence; this work gave rise to a tendency to allegorize Biblical narratives, to downplay the role of miracles.
Against this tendency Nachmanides strove, went to the other extreme, not allowing the utterances of the immediate disciples of the Geonim to be questioned. Called upon, about 1238, for support by Solomon ben Abraham of Montpellier, excommunicated by supporters of Maimonides, Nachmanides addressed a letter to the communities of Aragon and Castile, in which Solomon's adversaries were rebuked. However, the great respect he professed for Maimonides, reinforced by innate gentleness of character, kept him from allying himself with the anti-Maimonist party and led him to assume the role of a conciliator. In a letter addressed to the French rabbis, he draws attention to the virtues of Maimonides and holds that Maimonides' Mishneh Torah – his Code of Jewish Law – not only shows no leniency in interpreting prohibitions within Jewish law, but may be seen as more stringent, which in Nachmanides' eyes was a positive factor; as to Maimonides' Guide for the Perplexed, Nachmanides stated that it was intended not for those of unshaken belief, but for those, led astray by the non-Jewish philosophical works of Aristotle and Galen.
"If," he says, "you were of the opinion that it was your duty to denounce the Guide as heretical, why does a portion of your flock recede from the decision as if it regretted the step? Is it right in such important matters to act capriciously, to applaud the one to-day and the other tomorrow?"To reconcile the two parties Nachmanides proposed that the ban against the philosophical portion of Maimonides's Code of Jewish law should be revoked, but that the ban against the study of the Guide for the Perplexed, against those who rejected allegorical interpretation of the Bible, should be maintained and strengthened. This compromise, which might have ended the struggle, was rejected by both parties in spite of Nachmanides' authority; the book Iggeret ha-Kodesh on the topics of marriage and sexual relations was attributed to Nachmanides, who wrote it for his son as a wedding gift. However, modern scholarship attributes it to a different author Rabbi Joseph ben Abraham Gikatilla. In this book, the author criticizes Maimonides for stigmatizing man's sexual nature as a disgrace to man.
In the view of the author, the body with all its functions being the work of God, is holy, so none of its normal sexual impulses and actions can be regarded as objectionable. In Nachmanides's Torat ha-Adam, which deals with burial customs, etc.. Nachmanides criticizes writers who strove to render man indifferent to both pleasure and pain. This, he declares, is against the Law, which commands man to rejoice on the day of joy and weep on the day of mourning; the last chapter, entitled Shaar ha-Gemul, discusses reward and punishment and kindred subjects. It derides the presumption of the philosopher
The Mishneh Torah, subtitled Sefer Yad ha-Hazaka, is a code of Jewish religious law authored by Maimonides. The Mishneh Torah was compiled between 1170 and 1180 CE, while Maimonides was living in Egypt, is regarded as Maimonides' magnum opus. Accordingly sources refer to the work as "Maimon", "Maimonides", or "RaMBaM", although Maimonides composed other works. Mishneh Torah consists of fourteen books, subdivided into sections and paragraphs, it is the only Medieval-era work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws that are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in existence, remains an important work in Judaism. Its title is an appellation used for the Biblical book of Deuteronomy, its subtitle, "Book of the Strong Hand", derives from its subdivision into fourteen books: the numerical value fourteen, when represented as the Hebrew letters Yod Dalet, forms the word yad. Maimonides intended to provide a complete statement of the Oral Law, so that a person who mastered first the Written Torah and the Mishneh Torah would be in no need of any other book.
Contemporary reaction was mixed, with strong and immediate opposition focusing on the absence of sources and the belief that the work appeared to be intended to supersede study of the Talmud. Maimonides responded to these criticisms, the Mishneh Torah endures as an influential work in Jewish religious thought. According to several authorities, a decision may not be rendered in opposition to a view of Maimonides where he militated against the sense of a Talmudic passage, for in such cases the presumption was that the words of the Talmud were incorrectly interpreted. Likewise: "One must follow Maimonides when the latter opposed his teachers, since he knew their views, if he decided against them, he must have disapproved their interpretation." Maimonides sought brevity and clarity in his Mishneh Torah and, as in his Commentary on the Mishnah, he refrained from detailing his sources, considering it sufficient to name his sources in the preface. He drew upon the Torah and the rest of Tanakh, both Talmuds and the halachic Midrashim, principally Sifra and Sifre.
Sources include the responsa of the Geonim. The maxims and decisions of the Geonim are presented with the introductory phrase "The Geonim have decided" or "There is a regulation of the Geonim", while the opinions of Isaac Alfasi and Alfasi's pupil Joseph ibn Migash are prefaced by the words "my teachers have decided". According to Maimonides, the Geonim were considered "unintelligible in our days, there are but few who are able to comprehend them". There were times when Maimonides disagreed with what was being taught in the name of the Geonim. A number of laws appear to have no source in any of the works mentioned. Maimonides himself states a few times in his work that he possessed what he considered to be more accurate texts of the Talmud than what most people possessed at his time; the latter has been confirmed to a certain extent by versions of the Talmud preserved by the Yemenite Jews as to the reason for what were thought to be rulings without any source. The Mishneh Torah is written in Hebrew in the style of the Mishnah.
