Regensburg is a city in south-east Germany, at the confluence of the Danube and Regen rivers. With more than 150,000 inhabitants, Regensburg is the fourth-largest city in the State of Bavaria after Munich and Augsburg; the city is the political and cultural centre and capital of the Upper Palatinate. The medieval centre of the city is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 2014, Regensburg was among the top sights and travel attractions in Germany; the first settlements in Regensburg date from the Stone Age. The Celtic name Radasbona was the oldest given to a settlement near the present city. Around AD 90, the Romans built a fort there. In 179, a new Roman fort Castra Regina was built for Legio III Italica during the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius, it was an important camp on the most northerly point of the Danube. It is believed that as early as in late Roman times the city was the seat of a bishop, St Boniface re-established the Bishopric of Regensburg in 739. From the early 6th century, Regensburg was the seat of a ruling family known as the Agilolfings.
From about 530 to the first half of the 13th century, it was the capital of Bavaria. Regensburg remained an important city during the reign of Charlemagne. In 792, Regensburg hosted the ecclesiastical section of Charlemagne's General Assembly, the bishops in council who condemned the heresy of adoptionism taught by their Spanish counterparts, Elipandus of Toledo and Felix of Urgel. After the partition of the Carolingian Empire in 843, the city became the seat of the Eastern Frankish ruler, Louis II the German. Two years fourteen Bohemian princes came to Regensburg to receive baptism there; this was the starting point of Christianization of the Czechs, the diocese of Regensburg became the mother diocese of that of Prague. These events had a wide impact on the cultural history of the Czech lands, as they were part of the Roman Catholic and not the Slavic-Orthodox world. A memorial plate at St John's Church was unveiled a few years ago, commemorating the incident in the Czech and German languages.
In 800 the city had 23,000 inhabitants and by 1000 this had doubled to 40,000 people. On 8 December 899 Arnulf of Carinthia, descendant of Charlemagne, died at Regensburg, Germany. In 1096, on the way to the First Crusade, Peter the Hermit led a mob of crusaders that attempted to force the mass conversion of the Jews of Regensburg and killed all those who resisted. Between 1135 and 1146, the Stone Bridge across the Danube was built at Regensburg; this bridge opened major international trade routes between northern Europe and Venice, this began Regensburg's golden age as a residence of wealthy trading families. Regensburg became the cultural centre of southern Germany and was celebrated for its gold work and fabrics. In 1245 Regensburg became a Free Imperial City and was a trade centre before the shifting of trade routes in the late Middle Ages. At the end of the 15th century in 1486, Regensburg became part of the Duchy of Bavaria, but its independence was restored by the Holy Roman Emperor ten years later.
The city adopted the Protestant Reformation in 1542 and its Town Council remained Lutheran. From 1663 to 1806, the city was the permanent seat of the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire, which became known as the Perpetual Diet of Regensburg. Thus, Regensburg was one of the central towns of the Empire, attracting visitors in large numbers. A minority of the population remained Roman Catholic, Roman Catholics were denied civil rights, but the town of Regensburg must not be confused with the Bishopric of Regensburg. Although the Imperial city had adopted the Reformation, the town remained the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop and several abbeys. Three of the latter, St. Emmeram, Niedermünster and Obermünster, were estates of their own within the Holy Roman Empire, meaning that they were granted a seat and a vote at the Imperial Diet. So there was the unique situation that the town of Regensburg comprised five independent "states": the Protestant city itself, the Roman Catholic bishopric, the three monasteries.
