Memory of Azov (Fabergé egg)
The Memory of Azov is a jewelled Easter egg made under the supervision of the Russian jeweller Peter Carl Fabergé in 1891 for Tsar Alexander III of Russia. It was presented by Alexander III as an Easter gift to the Tsarina Maria Feodorovna, it is held in the Kremlin Armoury Museum in Moscow. Carved from a solid piece of heliotrope jasper known as bloodstone, the Memory of Azov Egg is decorated in the Louis XV style with a superimposed gold pattern of rococo scrolls with brilliant diamonds and chased gold flowers; the broad flute gold bezel is set with two diamonds that complete the clasp. The egg's interior is lined with green velvet; the surprise contained within is a miniature replica of the Imperial Russian Navy cruiser Pamiat Azova, executed in red and yellow gold and platinum with small diamonds for windows, set on a piece of aquamarine representing the water. The name "Azov" appears on the ship's stern; the plate has a golden frame with a loop enabling the model to be removed from the egg.
The egg commemorates the voyage made by Tsarevitch Nicholas and Grand Duke George of Russia aboard the Pamiat Azova to the Far East in 1890. The trip was made after a suggestion by their parents to broaden the outlook of the future Tsar and his brother. At the time, Grand Duke George was suffering from tuberculosis, the voyage only exacerbated it. Tsarevitch Nicholas was the victim of an attempted assassination whilst in Japan and sustained a serious head wound. Although the Tsarina was presented with the egg before these events occurred, it was never one of her favourite eggs. Fabergé egg Egg decorating Faber, Toby. Faberge's Eggs: The Extraordinary Story of the Masterpieces That Outlived an Empire. Random House ISBN 1-4000-6550-X Forbes and Johann Georg Prinz von Hohenzollern. FABERGE. Prestel. ASIN B000YA9GOM Lowes, Will. Fabergé Eggs: A Retrospective Encyclopedia. Scarecrow Press ISBN 0-8108-3946-6 Snowman, A Kenneth. Carl Faberge: Goldsmith to the Imperial Court of Russia. Gramercy ISBN 0-517-40502-4 Description at wintraecken.nl 55°44′58.25″N 37°36′47.90″E
Diamond Trellis (Fabergé egg)
The Diamond Trellis egg is a jewelled enameled Easter egg made by August Holmström under the supervision of the Russian jeweller Peter Carl Fabergé in 1892. It is one of the Imperial Fabergé eggs, made for Alexander III of Russia, who presented it to his wife, the Empress Maria Feodorovna; the egg is owned by an American couple and Dorothy McFerrin, is on display at the Houston Museum of Natural Science. The egg cost 4,750 silver roubles, contained an automaton of an ivory elephant covered with precious stones; the surprise, thought missing for many years, has now been found in the collection of the British Royal Family. The egg is made of jadeite, rose-cut diamonds, is lined with white satin, it is carved from pale green jadeite and is enclosed in a lattice of rose-cut diamonds with gold mounts. The egg is hinged, a large diamond sits at its base, it was supported on a base of three silver putti said to represent the three sons of the imperial couple, the Grand Dukes Nicholas and Michael. The putti were set on a jadeite base, now lost.
The surprise was an automaton of an elephant in ivory. It was the first automaton made by Fabergé for an Imperial egg, his next automaton was made in 1900 for the Pine Cone egg presented to Barbara Kelch; the surprise was described in detail. A small key wound the ivory elephant which had a small gold tower on its back decorated with rose-cut diamonds; the sides of the elephant were decorated with five precious stones. The tusks and harness were decorated with small diamonds, a black mahout sat on its head; the elephant had special significance the design resembles the badge of the highest order in Denmark, Empress Maria Feodorovna's homeland. It was sold by the Soviets at the same time as its egg, may have been resold by Wartski, it was recorded as missing, but had been purchased by George V and was residing in a cabinet in Buckingham Palace, where in 2015 it was identified as Fabergé and the lost surprise by Royal Collection Trust senior curator Caroline de Guitaut. The surprise and the egg were placed on display together for the first time at the Houston Museum of Natural Sciences in 2017 since the identification of the surprise where the surprise was loaned by the Royal Collection for a year.
