San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco, San Pablo and Suisun Bay estuaries in the northern part of the U. S. state of California. Although the exact boundaries of the region vary depending on the source, the Bay Area is defined by the Association of Bay Area Governments to include the nine counties that border the aforementioned estuaries: Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano and San Francisco. Other sources may exclude parts of or entire counties, or expand the definition to include neighboring counties that don't border the bay such as San Benito, San Joaquin, Santa Cruz. Home to 7.68 million people, Northern California's nine-county Bay Area contains many cities, towns and associated regional and national parks, connected by a complex multimodal transportation network. The larger combined statistical area of the region, which includes twelve counties, is the second-largest in California, the fifth-largest in the United States, the 41st-largest urban area in the world with 8.75 million people.
The Bay Area's population is ethnically diverse: for example half of the region's residents are Hispanic, African American, or Pacific Islander, all of whom have a significant presence throughout the region. The earliest archaeological evidence of human settlements in the Bay Area dates back to 3000 BC. In 1769, the Bay Area was inhabited by the Ohlone people when a Spanish exploration party led by Gaspar de Portolà entered the Bay – the first documented European visit to the Bay Area. After Mexico established independence from Spain in 1821, the region was controlled by the Mexican government until the United States purchased the territory in 1846 during the Mexican–American War. Soon after, discovery of gold in California attracted a flood of treasure seekers, many using ports in the Bay Area as an entry point. During the early years of California's statehood, state legislative business rotated between three locations in the Bay Area before a permanent state capital was established in Sacramento.
A major earthquake leveled the city of San Francisco and environs in 1906, but the region rebuilt in time to host the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition. During World War II, the Bay Area played a major role in America's war effort in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater, with San Francisco's Fort Mason acting as a primary embarkation point for American forces. In 1945, the United Nations Charter was signed in San Francisco, establishing the United Nations, in 1951, the Treaty of San Francisco ended the U. S.'s war with Japan. Since the Bay Area has experienced numerous political and artistic movements, developing unique local genres in music and art and establishing itself as a hotbed of progressive politics. Economically, the post-war Bay Area saw huge growth in the financial and technology industries, creating a vibrant and diverse economy with a gross domestic product of over $800 billion, home to the second highest concentration of Fortune 500 companies in the United States. Despite its urban character, the San Francisco Bay is one of California's most ecologically important habitats, providing key ecosystem services such as filtering pollutants and sediments from the rivers, supporting a number of endangered species.
The region is known for the complexity of its landforms, the result of millions of years of tectonic plate movements. Because the Bay Area is crossed by six major earthquake faults, the region is exposed to hazards presented by large earthquakes; the climate is temperate and very mild, is ideal for outdoor recreational and athletic activities such as hiking. The Bay Area is host to seven professional sports teams and is a cultural center for music and the arts, it is host to several institutions of higher education, ranging from primary schools to major research universities. Home to 101 municipalities and nine counties, governance in the Bay Area is multifaceted and involves numerous local and regional actors, each with wide-ranging and overlapping responsibilities; the borders of the San Francisco Bay Area are not delineated, the unique development patterns influenced by the region's topography, as well as unusual commute patterns caused by the presence of three central cities and employment centers located in various suburban locales, has led to considerable disagreement between local and federal definitions of the area.
Because of this, professor of geography at the University of California, Berkeley Richard Walker claimed that "no other U. S. city-region is as definitionally challenged."When the region began to develop during and after World War II, local planners settled on a nine-county definition for the Bay Area, consisting of the counties that directly border the San Francisco, San Pablo, Suisun estuaries: Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara and Sonoma counties. Today, this definition is accepted by most local governmental agencies including San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board, Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the San Francisco Bay Restoration Authority, the Metropolitan Transportation Commission, the Association of Bay Area Governments, the latter two of which partner to deliver a Bay Area Census using the nine-county definition. Various U. S. Federal government agencies use definitions that differ from their local counterparts' nine-county definition.