As he states in the preface, Maimonides was reluctant to write in Talmudic Aramaic, since it was not known. His previous works had been written in Arabic; the Mishneh Torah never cites sources or arguments, confines itself to stating the final decision on the law to be followed in each situation. There is no discussion of Talmudic interpretation or methodology, the sequence of chapters follows the factual subject matter of the laws rather than the intellectual principle involved. 1. HaMadda 1. Yesodei ha-Torah: belief in God, other Jewish principles of faith 2. De'ot: general proper behavior 3. Talmud Torah: Torah study 4. Avodah Zarah: the prohibition against idolatry and foreign worship 5. Teshuvah: the law and philosophy of repentance 2. Ahavah 1. Kri'at Shema: recitation of the Shema 2. Tefilah and Birkat Kohanim: prayer and the priestly blessing 3. Tefillin and Sefer Torah 4. Tzitzit 5. Berachot: blessings 6. Milah: circumcision 7. Seder Tefilot: order of prayers 3. Zemanim 1. Shabbat: Sabbath 2. Eruvin: a Rabbinic device that facilitates Sabbath observance 3.
Shevitat `Asor: laws of Yom Kippur, except for the Temple service 4. Yom Tov: prohibitions on major Jewish holidays that are different from the prohibitions of Sabbath 5. Hametz u-Matza: chametz and matzah 6. Shofar ve-Lulav ve-Sukkah: Shofar and palm frond and Sukkah 7. Shekalim: money collected for the Temple in Jerusalem when it stood 8. Kiddush HaChodesh: sanctification of the month 9. Taaniyot: fasts 10. Hanukah u-Megillah: Hanukkah and the Scroll of Esther 4. Nashim: 1. Ishut: laws of marriage, including kiddushin and the ketubah 2. Geirushin: laws of divorce 3. Yibum va-Chalitzah: laws of levirate marriage 4. Na'arah Betulah: the law of a man who seduces or rapes an unmarried woman 5. Sotah: laws concerning a woman suspected of infidelity 5. Kedushah 1. Issurei Biah: forbidden sexual relations, including niddah and adultery. Since intermarriage with no
Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre
Berachot is the first tractate of Seder Zeraim, a collection of the Mishnah that deals with laws relating to plants and farming, hence the name. The tractate Berakhot is the only tractate in Zeraim to have a Gemara from both the Jerusalem Talmud and the Babylonian Talmud, it addresses the rules regarding the Shema, the Amidah, Birkat Hamazon, Kiddush and other blessings and prayers. The first three chapters of the tractate address the subject of the recitation of Shema, a biblical command that constitutes the acceptance of the yoke of Heaven, to be performed twice per day. Topics discussed include when to say it, how to say it and possible exemptions from the fulfillment of this mitzvah. Chapter 1 Mishnah א - In the case of the evening Shema, recital begins when the Kohanim enter to eat their terumah, at nightfall. R'Eliezer says, he takes "when you lie down" to mean the Shema is recited at the time that people lie down to go to sleep, anyone who will be going to sleep for the night has done so by the end of the first watch.
The sages say. And Rabban Gamliel says until the light of dawn. Rabban Gamliel says that whatever mitzvahs the sages said can be performed only until midnight can be performed until the light of dawn; the sages said until midnight to distance a person from procrastination and thus transgression. Mishnah ב - The time for reciting the morning Shema is referred to by "when you arise", this is when there is enough light to distinguish between blue and white wool. R'Eliezer says between blue and green wool, which would be at a later time. R'Yehoshua says until the end of the first three hours of the day, because it was customary for kings to still be rising until then; the hours referred to are seasonal hours, which are defined by measuring from either the first light of dawn to nightfall or from sunrise to sunset and dividing this into twelve equal parts. Halacha accords with R'Yehoshua and if one recites the Shema after the first three hours, it is as if he is reading from the Torah, which shows that reciting the Shema properly is greater than reciting words of Torah.
The ideal time to recite the Shema is shortly before sunrise so the Shemoneh Esrei can be started at sunrise. This is. Mishnah ג - The position one should assume when reciting the Shema is now discussed; the School of Shammai said the evening Shema should be recited lying down because it is written "when you lie down" and the morning Shema should be recited standing because it says "when you arise". The School of Hillel say it can be said in any position because it is written "when you go on the way". Hillel say that "when you lie down and when you arise" comes to tell us that it is recited at the time that people are lying down and rising, not the physical position one should be in while reciting; as in most cases, halakha is in accordance with Hillel. Mishnah ד - In the morning, the two blessings said before the Shema are "Who forms light" and "With an abundant love". In the evening, the two blessings said before the Shema are "Who brings on evenings" and "With an eternal love". A short blessing cannot be said in place of a long blessing, vice versa.
Where the sages said to conclude a blessing with "Blessed are You, Hashem", one cannot conclude without it. Where the sages did not say to conclude in that manner, one cannot add it. Mishnah ה - There is a mitzvah to mention the Exodus from Egypt at night; the beginning of the second chapter discusses the protocol of how one says the Shema itself. As saying the Shema requires concentration for only the first verse to fulfill the mitzvah, workers may say it while in a tree or on a stone wall. However, this does not apply to the Amidah; the rest of the second chapter and the entire third chapter discusses exemptions from the Shema, as there are cases where an individual is not required to say it. The second chapter contains a series of parables regarding Rabban Gamliel to help the reader understand why exemptions may be acceptable. A married man is exempt from saying the Shema as he may be anxious about his wedding. However, if he is able to properly dedicate himself to God in prayer, he should recite it regardless of the exemption.
A person, mourning the death of a relative is exempt from saying the Shema and from wearing tefillin. Funeral attendees who can see the mourner should not recite the Shema so that the mourner does not feel uncomfortable for not saying it. Women and children are exempt from the recital of the Shema and from wearing tefillin, but are not exempt from the Amidah, affixing a mezuzah and Birkat Hamazon. Chapters 4 and 5 discuss the main prayer known as the Shemoneh Esrei, Amidah, or just Tefillah in Talmud literature, it consisted of eighteen blessings with one being added by Rabban Gamliel. To