The egg was presented to the Empress Maria Feodorovna by her husband, Alexander III of Russia on 5 April 1892, was subsequently held at the Gatchina Palace. It was one of 40 eggs sent to the Kremlin Armoury by the Russian Provisional Government for safekeeping in September 1917, it was transferred to the Council of People's Commissars in 1922, around 1927 was sold by the Antikvariat to Michel Norman of the Australian Pearl Company. Subsequently purchased by Emanuel Snowman of the London jewellers, Wartski, it was bought from Wartski by a Mr. T. B. Kitson in October 1929. Following Kitson's death it was auctioned by Sotheby's in December 1962 for £2,400, bought by a buyer's agent, named Drager; the egg was subsequently owned by a private collection in the United Kingdom from 1962 to 1977, was held by a private collection in London in 1983. The Diamond Trellis egg is owned by Artie McFerrin, a successful businessman in the Houston chemical and petroleum industry, who with his wife, has collected one of the largest private collections of Fabergé objet d'art in the United States.
As well as the Diamond Trellis egg, the McFerrins own Fabergé eggs made for the Russian nobleman Alexander Kelch, the Swedish-Russian oil baron Emanuel Nobel. The Diamond Trellis egg was exhibited at London's Victoria and Albert Museum in 1977, the Museum of Applied Arts in Helsinki in 1980, New York's Cooper-Hewitt Museum in 1983 and the Swedish Nationalmuseum in Stockholm in 1997. Fabergé egg Egg decorating Elephant Automaton. "Fabergé". Royal Collection Trust. Inventory no. 9268
Russian Provisional Government
The Russian Provisional Government was a provisional government of Russia established following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire on 2 March 1917. The intention of the provisional government was the organization of elections to the Russian Constituent Assembly and its convention; the provisional government lasted eight months, ceased to exist when the Bolsheviks gained power after the October Revolution in October 1917. According to Harold Whitmore Williams the history of eight months during which Russia was ruled by the Provisional Government was the history of the steady and systematic disorganisation of the army. For most of the life of the Provisional Government, the status of the monarchy was unresolved; this was clarified on 1 September, when the Russian Republic was proclaimed, in a decree signed by Kerensky as Minister-President and Zarudny as Minister of Justice. The Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd in 1917 by the Provisional Committee of the State Duma.
The State Duma was the more representative chamber out of the two in the Russian parliament established after the Revolution of 1905, was led first in the new post-Czarist era by Prince Georgy Lvov and by Alexander Kerensky. It replaced the Imperial institution of the Council of Ministers of Russia, members of which after the February Revolution presided in the Chief Office of Admiralty. At the same time, the last ruling Russian Emperor Nicholas II abdicated in February 1917 in favor of his youngest brother, the Grand Duke Michael who agreed that he would accept after the decision of Russian Constituent Assembly; the Provisional Government was unable to make decisive policy decisions due to political factionalism and a breakdown of state structures. This weakness left the government open to strong challenges from the left; the Provisional Government's chief adversary on the left was the Petrograd Soviet, a Communist committee taking over and ruling Russia's most important port city, which tentatively cooperated with the government at first, but gradually gained control of the Imperial Army, local factories, the Russian Railway.