For example, the Federal Communications Commission which regulates broadcast and satellite transmissions, includes nearby Colusa and Mendocino counties in their "San Francisco-Oaklan
Save the Redwoods League
Save the Redwoods League is a nonprofit organization whose mission is to protect and restore coast redwood and giant sequoia forests and to connect people with their peace and beauty. It relies on donations from private individuals as well as funding from foundations, government agencies, investments to buy and provide public access to redwood forest lands; the League has protected more than 200,000 acres of forestland. As of 2018, the League has helped create 66 redwood parks and reserves, including Humboldt Redwoods State Park and Redwood National and State Parks. In addition to purchasing and protecting land, Save the Redwoods League supports restoration and education programs, gives small grants to other organizations involved in ecological conservation. Save the Redwoods League maintains and updates a website which offers information and progress reports. In 1917, National Park Service Director Stephen Mather asked conservationists John C. Merriam, Madison Grant, Henry Fairfield Osborn to travel to northern California to investigate the status of the old-growth coast redwoods that were be being logged in vast numbers for building materials.
All four of these men were members of the Crockett Club. After witnessing the devastation of the forests on their trip, Merriam and Osborn decided that protecting the ancient redwoods by purchasing groves and creating a public park was an urgent endeavor, in 1918 they established Save the Redwoods League to achieve this goal; the first donors to the League were Stephen Mather, E. C. Bradley, William Kent, Henry Fairfield Osborn, Madison Grant. In 1919, Newton B. Drury became the first Executive Secretary for Save the Redwoods League, he provided leadership to the League for the next 58 years serving as a National Park Service and California State Parks leader. In 1919, members of the California Federation of Women’s Clubs established the Women’s Save the Redwoods League in Humboldt County; this group had roots over a decade in the making. It was in 1908 that the Humboldt County Federation of Women’s Clubs sent a children's petition with over 2,000 signatures to the U. S. Forest Service requesting that President Theodore Roosevelt establish a national redwood park.
Newton B. Drury and the League were instrumental in uniting and forming the California State Park system with the passage of two bills in the California State Legislature that were signed into law by Governor C. C. Young on May 25, 1927. Major League acquisitions and projects the League supported in the 1930s included the 9,400-acre Rockefeller Forest addition to Humboldt Redwoods State Park, Calaveras North Grove of giant sequoias for Calaveras Big Trees State Park, 8,252 acres for Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park. In the 1944, the League acquired 4,280 acres for Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park. In 1945, the League and the Garden Club of America raised money to create the 5,000-acre National Tribute Grove in that same park honoring World War II service members. In 1948, dawn redwoods, thought to be extinct were discovered in China and the League funded scientist Ralph Chaney's trip to investigate. From 1951-1959, the League's Newton Drury was the director of the California Division of Beaches and Parks known as the California State Parks system.
In 1954 the League helped acquire the South Grove of giant sequoias to be added to Calaveras Big Trees State Park. In 1960, the Avenue of the Giants Parkway was founded in Humboldt Redwoods State Park preceded by a 40-year land acquisition process by the League. In 1968, after years of lobbying Redwood National Park was established by Congress. In the 1970s and 80s, the League continues to protect land for redwood parks. Notable acquisitions include 1,662 acres for Purisima Creek Redwoods Open Space Preserve and 3,858-acre Big Creek Reserve for Julia Pfeiffer Burns State Park. In the 1980s and 90s, Navarro River Redwoods State Park lands were purchased by the League and land was acquired for Limekiln State Park and Wilder Ranch State Park. In 2001, the League purchased the Dillonwood giant sequoia grove and transferred it to Sequoia National Park. In 2002, the League purchased the 25,000-acre Mill Creek forest, its largest acquisition to date which became part of Del Norte Coast Redwoods State Park.