In addition, it was seen as the traditional capital of the region Bavaria, acted as functional co-capital of the Empire due to the presence of the Perpetual Diet, it was residence of the Emperor's Commissary-Principal to the same diet, who with one brief exception was a prince himself. In 1803 the city lost its status as an imperial city following its incorporation into the Principality of Regensburg, it was handed over to the Archbishop-Elector of Mainz and Archchancellor of the Holy Roman Empire Carl von Dalberg in compensation for the territory of the Electorate of Mainz located on the left bank of the Rhine, annexed by France under the terms of the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801. The Archbishopric of Mainz was formally transferred to Regensburg. Dalberg united the bishopric, the monasteries, the town itself, making up the Principality of Regensburg. Dalberg modernized public life. Most he awarded equal rights to Protestants and Roman Catholics alike. In 1810 Dalberg ceded Regensburg to the Kingdom of Bavaria, he himself being compensated by t
Prince-Archbishopric of Salzburg
The Prince-Archbishopric of Salzburg was an ecclesiastical principality and state of the Holy Roman Empire. It comprised the secular territory ruled by the archbishops of Salzburg, as distinguished from the much larger Catholic diocese founded in 739 by Saint Boniface in the German stem duchy of Bavaria; the capital of the archbishopric was the former Roman city of Iuvavum. From the late 13th century onwards, the archbishops reached the status of Imperial immediacy and independence from the Bavarian dukes. Salzburg remained an ecclesiastical principality until its secularisation to the short-lived Electorate of Salzburg in 1803. Members of the Bavarian Circle from 1500, the prince-archbishops bore the title of Primas Germaniae, though they never obtained electoral dignity; the last prince-archbishop exercising secular authority was Count Hieronymus von Colloredo, an early patron of Salzburg native Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The prince-archbishopric's territory was congruent with the present-day Austrian state of Salzburg.
It stretched along the Salzach river from the High Tauern range—Mt. Großvenediger at 3,666 m —at the main chain of the Alps in the south down to the Alpine foothills in the north. Here it comprised the present-day Rupertiwinkel on the western shore of the Salzach, which today is part of Bavaria; the former archepiscopal lands are traditionally subdivided into five historic parts: Flachgau with the Salzburg capital and Tennengau around Hallein are both located in the broad Salzach valley at the rim of the Northern Limestone Alps. In the north and east, the prince-archbishopric bordered on the Duchy of Austria, a former Bavarian margraviate, which had become independent in 1156 and, raised to an archduchy in 1457, developed as the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy; the Salzkammergut border region, today a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as an important salt trade region was seized by the mighty House of Habsburg and incorporated into the Upper Austrian lands. In the southeast, Salzburg adjoined the Duchy of Styria ruled by the Habsburg dukes in personal union since 1192.
By 1335, the Austrian regents had acquired the old Duchy of Carinthia in the south, the Styrian and Carinthian territories were incorporated into Inner Austria in 1379. The Habsburg encirclement was nearly completed, when in 1363 the archdukes attained the County of Tyrol in the west. Only in the northwest did Salzburg bordered on the Duchy of Bavaria, the tiny Berchtesgaden Provostry, able to retain its independence until the Mediatisation in 1803; the Vita Sancti Severini biography by the Early Christian chronicler Eugippius reported that during the Decline of the Roman Empire about 450 AD the local capital Iuvavum in the Noricum ripense province was home to two churches and a monastery. Little is known of the early bishopric during the Migration Period, the legendary Saint Maximus of Salzburg is the only abbot-bishop known by name. A disciple of Saint Severinus, he was martyred in the retreat from Noricum, after the Germanic Western Roman officer Odoacer had deposed the last Emperor Romulus Augustulus and declared himself King of Italy in 476.
In his conflict with the Rugii tribes, Odoacer had his brother Onoulphus evacuate the Noricum ripense province in 487/88, whereby Iuvavum was abandoned and with it the bishopric. Saint Severinus had died in 482 in the castrum of Favianis, six years before the departure of the Roman legions from the region. From the 6th century onwards, the northern areas of the archbishopric were resettled by Germanic Bavarii tribes, who established themselves among the remaining Romance population, while Slavic tribes moved into the southern Pongau and Lungau parts. About 696 Saint Rupert Bishop of Worms in Frankish Austrasia and called the apostle of Bavaria and Carinthia, came to the region from the Bavarian town Regensburg and laid the foundations for the re-establishment of the Salzburg diocese. After erecting a church at nearby Seekirchen he discovered the ruins of Iuvavum overgrown with brambles and remnants of the Romance population, who had maintained Christian traditions; the former theory that he arrived in c. 543 during the time of the unsourced early Bavarian dukes appears less than that he worked during the reign of the Agilolfing duke Theodo II, when the Bavarian stem duchy came under Frankish supremacy.
