The Kentucky Derby is a horse race, held annually in Louisville, United States, on the first Saturday in May, capping the two-week-long Kentucky Derby Festival. The race is a Grade I stakes race for three-year-old Thoroughbreds at a distance of one and a quarter miles at Churchill Downs. Colts and geldings fillies 121 pounds; the race is called "The Run for the Roses" on account of the blanket of roses draped over the winner. It is known in the United States as "The Most Exciting Two Minutes In Sports" or "The Fastest Two Minutes in Sports" in reference to its approximate duration, it is the first leg of the American Triple Crown and is followed by the Preakness Stakes the Belmont Stakes. Unlike the Preakness and Belmont Stakes, which took hiatuses in 1891–1893 and 1911–1912 the Kentucky Derby has been run every consecutive year since 1875; the Derby and Belmont all were run every year throughout the Great Depression and both World Wars. A horse must win all three races to win the Triple Crown.
In the 2015 listing of the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities, the Kentucky Derby tied with the Whitney Handicap as the top Grade 1 race in the United States outside the Breeders' Cup races. The attendance at the Kentucky Derby ranks first in North America and surpasses the attendance of all other stakes races including the Preakness Stakes, Belmont Stakes, the Breeders' Cup. In 1872, Col. Meriwether Lewis Clark, Jr. grandson of William Clark of the Lewis and Clark expedition, traveled to England, visiting Epsom in Surrey where The Derby had been running annually since 1780. From there, Clark went on to Paris, where in 1863, a group of racing enthusiasts had formed the French Jockey Club and had organized the Grand Prix de Paris at Longchamp, which at the time was the greatest race in France. Returning home to Kentucky, Clark organized the Louisville Jockey Club for the purpose of raising money to build quality racing facilities just outside the city; the track would soon become known as Churchill Downs, named for John and Henry Churchill, who provided the land for the racetrack.
The racetrack was incorporated as Churchill Downs in 1937. The Kentucky Derby was first run at 1 1/2 miles the same distance as the Epsom Derby; the distance was changed in 1896 to its current 1 1/4 miles. On May 17, 1875, in front of an estimated crowd of 10,000 people, a field of 15 three-year-old horses contested the first Derby. Under jockey Oliver Lewis, a colt named Aristides, trained by future Hall of Famer Ansel Williamson, won the inaugural Derby; that year, Lewis rode Aristides to a second-place finish in the Belmont Stakes. Although the first race meeting proved a success, the track ran into financial difficulties and in 1894 the New Louisville Jockey Club was incorporated with new capitalization and improved facilities. Despite this, the business floundered until 1902 when Col. Matt Winn of Louisville put together a syndicate of businessmen to acquire the facility. Under Winn, Churchill Downs prospered and the Kentucky Derby became the preeminent stakes race for three-year-old thoroughbred horses in North America.
Thoroughbred owners began sending their successful Derby horses to compete in the Preakness Stakes at the Pimlico Race Course, in Baltimore, followed by the Belmont Stakes in Elmont, New York. The three races offered large purses and in 1919 Sir Barton became the first horse to win all three races. However, the term Triple Crown didn't come into use for another eleven years. In 1930, when Gallant Fox became the second horse to win all three races, sportswriter Charles Hatton brought the phrase into American usage. Fueled by the media, public interest in the possibility of a "superhorse" that could win the Triple Crown began in the weeks leading up to the Derby. Two years after the term was coined, the race, run in mid-May since inception, was changed to the first Saturday in May to allow for a specific schedule for the Triple Crown races. Since 1931, the order of Triple Crown races has been the Kentucky Derby first, followed by the Preakness Stakes and the Belmont Stakes. Prior to 1931, eleven times the Preakness was run before the Derby.
On May 12, 1917 and again on May 13, 1922, the Preakness and the Derby were run on the same day. On eleven occasions the Belmont Stakes was run before the Preakness Stakes. On May 16, 1925, the first live radio broadcast of the Kentucky Derby was originated by WHAS and was carried by WGN in Chicago. On May 7, 1949, the first television coverage of the Kentucky Derby took place, produced by WAVE-TV, the NBC affiliate in Louisville; this coverage was aired live in the Louisville market and sent to NBC as a kinescope newsreel recording for national broadcast. On May 3, 1952, the first national television coverage of the Kentucky Derby took place, aired from then-CBS affiliate WHAS-TV. In 1954, the purse exceeded $100,000 for the first time. In 1968, Dancer's Image became the first horse to win the race and be disqualified after traces of phenylbutazone, an analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug, were found in the horse's urinalysis. Forward Pass thus became the eighth winner for Calumet Farm. Unexpectedly, the regulations at Kentucky thoroughbred race tracks were changed some years allowing horses to run on phenylbutazone.