In the 2000s, the League protected 7,334 acres for Mendocino Headlands State Park. In 2009, the League's Redwoods and Climate Change Initiative began. In the 2010s, the League helped protect Noyo River Redwoods, Four Corners, the Orick Mill Site, Peters Creek and Boulder Creek old-growth forests, Big River-Mendocino Old-Growth Redwoods; the League established conservation easements for 15,000-acre Mailliard Ranch, the 8,500-acre San Vicente Redwoods and 870-acre Stewarts Point. In 2018, the League celebrated its centennial year launching the “Stand for the Redwoods, Stand for the Future” campaign and publishing the Centennial Vision for Redwoods Conservation that includes the goal to "double the size of coast redwood forests in parks and reserves to 800,000 acres." The California State Senate declared 2018 the Year of the Redwoods with the passage of SR 100, authored by Senator Mike McGuire and many co-authors. The California State Assembly adopted House Resolution, authored by Assemblymember Mark Stone, recognizing the League’s 100th birthday.
And, on September 27, 2018, California Governor Jerry Brown declared October 2018 as “California Redwoods Month," recognizing redwoods as a "globally significant treasure" and encouraging people to "support organizations working to ensure a healthy future for our redwood forests."An interactive timeline of the history of redwoods and Save the Redwoods League can be found on their websit
The Nature Conservancy
The Nature Conservancy is a charitable environmental organization, headquartered in Arlington, United States. Its mission is to "conserve the lands and waters on which all life depends." The Conservancy pursues non confrontational, pragmatic solutions to conservation's challenges working with partners including indigenous communities, governments, multilateral institutions, other non-profits. The Conservancy's work focuses on the global priorities of Lands, Climate and Cities. Founded in Arlington, Virginia, in 1951, The Nature Conservancy now impacts conservation in 72 countries, including all 50 states of the United States; the Conservancy has over one million members, has protected more than 119,000,000 acres of land and thousands of miles of rivers worldwide. The Nature Conservancy operates more than 100 marine conservation projects globally; the organization's assets total $6.71 billion as of 2015. The Nature Conservancy is the largest environmental nonprofit by assets and by revenue in the Americas.
The Nature Conservancy rates as one of the most trusted national organizations in Harris Interactive polls every year since 2005. Forbes magazine rated The Nature Conservancy's fundraising efficiency at 88 percent in its 2005 survey of the largest U. S. charities. The Conservancy received a three-star rating from Charity Navigator in 2016; the American Institute of Philanthropy gives the Conservancy a B+ rating and includes it on its list of "Top-Rated Charities". The Nature Conservancy is led by President and CEO Mark Tercek, a former managing director at Goldman Sachs, he is the author of the book Nature’s Fortune: How Business and Society Thrive by Investing in Nature. The Nature Conservancy's Chief Scientist is Australian Hugh Possingham, named to this position in 2016; the current board chairman is Craig the Chairman & CEO of Eagle River Inc.. Other current members include former U. S. Senator Bill Frist, chairman of the Alibaba Group Jack Ma, Chairman and Co-founder of The Bridgespan Group Thomas J. Tierney.
The Nature Conservancy developed out of a scholarly organization known as the Ecological Society of America. The ESA was founded in 1915 and two years formed a Committee on Preservation of Natural Areas for Ecological Study, headed by Victor Shelford. Whereas the Society focused on promoting research, in the course of the 1930s Shelford and his colleagues sought to advocate for conservation; the divide in viewpoints regarding scholarship or advocacy led the Society to dissolve the committee, and, in 1946, Shelford and his colleagues formed the Ecologists' Union. The latter group took the name "The Nature Conservancy", in emulation of the British agency of that name, which pursued a mission of conserving open space and wildlife preserves; the Nature Conservancy was incorporated in the United States as a non-profit organization on October 22, 1951. The Nature Conservancy takes a scientific approach to conservation, setting goals that describe the results it wants to achieve for biodiversity; the Nature Conservancy sets both long-term and near-term goals for conserving the abundance and geographic distribution of critical species and ecological systems.