The period of competition for authority ended in late October 1917, when Bolsheviks routed the ministers of the Provisional Government in the events known as the "October Revolution", placed power in the hands of the soviets, or "workers' councils," which had given their support to the Bolsheviks led by Vladmir Lenin and Leon Trotsky. The weakness of the Provisional Government is best reflected in the derisive nickname given to Kerensky: "persuader-in-chief." The authority of the Tsar's government began disintegrating on 1 November 1916, when Milyukov attacked the Boris Stürmer government in the Duma. Stürmer was succeeded by Alexander Trepov and Nikolai Golitsyn, both Prime Ministers for only a few weeks. During the February Revolution two rival institutions, the imperial State Duma and the Petrograd Soviet, both located in the Tauride Palace, competed for power. Tsar Nicholas II abdicated on 2 March, Milyukov announced the committee's decision to offer the Regency to his brother, Grand Duke Michael, as the next tsar.
Grand Duke Michael did not want to take the poisoned chalice and deferred acceptance of imperial power the next day. The Provisional Government was designed to set up elections to the Assembly while maintaining essential government services, but its power was limited by the Petrograd Soviet's growing authority. Public announcement of the formation of the Provisional Government was made, it was published in Izvestia the day after its formation. The announcement stated the declaration of government Full and immediate amnesty on all issues political and religious, including: terrorist acts, military uprisings, agrarian crimes etc. Freedom of word, unions and strikes with spread of political freedoms to military servicemen within the restrictions allowed by military-technical conditions. Abolition of all hereditary and national class restrictions. Immediate preparations for the convocation on basis of universal, equal and direct vote for the Constituent Assembly which will determine the form of government and the constitution.
Replacement of the police with a public militsiya and its elected chairmanship subordinated to the local authorities. Elections to the authorities of local self-government on basis of universal, direct and secret vote. Non-disarmament and non-withdrawal out of Petrograd the military units participating in the revolution movement. Under preservation of strict discipline in ranks and performing a military service - elimination of all restrictions for soldiers in the use of public rights granted to all other citizens, it said, "The provisional government feels obliged to add that it is not intended to take advantage of military circumstances for any delay in implementing the above reforms and measures." Initial composition of the Provisional Government: On 18 April 1917 minister of Foreign Affairs Pavel Milyukov sent a note to the Allied governments, promising to continue the war to'its glorious conclusion'. On 20–21 April 1917 massive demonstrations of workers and soldiers erupted against the continuation of war.
Demonstrations demanded resignation of Milyukov. They were soon met by the counter-demonstrations organised in his support. General Lavr Kornilov, commander of the Petrograd military district, wished to suppress the disorders, but premier Georgy Lvov refused to resort to violence; the Provisional Government accepte
A pearl is a hard glistening object produced within the soft tissue of a living shelled mollusk or another animal, such as a conulariid. Just like the shell of a mollusk, a pearl is composed of calcium carbonate in minute crystalline form, deposited in concentric layers; the ideal pearl is round and smooth, but many other shapes, known as baroque pearls, can occur. The finest quality natural pearls have been valued as gemstones and objects of beauty for many centuries; because of this, pearl has become a metaphor for something rare, fine and valuable. The most valuable pearls occur spontaneously in the wild, but are rare; these wild pearls are referred to as natural pearls. Cultured or farmed pearls from pearl oysters and freshwater mussels make up the majority of those sold. Imitation pearls are widely sold in inexpensive jewelry, but the quality of their iridescence is very poor and is distinguished from that of genuine pearls. Pearls have been harvested and cultivated for use in jewelry, but in the past were used to adorn clothing.
They have been crushed and used in cosmetics and paint formulations. Whether wild or cultured, gem-quality pearls are always nacreous and iridescent, like the interior of the shell that produces them; however all species of shelled mollusks are capable of producing pearls of lesser shine or less spherical shape. Although these may be legitimately referred to as "pearls" by gemological labs and under U. S. Federal Trade Commission rules, are formed in the same way, most of them have no value except as curiosities; the English word pearl comes from the French perle from the Latin perna meaning leg, after the ham- or mutton leg-shaped bivalve. All shelled mollusks can, by natural processes, produce some kind of "pearl" when an irritating microscopic object becomes trapped within its mantle folds, but the great majority of these "pearls" are not valued as gemstones. Nacreous pearls, the best-known and most commercially significant, are produced by two groups of molluskan bivalves or clams. A nacreous pearl is made from layers of nacre, by the same living process as is used in the secretion of the mother of pearl which lines the shell.