In 1970, Diane Crump became the first female jockey to ride in the Derby, finishing 15th aboard Fathom. The fastest time run in the Derby was set in 1973 at 1
Silky Sullivan was an American thoroughbred race horse best known for his come-from-behind racing style. His name is now a term used in sports and politics for someone who seems so far behind the competition that they cannot win, yet they do. There were other great closers—Whirlaway, Needles, Gallant Man, Carry Back, Forego and Alydar—but none could hang so far back, let the field get so far ahead, still win. Called the "California Comet" and ridden by Hall of Fame jockey Willie Shoemaker, Silky Sullivan once fell 41 lengths behind the field yet still won by three lengths, running the last quarter in 22 seconds, his trainer, West Coast veteran Reggie Cornell, said "I've never seen a horse in my life, or heard of one either, go faster." Cornell trained her husband, bandleader Harry James. He was the mentor of Hall-of-Famer Ron McAnally, who trained John Henry. Willie Shoemaker once said of Silky Sullivan, "You can't do a thing with him, you just have to allow him to run his own race, at his own speed, in his own style in the first quarter or maybe the first three eighths.
And you just sit there and wait, hoping you won't have to wait too long, because when he gets going you have to be alert or he might just leave you behind—and you hold on for dear life". Of his 27 career starts, he was in the money 18 times with 12 wins, 1 place, 5 shows, his career earnings were $157,700. Bred by Pasadena, dentist Riley H. Roberts and his wife, Nell Frances Roberts, Silky Sullivan was foaled on February 28, 1955; the colt was chestnut, with a front left white pastern. His English-bred sire, won his first start as a two-year-old and placed in his other three, including the Leopardstown Produce Stakes, before he was brought to the United States, where he won five of eight starts and finished third in the other three, including the Will Rogers Stakes, he was a respected California sire during the 1950s. Besides Silky Sullivan, Sullivan produced Mr. Sullivan, Lucky G. L. and Sully’s Trial. Silky Sullivan's dam, Lady N Silk, a non-winner of four starts, was rescued from Santa Anita Park in 1951 by Dr. Roberts before she could be destroyed due to a T-shaped crack in her left forefoot and had Fair Play blood three generations back in her pedigree.
Fair Play was the sire of Man o' War, ranked #1 in Blood-Horse magazine's top 100 U. S. thoroughbred champions of the 20th Century. Her chart shows the European sire Phalaris as the great-great-grandsire of Silky Sullivan. Lady N Silk had two foals before Silky Sullivan: the stakes-placed Doc Upton and Lady Selene, a winner. Silky Sullivan was sent to Three Rings Ranch in Beaumont, California to be conditioned for the yearling sales. Jack Lynaugh, in charge of the younger horses, called him "John L." after John L. Sullivan. Lynaugh said that Silky "...was all the personality he had, more than any horse I've handled, I've handled thousands since starting in this business in 1932. I've always been crazy about him; when the other yearlings were let out of the paddock, Silky would wait until they were half way across the 28-acre pasture take out after them. He always wound up on top, just like his races." Sold at the 1956 California Thoroughbred Breeders Association's Del Mar yearling sales to Phil Klipstein and Tom Ross for $10,700, the colt was sent to Devonshire Downs in San Fernando to train under Reggie Cornell.
Silky Sullivan's first race was a 5 furlong dash for maidens at Hollywood Park Racetrack on May 17, 1957. Cornell said, "He came out of the gate in a trance and a truss and I said, here's one for the glue factory. All of a sudden, it was like he was stung by a bee; until he made that big move, I thought I'd be looking for a job." His jockey, George Taniguchi, said, "He broke with the field and it was as if he was sucked back, I thought oh, my God, what's he doing? He was 10 or 20 lengths behind the other horses. I let him go like that until the three-eighths pole and gave him a tap on the shoulder, he changed gears. I never thought we'd catch up, we were so far back, but I never rode anything like that before. We were flying." In his debut, Silky Sullivan was 8th in a field of 12 and about 8 lengths back, when he came on to win by a nose. On December 7, 1957, he won the one-mile $25,000 Golden Gate Futurity after making up 27 lengths, his jockey, Hall of Famer Manuel Ycaza, said "When I asked him to run, he answered and ran like a machine, like a rocket.