The organization's overall goal is to ensure the long-term survival of all biodiversity on Earth. The Nature Conservancy works with all sectors of society including businesses, communities, partner organizations, government agencies to achieve its goals; the Nature Conservancy is known for working and collaboratively with traditional land owners such as farmers and ranchers, with whom it partners when such a partnership provides an opportunity to advance mutual goals. The Nature Conservancy is in the forefront of private conservation groups implementing prescribed fire to restore and maintain healthy ecosystems and working to address the threats to biodiversity posed by non-native and invasive plants and animals; the Nature Conservancy has pioneered new land preservation techniques such as the conservation easement and debt for nature swaps. A conservation easement is a way for land owners to ensure that their land remains in its natural state while capitalizing on some of the land's potential development value.
Debt for nature swaps are tools used to encourage natural area preservation in third world countries while assisting the country economically as well: in exchange for setting aside land, some of the country's foreign debt is forgiven. The Conservancy believes that the private sector has an important role to play in advancing its conservation mission; the organization works to help businesses make better decisions, understand the value of nature, protect it. Among the companies it works with are: 3M/3M Foundation, Alcoa Foundation, AmazonSmile, AT&T, Bank of America, Barrick Gold, BHP Billiton, Inc. Caterpillar/Caterpillar Foundation, The Coca-Cola Company, Delta Air Lines, Discovery Channel: North America, The Dow Chemical Company, FEMSA, General Mills, Goldman Sachs, Harley-Davidson, IBM, JPMorgan Chase & Co. Lowe's/Lowe's Charitable and Educational Foundation, Oracle, PepsiCo Recycle for Nature, Swiss Re, UPS, Whole Foods Market; the Nature Conservancy's expanding international conservation efforts include work in North America, Central America, South America, the Pacific Rim, the Caribbean, Asia.
The Conservancy focuses on developing global solutions at the intersection of nature's and people's needs. The solutions are areas where it aims to develop specific strategies and link them to its place-based work at the system scale. Below are a few examples of such work: The Nature Conservancy was instrumental in the creation in 2004 of the Great
San Jose, California
San Jose the City of San José, is an economic and political center of Silicon Valley, the largest city in Northern California. With an estimated 2017 population of 1,035,317, it is the third-most populous city in California and the tenth-most populous in United States. Located in the center of the Santa Clara Valley, on the southern shore of San Francisco Bay, San Jose covers an area of 179.97 square miles. San Jose is the county seat of Santa Clara County, the most affluent county in California and one of the most affluent counties in the United States. San Jose is the most populous city in both the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland Combined Statistical Area, which contain 7.7 million and 8.7 million people respectively. San Jose is a global city, notable as a center of innovation, for its affluence, Mediterranean climate, high cost of living. San Jose's location within the booming high tech industry, as a cultural and economic center has earned the city the nickname "Capital of Silicon Valley".
San Jose is one of the wealthiest major cities in the United States and the world, has the third highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the Brookings Institution. The San Jose Metropolitan Area has the most millionaires and the most billionaires in the United States per capita. With a median home price of $1,085,000, San Jose has the most expensive housing market in the country and the fifth most expensive housing market in the world, according to the 2017 Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey. Major global tech companies including Cisco Systems, eBay, Adobe Systems, PayPal, Samsung, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Western Digital maintain their headquarters in San Jose, in the center of Silicon Valley. Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area around San Jose was inhabited by the Tamien nation of the Ohlone peoples of California. San Jose was founded on November 29, 1777, as the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe, the first city founded in the Californias, it became a part of Mexico in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence.