In either case, it was not until after 700 that Christian civilisation re-emerged in the region. Rupert established a monastery dedicated to Saint Peter at the site of a Late Antique church in former Iuvavum. St Peter's Abbey received large estates in the Flachgau and Tennengau regions from the hands of Duke Theodon II, including several brine wells and salt evaporation ponds which earned Iuvavum its German name Salzburg. In 711 Rupert founded the Cella Maximiliana in the Pongau region, the town of Bischofshofen, his niece Erentrude established a Bendictine nunnery at nearby Nonnberg about 713. In 739 Archbishop Boniface, with the blessing of Pope Gregory III, completed the work of Saint Rupert and raised Salzburg to a bishopric, placed under the primatial see of the Archdiocese of Mainz. St. Vergilius, abbot of St. Peter's since about 749, had quarrelled with St. Boniface over the existence of antipodes, he became bishop about 767, had
Tyrol is a federal state in western Austria. It comprises the Austrian part of the historical Princely County of Tyrol, it is a constituent part of the present-day Euroregion Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino. The capital of Tyrol is Innsbruck; the state of Tyrol is separated into two parts, divided by a 7-kilometre wide strip. The larger territory is called the smaller area is called East Tyrol; the neighbouring Austrian state of Salzburg stands to the east, while on the south Tyrol has a border with the Italian province of South Tyrol, part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire before the First World War. With a land area of 12,683.85 km2, Tyrol is the third-largest state in Austria. Tyrol shares its borders with the federal state of Vorarlberg in the west. In the north, it adjoins to the German state of Bavaria. East Tyrol shares its borders with the federal state of Carinthia to the east and Italy's Province of Belluno to the south; the state's territory is located within the Eastern Alps at the Brenner Pass.
The highest mountain in the state is the Großglockner, part of the Hohe Tauern range on the border with Carinthia. It has a height of 3,797 m, making it the highest mountain in Austria. In ancient times, the region was split between the Roman provinces of Noricum. From the mid-6th century, it was resettled by Germanic Bavarii tribes. In the Early Middle Ages it formed the southern part of the German stem duchy of Bavaria, until the Counts of Tyrol, former Vogt officials of the Trent and Brixen prince-bishops at Tyrol Castle, achieved imperial immediacy after the deposition of the Bavarian duke Henry the Proud in 1138, their possessions formed a state of the Holy Roman Empire in its own right; when the Counts of Tyrol died out in 1253, their estates were inherited by the Meinhardiner Counts of Görz. In 1271, the Tyrolean possessions were divided between Count Meinhard II of Görz and his younger brother Albert I, who took the lands of East Tyrol around Lienz and attached it to his committal possessions around Gorizia.
The last Tyrolean countess of the Meinhardiner Dynasty, bequeathed her assets to the Habsburg duke Rudolph IV of Austria in 1363. In 1420, the committal residence was relocated from Merano to Innsbruck; the Tyrolean lands were reunited when the Habsburgs inherited the estates of the extinct Counts of Görz in 1500. In the course of the German mediatization in 1803, the prince-bishoprics of Trent and Brixen were secularized and merged into the County of Tyrol, but Tyrol was ceded to the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1805. Andreas Hofer led the Tyrolean Rebellion against the Bavarian occupiers. South Tyrol was ceded to the Kingdom of Italy, a client state of the First French Empire, by Bavaria in 1810. After Napoleon's defeat, the whole of Tyrol was returned to Austria in 1814. Tyrol was a Cisleithanian Kronland of Austria-Hungary from 1867; the County of Tyrol extended beyond the boundaries of today's state, including North Tyrol and East Tyrol. After World War I, these lands became part of the Kingdom of Italy according to the 1915 London Pact and the provisions of the Treaty of Saint Germain.