You felt. It takes a helluva lot of running. You have to be greased lightning." Silky Sullivan began his three-year-old season in a mile race on January 30, 1958. In that race, two horses had been dueling for the lead: Circle Lea, ridden by Ray York, The Shoe, ridden by Willie Shoemaker; when the tote board flashed a photo finish, York was sure. "I beat you this time, Willie," said York. "Yeah," agreed Shoemaker, "but you didn't beat that sucker on the outside." Silky Sullivan had beaten them both by a neck. He came from 32 lengths behind to lose by a neck to Old Pueblo in the $67,360 California Breeders' Champion Stakes. Eddie Arcaro said, "He's just a running fool
Seabiscuit was a champion thoroughbred racehorse in the United States who became the top money winning racehorse up to the 1940s, as noted in films and books. He beat the 1937 Triple-Crown winner, War Admiral, by 4 lengths in a 2-horse special at Pimlico, was voted American Horse of the Year for 1938. A small horse, Seabiscuit had an inauspicious start to his racing career, winning only a fourth of his first 40 races, but became an unlikely champion and a symbol of hope to many Americans during the Great Depression. Seabiscuit has been the subject of numerous books and films, including Seabiscuit: the Lost Documentary. Seabiscuit was foaled in Lexington, Kentucky, on May 23, 1933, from the mare Swing On and sire Hard Tack, a son of Man o' War. Seabiscuit was named for his father, as hardtack or "sea biscuit" is the name for a type of cracker eaten by sailors; the bay colt grew up on Claiborne Farm in Paris, where he was trained. He was undersized, knobby-kneed, given to sleeping and eating for long periods.
Seabiscuit was owned by the powerful Wheatley Stable and trained by "Sunny Jim" Fitzsimmons, who had taken Gallant Fox to the United States Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing. Fitzsimmons felt the horse was too lazy. Fitzsimmons devoted most of his time to training Omaha. Seabiscuit was relegated to a heavy schedule of smaller races, he failed to win his first 17 races finishing back in the field. After that, Fitzsimmons did not spend much time on him, the horse was sometimes the butt of stable jokes. Seabiscuit began to gain attention after winning two races at Narragansett Park and setting a new track record in the second - a Claiming Stakes race; as a two-year-old, Seabiscuit raced 35 times, coming in first five times and finishing second seven times. These included three claiming races, in which he could have been purchased for $2,500, but he had no takers. While Seabiscuit had not lived up to his racing potential, he was not the poor performer Fitzsimmons had taken him for, his last two wins as a two-year-old came in minor stakes races.
The next season, started with a similar pattern. The colt ran 12 times in less than four months. One of those races was a cheap allowance race on the "sweltering afternoon of June 29," 1936, at Suffolk Downs; that was. His owners sold the horse to automobile entrepreneur Charles S. Howard for $8,000 at Saratoga, in August. Howard assigned Seabiscuit to a new trainer, Tom Smith, with his unorthodox training methods brought Seabiscuit out of his lethargy. Smith paired the horse with Canadian jockey Red Pollard, who had experience racing in the West and in Mexico. On August 22, 1936, they raced Seabiscuit for the first time. Improvements came and in their remaining eight races in the East and Pollard won several times, including the Detroit Governor's Handicap and the Scarsdale Handicap at Empire City Race Track in Yonkers, New York. In early November 1936, Howard and Smith shipped the horse to California by rail, his last two races of the year were at Bay Meadows racetrack in California. The first was the $2,700 Bay Bridge Handicap, run over one-mile.
Despite starting badly and carrying the top weight of 116 pounds, Seabiscuit won by five lengths. At the World's Fair Handicap, Seabiscuit led throughout. In 1937, the Santa Anita Handicap, California's most prestigious race, was worth over $125,000 to the winner. In his first warm-up race at Santa Anita Park, Seabiscuit won easily. In his second race of 1937, the San Antonio Handicap, he suffered a setback after he was bumped at the start and pushed wide; the two met again in the Santa Anita Handicap a week where Rosemont won by a nose. The defeat was devastating to Smith and Howard, was attributed in the press to a jockey error. Pollard, who had not seen Rosemont over his shoulder until too late, was blind in one eye due to an accident during a training ride, a fact he had hidden throughout his career. Seabiscuit was becoming a favorite among California racing fans, his fame spread as he won his next three races. With his successes, Howard decided to ship the horse east for its more prestigious racing circuit.