Following the American Conquest of California during the Mexican–American War, the territory was ceded to the United States in 1848. After California achieved statehood two years San Jose became the state's first capital. Following World War II, San Jose experienced an economic boom, with a rapid population growth and aggressive annexation of nearby cities and communities carried out in the 1950s and 1960s; the rapid growth of the high-technology and electronics industries further accelerated the transition from an agricultural center to an urbanized metropolitan area. Results of the 1990 U. S. Census indicated that San Jose had surpassed San Francisco as the most populous city in Northern California. By the 1990s, San Jose and the rest of Silicon Valley had become the global center for the high tech and internet industries, making it California's fastest-growing economy; the Santa Clara Valley has been home to the Tamyen group of the Ohlone people since around 4,000 BCE. The Tamyen spoke Tamyen language of the Ohlone language family.
With the Spanish colonization of California, the majority of the Tamyen came to inhabit Mission Santa Clara de Asís and Mission San José. California was claimed as part of the Spanish Empire in 1542, when explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo charted the Californian coast. During this time and Baja California were administered together as Province of the California. For nearly 200 years, the Californias were sparsely populated and ignored by the government of the Viceroyalty of New Spain in Mexico City. Only in 1769 was Northern California surveyed by Spanish authorities, with the Portolá Expedition. In 1776, the Californias were included as part of the Captaincy General of the Provincias Internas, a large administrative division created by José de Gálvez, Spanish Minister of the Indies, in order to provide greater autonomy for the Spanish Empire's populated and ungoverned borderlands; that year, King Carlos III of Spain approved an expedition by Juan Bautista de Anza to survey the San Francisco Bay Area, in order to choose the sites for two future settlements and their accompanying mission.
First he chose the site for a military settlement in San Francisco, for the Royal Presidio of San Francisco, Mission San Francisco de Asís. On his way back to Mexico from San Francisco, de Anza chose the sites in Santa Clara Valley for a civilian settlement, San Jose, on the eastern bank of the Guadalupe River, a mission on its western bank, Mission Santa Clara de Asís. San Jose was founded as California's first civilian settlement on November 29, 1777, as the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe by José Joaquín Moraga, under orders of Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, Viceroy of New Spain. San Jose served as a strategic settlement along El Camino Real, connecting the military fortifications at the Monterey Presidio and the San Francisco Presidio, as well as the California mission network. In 1791, due to the severe flooding which characterized the pueblo, San Jose's settlement was moved a mile south, centered on the Pueblo Plaza. In 1800, due to the growing population in the northern part of the Californias, Diego de Borica, Governor of the Californias split the province into two parts: Alta California, which would become a U.
S. state, Baja California, which would become two Mexican states. San Jose became part of the First M
Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve
The Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is a 483 hectares nature preserve and biological field station formally established as a reserve in 1973. Owned by Stanford University, located at 37.408°N 122.2275°W / 37.408. It is used by students and docents to conduct biology research, teach the community about the importance of that research; the preserve encompasses Jasper Ridge and Searsville Lake and the upper reaches of San Francisquito Creek, along with the latter's Corte Madera Creek and Bear Creek tributaries. Jasper Ridge is part of the foothills northeast of the Santa Cruz Mountains and is bounded by San Francisquito Creek, Corte Madera Creek and Los Trancos Creek, although the preserve occupies only the northwestern half of the ridge; the hilly mass runs about ten kilometers from about half that in width. Serpentine is the California State Rock, it was formed from deep mantle rocks. This rock was squeezed toward the surface by tectonic plate movement, thus feels greasy, as it has been polished over millions of years.
Graywacke Sandstone after crossing Leonard's Bridge. This sandstone was part of the Franciscan formation 138 M years ago; some rocks found at the preserve include: Greenstone, Serpentinite, Sandstone. In 1922, Cooper asserted that Jasper Ridge was chaparral, cleared in the nineteenth century to open grasslands Eurasian wild oats; however much of the grassland has been replaced by various oaks Coast Live Oak, Pacific Madrone. More the oak/madrone forest is being succeeded by specimens of large Douglas fir as in the image above. In addition there are several groves of second growth Coast Redwoods in the preserve, some in large "fairy rings" indicating that trees of immense girth were cut down in the nineteenth century. Numerous academic studies and ecological experiments are conducted at Jasper Ridge; the Global Change Experiment studies the response of California annual grassland to global change, including elevated atmospheric CO2, altered precipitation, increased nitrogen deposition. This project tracks the Argentine ants, an invasive species.