Since November 1918 it was occupied by 20,000–22,000 soldiers of the Italian Army. After World War II, Tyrol was governed by France until Austria regained independence again in 1955; the capital, Innsbruck, is known for its university, for its medicine. Tyrol is popular for its famous ski resorts, which include Ischgl and St. Anton; the 15 largest towns in Tyrol are: Tyrol has long been a central hub for European long-distance routes and thus a transit land for trans-European trade over the Alps. As early as the 1st century B. C. Tyrol had one of the most important north-south links of the Via Claudia Augusta. Roman roads crossed the Tyrol from the Po Plain in present-day Italy, following the course of the Etsch and Eisack in present South Tyrol over the Brenner and following the northern Wipp valley to Hall. From there roads branched along the River Inn; the Via Raetia went westwards and up onto the Seefeld Plateau, where it crossed into Bavaria where Scharnitz is today. The Porta Claudia, built in the early 17th century is a fortification that underlines the importance of the road in the Early Modern Period.
Today Tyrol has international road and air connections. Innsbruck Airport is Tyrol's international airport. In addition there are several smaller airports in various places such as St. Johann in Tirol, Höfen in the Außerfern or Langkampfen. Many ÖPNV companies operate a common tariff scheme as part of the Tyrol Transport Association; the state is divided into nine districts. The districts and their administrative centres, from west to east and north to south, are: North Tyrol: Landeck District, Reutte District, Imst District, Innsbruck-Land, Innsbruck Stadt Schwaz District, Kufstein District, Kitzbühel District, East Tyrol: Lienz District, Tyrol History of Tyrol North Tyrol East Tyrol Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino
The Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire, or Electors for short, were the members of the electoral college that elected the Holy Roman Emperor. From the 13th century onwards, the Prince-Electors had the privilege of electing the Holy Roman Emperor who would receive the Papal coronation after assuming the titles of King in Germany and King of Italy. Charles V was the last to be a crowned Emperor. In practice, every emperor from 1440 onwards came from the Austrian House of Habsburg, the Electors ratified the Habsburg succession; the dignity of Elector carried great prestige and was considered to be second only to that of King or Emperor. The Electors had exclusive privileges that were not shared with the other princes of the Empire, they continued to hold their original titles alongside that of Elector; the heir apparent to a secular prince-elector was known as an electoral prince. The German element Kur- is based on the Middle High German irregular verb kiesen and is related etymologically to the English word choose.
In English, the "s"/"r" mix in the Germanic verb conjugation has been regularized to "s" throughout, while German retains the r in Kur-. There is a modern German verb küren which means'to choose' in a ceremonial sense. Fürst is German for'prince', but while the German language distinguishes between the head of a principality and the son of a monarch, English uses prince for both concepts. Fürst itself is related to English first and is thus the'foremost' person in his realm. Note that'prince' derives from Latin princeps, which carried the same meaning. Electors were reichsstände, they were, until the 18th century entitled to be addressed with the title Durchlaucht. In 1742, the electors became entitled to the superlative Durchläuchtigste, while other princes were promoted to Durchlaucht; as Imperial Estates, the electors enjoyed all the privileges of the other princes enjoying that status, including the right to enter into alliances, autonomy in relation to dynastic affairs and precedence over other subjects.
The Golden Bull had granted them the Privilegium de non appellando, which prevented their subjects from lodging an appeal to a higher Imperial court. However, while this privilege, some others, were automatically granted to Electors, they were not exclusive to them and many of the larger Imperial Estates were to be individually granted some or all those rights and privileges; the electors, like the other princes ruling States of the Empire, were members of the Imperial Diet, divided into three collegia: the Council of Electors, the Council of Princes, the Council of Cities. In addition to being members of the Council of Electors, several lay electors were therefore members of the Council of Princes as well by virtue of other territories they possessed. In many cases, the lay electors ruled numerous States of the Empire, therefore held several votes in the Council of Princes. In 1792, the King of Bohemia held three votes, the Elector of Bavaria six votes, the Elector of Brandenburg eight votes, the Elector of Hanover six votes.