Seabiscuit's run of victories continued. Between June 26 and August 7, he ran five times, each time in a stakes race, each time he won under increasing handicap weights of up to 130 pounds. On September 11, Smith accepted an impost of 132 pounds for the Narragansett Special at Narragansett Park. On race day, the ground was slow and heavy, unsuited to "the Biscuit", carrying the heaviest burden of his career. Smith wanted to scratch. Never in the running, Seabiscuit finished third, his winning streak was snapped. In 1937, Seabiscuit won 11 of his 15 races and was the year's leading money winner in the United States. War Admiral, having won the Triple Crown that season, was voted the most prestigious honor, the American Horse of the Year Award. In 1938, as a five-year-old, Seabiscuit's success continued
California State Fair
The California State Fair is the annual state fair for the state of California. The fair is held at Cal Expo in California. According to an editorial in the Daily Alta on November 5, 1850, fairs were common on the east coast of the United States, they believed. In 1851 the same editorial staff attended the "Exhibit of California Curiosities" and found it to only be a small sample of the resources of California. In 1854 the California State Legislature created the State Agricultural Society and an exhibit of the state's fruits, flowers and livestock, was scheduled for the first time. $5000 worth of premiums were offered for the best of the show. The First California State Fair was held, beginning on October 4, 1854, it was held in San Francisco at the Music Hall on Bush Street, close to Montgomery Street, with the stock being shown at Mission Dolores. At this time the fair was held in a different city each year with Sacramento hosting the following year, in 1855, it moved to San Jose in 1856, Stockton in 1857 and Marysville in 1858.
An exhibit hall was built at Sixth and M Streets in Sacramento for the fair to return in both 1859 and 1860 and finally given official, permanent residence there. Farmers and people from all over the state came to Sacramento after the fair's permanent move to the city, they came to see the farm machinery and all enjoy the fair entertainment as well as compete for cash premiums for best of show. In 1968, the State Fair moved to its current location in the center of the City of Sacramento to the California Exposition at 1600 Exposition Boulevard. In addition to the State Fair, Cal Expo plays host to hundreds of other signature events each year. Featuring 350 beautifully landscaped acres, Cal Expo was initiated by Governor Pat Brown and opened by Governor Ronald Reagan; the current Cal Expo facilities were dedicated as a place to celebrate California’s achievements, diversity of its people and trends that will shape the Golden State’s future. The 2018 fair runs from July 13 to July 29. Rides and Games are operated by Butler Amusements.
Butler Amusements' first year at the state fair was in 2009, while all other years before the rides and games operator were RCS Amusements. There is a permanent monorail system at the fairgrounds; the storage facility for the monorail trams are located in the northwest corner of the grounds. There are four different trams, they are only used during the state fair. Media related to California State Fair at Wikimedia Commons
Hillsdale station (Caltrain)
Hillsdale is one of three Caltrain stations in San Mateo, California. The station is close to the Hillsdale Shopping Center. Caltrain ticket machines Market Hillsdale Station is well-connected by several Samtrans bus routes and one AC Transit Transbay Route, making it a hub for services to Foster City and San Mateo, with some routes extending north to San Francisco, south to Palo Alto Caltrain, east to Hayward BART, west to Half Moon Bay and Pacifica; this station has bus service to and from San Francisco International Airport. Hillsdale Station is served by Samtrans' All Nighter Route 397, an all-night bus service connecting San Francisco, South San Francisco, San Francisco International Airport, the El Camino Real corridor between Millbrae and Palo Alto Caltrain via East Palo Alto. Hillsdale Station is served by shuttle routes operated by Caltrain and Commute.org. Until December 20, 2005, the former Bay Meadows Racetrack had the now-closed Bay Meadows stop, less than a half-mile north of Hillsdale.
There was no building, just an opening in the chain link fencing where riders could access the grandstand parking lot. When Hillsdale was renovated, the platform was extended a few hundred feet to the north, eliminating the need for the separate station. Hillsdale is now the closest station to the former racetrack area; the City of San Mateo applied for Measure A funds to help fund a grade separation project in 2013. The proposed 25th Avenue Grade Separation Project will elevate tracks in southern San Mateo, eliminating the at-grade crossing at 25th Avenue and adding grade-separated crossings at 28th and 31st Avenues, which are interrupted by Peninsula Corridor tracks. Tracks will rise at the maximum allowable grade, starting from where they emerge south of the State Route 92 overcrossing, to minimize the depression of 25th Avenue to maintain vertical clearance for road vehicles under the new rail bridge; the grade separation is designed to accommodate a potential mid-line overtake required for Caltrain/HSR blended operations, which would expand the Peninsula Corridor right-of-way to up to four tracks.