A station near the lake monitors bats by converting and recording bat sounds. Organization of Biological Field Stations Official Jasper Ridge website Organization of Biological Field Stations
San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
San Francisco Bay Trail
The San Francisco Bay Trail is a bicycle and pedestrian trail that will allow continuous travel around the shoreline of San Francisco Bay. As of 2019, 356 miles of trail have been completed; when finished, the Bay Trail will extend over 500 miles to link the shoreline of nine counties, passing through 47 cities and crossing seven toll bridges. It is a project of the Association of Bay Area Governments and the Metropolitan Transportation Commission; the Bay Trail is a collaboration between elected officials, government agencies, private companies, non-profit organizations, advocacy groups and the public to increase access to the edge of the bay. It provides recreational opportunities for bicyclists; the Bay Trail provides access to points of historic and cultural interest, to numerous recreational areas, including over 130 parks. The Bay Trail consists of gravel trails, bike lanes or sidewalks; the Bay Trail is an interconnected trail system that links parks, open spaces, points of interest, communities on or near the bay shoreline.
It will not only encircle the Bay but will provide access inland to open spaces and preserves and the Bay Area Ridge Trail, which forms the second of two concentric rings around the bay. Sections of the Bay Trail exist in all nine Bay Area counties; the longest continuous segments include 26 miles on gravel levees between East Palo Alto and San Jose in Santa Clara County. The northernmost trail section passes through San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Bicycle and pedestrian pathways exist on five Bay Area toll bridges: Golden Gate Bridge, Carquinez Bridge, Benicia-Martinez Bridge, Dumbarton Bridge and the East Span of the Bay Bridge. A bicycle-pedestrian pathway will open on the upper deck of the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge in April 2019; the idea for the Bay Trail was launched in the Fall of 1986, when Senator Bill Lockyer of Hayward was having lunch with a local editor in a waterfront restaurant. The end-of-session legislative frenzy was over, Senator Lockyer was in a reflective mood. “Let me try this idea out on you,” he said to his companion.
“What if we tried to develop a pedestrian and bicycle path around the bay, with access to the shoreline?” His luncheon partner urged the senator to pursue it. The outcome was Senate Bill 100. Coauthored by all Bay Area legislators, the bill passed, it defined parameters of the planning process, designated the Association of Bay Area Governments as the lead agency, provided $300,000 for the preparation of a Bay Trail Plan by July 1, 1989. The Bay Trail Plan, adopted by ABAG, shows a network of trails that meander and loop along the shore, connecting all nine surrounding counties and crossing the region’s toll bridges; the San Francisco Bay Shoreline Guide was revised in 2012. It provides information about the natural and cultural history of San Francisco Bay and includes maps for 325 miles of the shoreline Bay Trail open to the public. Published by University of California Press for the California Coastal Conservancy; the San Francisco Bay Trail maps were released in May 2013 and updated in mid 2017.
The box set of 25 cards and a large fold-out map provide detailed information about the trail and points of interest along its route. Production of the maps was funded in part by the California Coastal Conservancy; the San Francisco Bay Trail Plan: A Recreational Ring Around San Francisco Bay was published in 1989 by the Association of Bay Area Governments. The plan includes the trail alignment, project goals and implementation strategies for the Bay Trail. Bay Area Ridge Trail San Francisco Bay Area Water Trail, a proposal to create a safely navigable water "trail" for nonmotorized beachable watercraft, circumnavigating the bay. San Francisco Bay Trail San Francisco Bay Area Water Trail Walking San Francisco Bay The San Francisco Bay Trail: It's Closer Than You Think