Thus, of the hundred votes in the Council of Princes in 1792, twenty-three belonged to electors. The lay electors therefore exercised considerable influence, being members of the small Council of Electors and holding a significant number of votes in the Council of Princes; the assent of both bodies was required for important decisions affecting the structure of the Empire, such as the creation of new electorates or States of the Empire. In addition to voting by colleges or councils, the Imperial Diet voted on religious lines, as provided for by the Peace of Westphalia; the Archbishop of Mainz presided over the Catholic body, or corpus catholicorum, while the Elector of Saxony presided over the Protestant body, or corpus evangelicorum. The division into religious bodies was on the basis of the official religion of the state, not of its rulers, thus when the Electors of Saxony were Catholics during the eighteenth century, they continued to preside over the corpus evangelicorum, since the state of Saxony was Protestant.
The electors were summoned by the Archbishop of Mainz within one month of an Emperor's death, met within three months of being summoned. During the interregnum, imperial power was exercised by two imperial vicars; each vicar, in the words of the Golden Bull, was "the administrator of the empire itself, with the power of passing judgments, of presenting to ecclesiastical benefices, of collecting returns and revenues and investing with fiefs, of receiving oaths of fealty for and in the name of the holy empire". The Elector of Saxony was vicar in areas operating under Saxon law, while the Elector Palatine was vicar in the remainder of the Empire; the Elector of Bavaria replaced the Elector Palatine in 1623, but when the latter was granted a new electorate in 1648, there was a dispute between the two as to, vicar. In 1659, both purported to act as vicar; the two electors made a pact to act as joint vicars, but the Imperial Diet rejected the agreement. In 1711, while the Elector
Prince-Provost is a rare title for a monastic superior with the ecclesiastical style of provost, a Prince of the Church in the sense that he ranks as a secular'prince', notably a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, holding a direct vote in the Imperial Diet assembly coequal to an actual Prince-abbot, as in each case treated below. The monastery of Augustinian Canons Regular at Berchtesgaden, established about 1102, had enjoyed an immediate status within the Bavarian Circle, equal to an Imperial abbey. In 1559 the provosts were elevated to the rank of a Prince of the Empire in chief of the small lordship; the full style of the office became Propst und Herr zu Berchtesgaden. In the course of the German Mediatisation in 1803, the Berchtesgaden Provostry was annexed by the Electorate of Salzburg, it fell to the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1810. 1559–1567 Wolfgang Griesstätter zu Haslach. 1650–1688 Maximilian Heinrich von Bayern Elector of Cologne and Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim and Liège as well as Prince-Bishop of Münster from 1683 1688–1723 Joseph Clemens von Bayern, Prince-Bishop of Freising and Regensburg from 1685 to 1694, Elector of Cologne from 1688, Prince-Bishop of Liège and Hildesheim 1723–1732 Julius Heinrich von Rehlingen-Radau 1732–1752 Cajetan Anton von Notthaft 1752–1768 Michael Balthasar von Christallnigg 1768–1780 Franz Anton Josef von Hausen-Gleichenstorff 1780–1803 Joseph Konrad von Schroffenberg-Mös Prince-Bishop of Freising and Regensburg from 1789 The abbots of the Benedictine Abbey known as Stift Ellwangen founded in 764 had become Princes of the Empire in 1215 with a direct vote in the Imperial Diet.