PCJPB awarded an $82.9 million contract to the Shimmick/Disney Joint Venture in July 2017. As part of the grade separation project, Hillsdale Station will be relocated to 28th Avenue, closer to the transit-oriented development at Bay Meadows. Preliminary renderings show the new Hillsdale station will be an island platform extending south from 28th, with parking provided east of the tracks. Construction for the entire project was expected to start in fall 2017 and complete by early 2020, with the existing Hillsdale station planned to close by early 2019, a maximum of five months elapsed between closing the existing station and opening the new station. A ceremonial groundbreaking for the project was held on September 26, 2017; the existing parking lot at Hillsdale will be closed starting in 2018, a temporary lot, accessible from 28th, 31st, Delaware, will serve Hillsdale. After construction of the new Hillsdale station is complete, the temporary lot will be upgraded and serve as the new permanent lot.
Media related to Hillsdale station at Wikimedia Commons Caltrain Hillsdale station page "Rail Corridor Transit-Oriented Development Plan". City of San Mateo. 2005. Retrieved 10 May 2017
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
A photo finish occurs in a sporting race when multiple competitors cross the finishing line at nearly the same time. As the naked eye may not be able to discriminate between which of the competitors crossed the line first, a photo or video taken at the finish line may be used for a more accurate check. Photo finishes make it less that officials will declare a race a dead heat. Finish line photos are still used in nearly every modern racing sport. Although some sports use electronic equipment to track the racers during a race, a photo is considered the most important evidence in selecting the winner, they are important during close races, but they are used to assign official times to each competitor during any race. Photo-finish cameras were developed during the 1940s and 1950s as a means of regulating the racing industry and to reduce cheating. Betting on races became popular during the middle decades of the twentieth century. Authorities were therefore concerned to improve the probity of racing, regarded as corrupt.
Photo-finish cameras use strip photography, in which a camera is aimed at the finish line from an elevated position in a tower. It captures only the sequence of events on that line in the vertical dimension; every part of each racer's body is shown. The horizontal position represents time, time markings along the bottom of the photo can be used to find the exact crossing time of any racer; the high angle allows judges to see the position of every racer in relation to the others. In a conventional photograph, the image shows a variety of locations at a fixed moment in time; the final image shows a solid white background, a continuous scan of the painted finish line. Racers heads as they cross the line. Single-exposure photo-finish images were made by a camera, positioned at the finish line and applied to horse racing; the camera’s shutter which captured 136 images each second was triggered as a horse broke a thin thread on the race track. All too the single-exposure photo-finish camera failed to capture the decisive, first-place finish-line moment.
These cameras only were used for first-place finishes, provided no help in determining any of the other race placings. The oldest single-exposure race-track photo-finish images discovered so far were made by John Charles Hemment in 1890. In the United States motion picture cameras had been used since the 1920s for recording race-meets but were unsuitable for photo-finish photography as the frame rate was too infrequent to catch the critical instant horses or dogs reached the finish line; this record was achieved by using a special slit camera. Lorenzo Del Riccio, a Paramount Pictures motion picture engineer improved the circular flow camera, a device, invented in the 1930s for the purpose of photographing moving objects; the first racing club to make use of Del Riccio's'Photo-Chart' camera for photo-finishes was the Del Mar Turf Club in California at its inaugural meeting in 1937. Unlike conventional cameras the circular flow camera used a single vertical slit instead of a shutter; this limited the field of vision to no more than a few inches, the restricted field being aligned with the vertical line on the winning post on which the lens was focused.
The strip film moved across the slit in the opposite direction to the race and at the same speed as the rate of movement of the image of the horses as each passed the finishing line. This kept the image of the horses less stationary with respect to the film; as soon as the first horse started to pass over the line, the camera began to record its image on the moving film from the nose backwards, progressively along the length of the body, with the arrival of every horse at the finishing post in succession. This produced a strip photographic record of the horses. Film was advanced continuously at a pace equivalent to the average speed of a racing horse, resulting in distortions of length, but still preserving the order of finishers. Improvements were developed, including that made in 1948 by Australian Bertram Pearl whose system incorporated a mirror and neon-pulse time signature in the winning-post which would provide a aligned image in which both sides of the horses could be viewed, on which the neon left a set of stripes at 100th/sec intervals for accurate timing.
If the reflected image of the horses aligned vertically with the foreground image, it was proof that the camera was not viewing the finish line at an angle. Pearl's partner was society portraitist Athol Shmith. Shmith's contribution was to formulate means to speed the processing of the strip of negative down to 55 seconds and to a rapid 35 seconds; these times rivalled the instant one-minute picture processing by Edwin Land's Model 95 Polaroid camera which became available at that time. Digital cameras use a 1-dimensional array sensor to take 1-pixel-wide sequential images of the finish line. Since only a single line of the CCD is read out at a time, the frame rates can be high. Unlike a film