Since its conversion into a college of secular canons in 1460, the superiors retained that status, with their full style changed to Fürstliche Pröpste zu Ellwangen in the Swabian Circle. During the German Mediatisation on 27 April 1803 it was incorporated into the Duchy of Württemberg. 1460–1461 Johann von Hürnheim Abbot nullius of Ellwangen 1452–1460 1461–1502 Albrecht von Rechberg 1502–1503 Bernhard von Westerstetten 1503–1521 Albrecht Thumb von Neuburg 1521–1552 Henry of the Palatinate Prince-Bishop of Worms from 1523 and of Utrecht from 1524 to 1529, Prince-Bishop of Freising from 1541 1552–1573 Cardinal Otto Truchsess von Waldburg Prince-Bishop of Augsburg since 1543 1573–1584 Christoph von Freyberg-Eisenberg 1584–1603 Wolfgang von Hausen Bishop of Regensburg 1602–1613 1603–1613 Johann Christoph von Westerstetten Bishop of Eichstädtt 1612–1637 1613–1620 Johann Christoph von Freyberg-Eisenberg 1621–1654 Johann Jakob Blarer von Wartensee 1654–1660 Johann Rudolf von Rechenberg 1660–1674 Johann Christoph von Freyberg-Allmendingen 1674–1687 Johann Christoph Adelmann von Adelmannsfelden 1687–1689 Heinrich Christoph von Wolframsdorf 1689–1694 Count Palatine Louis Anton of Neuburg Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights since 1684 and Prince-Bishop of Worms from 1691 1694–1732 Count Palatine Francis Louis of Neuburg Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights and Prince-Bishop of Worms and Archbishop of Trier from 1716 and of Mainz from 1729 1732–1756 Franz Georg von Schönborn-Buchheim, Elector of Trier since 1729 Prince-Bishop of Worms from 1732 1756–1787 Anton Ignaz Joseph Graf von Fugger-Glött Prince-Bishop of Regensburg from 1769 1787–1803 Prince Clemens Wenceslaus of Saxony, Prince-Bishop of Freising 1763–1768 and of Regensburg 1763–1769, Elector of Trier and Prince-Bishop of Augsburg since 1768 The Benedictine abbey established at Alsatian Weissenburg about 660 was converted into a collegiate church merged with the Bishopric of Speyer in 1546.
The Speyer Prince-Bishops ruled as Provosts of Weissenburg in personal union, thereby holding two direct votes in the Imperial Diet. The 1648 Peace of Westphalia ceded Weissenburg to France, the provostry was disestablished in the course of the French Revolution in 1789. Prince-abbot Princes of the Holy Roman Empire Imperial State WorldStatesmen- German States before 1918 A-E
The County Palatine of the Rhine the Electorate of the Palatinate or Electoral Palatinate, was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire administered by the Count Palatine of the Rhine. Its rulers served as prince-electors from time immemorial, were noted as such in a papal letter of 1261, were confirmed as electors by the Golden Bull of 1356; the fragmented territory stretched from the left bank of the Upper Rhine, from the Hunsrück mountain range in what is today the Palatinate region in the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate and the adjacent parts of the French regions of Alsace and Lorraine to the opposite territory on the east bank of the Rhine in present-day Hesse and Baden-Württemberg up to the Odenwald range and the southern Kraichgau region, containing the capital cities of Heidelberg and Mannheim. The Counts Palatine of the Rhine held the office of imperial vicars in the territories under Frankish law and ranked among the most significant secular Princes of the Holy Roman Empire.
In 1541 elector Otto Henry converted to Lutheranism. Their climax and decline is marked by the rule of Elector Palatine Frederick V, whose coronation as King of Bohemia in 1619 sparked the Thirty Years' War. After the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, the ravaged lands were further afflicted by the "Reunion" campaigns launched by King Louis XIV of France, culminating in the Nine Years' War. Ruled in personal union with the Electorate of Bavaria from 1777, the Electoral Palatinate was disestablished with the German mediatization in 1803; the comital office of Count Palatine at the Frankish court of King Childebert I was mentioned about 535. The Counts Palatine were the permanent representatives of the King, in particular geographic areas, in contrast to the semi-independent authority of the dukes. Under the Merovingian dynasty, the position had been a purely appointed one, but by the Middle Ages had evolved into an hereditary one. Up to the 10th century, the Frankish empire was centered at the royal palace in Aachen, in what had become the Carolingian kingdom of Lotharingia.
The Count Palatine of Lotharingia became the most important of the Counts Palatine. Marital alliances meant that, by the Middle Ages, most Count Palatine positions had been inherited by the duke of the associated province, but the importance of the Count Palatine of Lotharingia enabled it to remain an independent position. In 985, Herman I, a scion of the Ezzonids, is mentioned as count palatine of Lotharingia. While his Palatine authority operated over the whole of Upper Lorraine, the feudal territories of his family were instead scattered around south western Franconia, including parts of the Rhineland around Cologne and Bonn, areas around the Moselle, the Nahe Rivers. In continual conflicts with the rivalling Archbishops of Cologne, he changed the emphasis of his rule to the southern Eifel region and further to the Upper Rhine, where the Ezzonian dynasty governed several counties on both banks of the river; the southernmost point was near Alzey. From about 1085/86, after the death of the last Ezzonian count palatine Herman II, Palatinate authority ceased to have any military significance in Lotharingia.
In practice, the Count Palatinate's Palatine authority had collapsed, reducing his successor to a mere feudal magnate over his own territories - along the Upper Rhine in south-western Franconia. From this time on, his territory became known as the County Palatine of the Rhine. Various noble dynasties competed to be enfeoffed with the Palatinate by the Holy Roman Emperor - among them the House of Ascania, the House of Salm and the House of Babenberg; the first hereditary Count Palatine of the Rhine was Conrad, a member of the House of Hohenstaufen and younger half-brother of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. The territories attached to this hereditary office in 1156 started from those held by the Hohenstaufens in the Donnersberg, Haardt, Bergstraße and Kraichgau regions. Much of this was from their imperial ancestors, the Salian emperors, apart from Conrad's maternal ancestry, the Counts of Saarbrücken; these backgrounds explain the composition of Upper and Rhenish Palatinate in the inheritance centuries onwards.
About 1182, Conrad moved his residence from Stahleck Castle near Bacharach up the Rhine River to Heidelberg. Upon Conrad's death in 1195, the Palatinate passed to the House of Welf through the—secret—marriage of his daughter Agnes with Henry of Brunswick; when Henry's son Henry the Younger died without heirs in 1214, the Hohenstaufen king Frederick II enfeoffed the Wittelsbach duke Louis I of Bavaria. The Bavarian House of Wittelsbach held the Palatinate territories until 1918. During a division of territory among the heirs of Duke Louis II, Duke of Upper Bavaria, in 1294, the elder branch of the Wittelsbachs came into possession of both the Rhenish Palatinate and the territories in the Bavarian Nordgau with the centre around the town of Amberg; as this region was politically connected to the Rhenish Palatinate, the name Upper Palatinate became common from the early 16th century in contrast to the Lower Palatinate along the Rhine. With the Treaty of
Roman Catholic Diocese of Passau
The Diocese of Passau is a Roman Catholic diocese in Germany, a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising. It should not be confused with the Prince-Bishopric of Passau, an ecclesiastical principality that existed for centuries until it was secularized in 1803; the diocese covers an area of 5,442 km². Pope Benedict XVI was born and baptized on Holy Saturday, 16 April 1927, at Marktl am Inn, located within the Diocese of Passau; the Diocese of Passau may be considered the successor of the ancient Diocese of Lorch. At Lorch, a Roman station and an important stronghold at the junction of the Enns River and the Danube, Christianity found a foothold in the third century, during a period of Roman domination, a Bishop of Lorch existed in the fourth. During the great migrations, Christianity on the Danube was rooted out, the Celtic and Roman population was annihilated or enslaved. In the region between the Lech River and the Enns, the wandering Bajuvari were converted to Christianity in the seventh century, while the Avari, to the east, remained pagan.
The ecclesiastical organization of Bavaria was brought about by St. Boniface, with the support of Duke Odilo or at least enacting an earlier design of the duke, erected the four sees of Freising, Ratisbon and Salzburg, he confirmed as incumbent of Passau, Bishop Vivilo, or Vivolus, ordained by Pope Gregory III, and, for a long time the only bishop in Bavaria. Thenceforth, Vivilo resided permanently at Passau, on the site of the old Roman colony of Batavis. Here was a church, the founder of, not known, dedicated to St. Stephen. To Bishop Vivilo's diocese was annexed the ancient Lorch, which meanwhile had become a small and unimportant place. By the duke's generosity, a cathedral was soon erected near the Church of St. Stephen, here the bishop lived in common with his clergy; the boundaries of the diocese extended westwards to the Isar river, eastwards to the Enns. In ecclesiastical affairs Passau was from the beginning, suffragan to Salzburg. Through the favour of Dukes Odilo and Tassilo, the bishopric received many gifts, several monasteries arose—e.g.
Niederaltaich Abbey, Niedernburg Abbey, Mattsee Abbey, Kremsmünster Abbey—which were richly endowed. Under Bishop Waltreich, after the conquest of the Avari, who had assisted the rebellious Duke Tassilo, the district between the Enns and the Raab River was added to the diocese, which thus included the whole eastern part of Southern Bavaria and part of what is now Hungary; the first missionaries to the pagan Hungarians went out from Passau, in 866 the Church sent missionaries to Bulgaria. Passau, the outermost eastern bulwark of the Germans, suffered most from the incursions of the Hungarians. At that time many churches and monasteries were destroyed. When, after the victory the Battle of Lech, the Germans pressed forward and regained the old Ostmark, Bishop Adalbert hoped to extend his spiritual jurisdiction over Hungary, his successor Piligrim, who worked for the Christianization of Pannonia, aspired to free Passau from the metropolitan authority of Salzburg, but was frustrated in this, as well as in his attempt to assert the metropolitan claims which Passau was supposed to have inherited from Lorch, to include all Hungary in his diocese.
By founding many monasteries in his diocese he prepared the way for the princely power of bishops. He built many new churches and restored others from ruins, his successor, Christian received in 999 from Emperor Otto III the market privilege and the rights of coinage and higher and lower jurisdiction. Emperor Henry II granted him a large part of the North Forest. Henceforward, the bishops ruled as princes of the empire, although the title was used for the first time only in a document in 1193. Under Berengar the whole district east of the Viennese forest as far as Letha and March was placed under the jurisdiction of Passau. During his time the cathedral chapter made its appearance, but there is little information concerning its beginning as a distinct corporation with the right of electing a bishop; this right was much hampered by the exercise of imperial influence. At the beginning of the Investiture Controversy, St. Altmann occupied the see and was one of the few German bishops who adhered to Pope Gregory VII.
Ulrich I, Count of Höfft, for a time driven from his see by Emperor Henry IV, furthered monastic reforms and the Crusades. Reginmar, Count of Hegenau who took part in the crusade of Conrad III, Conrad of Austria, a brother of Bishop Otto of Freising, were all much interested in the foundation of new monasteries and the reform for those existing. Ulrich, Count of Andechs, was formally recognized as a prince of the empire at the Reichstag of Nuremberg in 1217; the reforms which were begun by Gebhard von Plaien and Rüdiger von Rodeck found a zealous promoter in Otto von Lonsdorf, one of the greatest bishops of Passau. He took stringent measures against the relaxed monasteries, introduced the Franciscans and Dominicans into his diocese, promoted the arts and sciences, collected the old documents which had survived the storms of the preceding period, so that to him we owe all our knowledge of the early history of Passau. Bishop Peter Canon of Breslau, contributed to the House of Habsburg by bestowing episcopal fiefs on the sons of King Rudolph.
Under Bernhard of Brambach began the struggles of Passau to become a free imperial city. After an uprising in May 1298, the bisho