Natural pearls, formed without human intervention, are rare. Many hundreds of pearl oysters or mussels must be gathered and opened, thus killed, to find one wild pearl. Cultured pearls are formed in pearl farms. One family of nacreous pearl bivalves – the pearl oyster – lives in the sea, while the other – a different group of bivalves – lives in freshwater. Saltwater pearls can grow in several species of marine pearl oysters in the family Pteriidae. Freshwater pearls grow within certain species of freshwater mussels in the order Unionida, the families Unionidae and Margaritiferidae; the unique luster of pearls depends upon the reflection and diffraction of light from the translucent layers. The thinner and more numerous the layers in the pearl, the finer the luster; the iridescence that pearls display is caused by the overlapping of successive layers, which breaks up light falling on the surface. In addition, pearls can be dyed yellow, blue, pink, purple, or black; the best pearls have a metallic mirror-like luster.
Because pearls are made of calcium carbonate, they can be dissolved in vinegar. Calcium carbonate is susceptible to a weak acid solution because the crystals react with the acetic acid in the vinegar to form calcium acetate and carbon dioxide. Freshwater and saltwater pearls may sometimes look quite similar, but they come from different sources. Freshwater pearls form in various species of freshwater mussels, family Unionidae, which live in lakes, rivers and other bodies of fresh water; these freshwater pearl mussels occur not only in hotter climates, but in colder more temperate areas such as Scotland. Most freshwater cultured pearls sold. Saltwater pearls grow within family Pteriidae, which live in oceans. Saltwater pearl oysters are cultivated in protected lagoons or volcanic atolls. Pearls are formed inside the shell of certain mollusks as a defense mechanism against a threatening irritant such as a parasite inside the shell, or an attack from outside that injures the mantle tissue; the mollusk creates a pearl sac to seal off the irritation.
Pearls are thus the result of an immune response analogous in the human body to the capture of an antigen by a phagocyte. The mollusk's mantle deposits layers of calcium carbonate in the form of the mineral aragonite or a mixture of aragonite and calcite held together by an organic horn-like compound called conchiolin; the combination of aragonite and conchiolin is called nacre. The held belief that a grain of sand acts as the irritant is in fact the case. Typical stimuli include organic material, parasites, or damage that displaces mantle tissue to another part of the mollusk's body; these small particles or organisms gain entry when the shell valves are open for feeding or respiration. In cultured pearls, the irritant is an introduc
Fabergé Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia
The Fabergé Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia, is a owned museum, established by Viktor Vekselberg and his Link of Times foundation in order to repatriate lost cultural valuables to Russia. The museum is located in the center of Saint Petersburg at Shuvalov Palace on the Fontanka River; the museum's collection contains more than 4,000 works of decorative applied and fine arts, including gold and silver items, paintings and bronze. A highlight of the museum's collection is the group of nine Imperial Easter eggs created by Fabergé for the last two Russian Tsars; the idea of creating a special museum devoted to the creative work of the great Russian jeweler Peter Carl Fabergé came to the Link of Times foundation after the purchase by Vekselberg in 2004 of a unique collection of Fabergé masterpieces, owned by the late Malcolm Forbes. Since the Link of Times foundation began building a collection of Russian decorative applied and fine arts, which contains more than 4,000 works. All of the Imperial Easter eggs in the museum's collection are connected to the rule and personal life of the last two Russian emperors — Alexander III and Nicolas II.
The Link of Times foundation began restoring the 18th-century Shuvalov Palace in St. Petersburg in 2006, with the goal of opening the museum in the palace. A significant amount of work was done over seven years to recreate the historical appearance of the palace; this was the first full-fledged restoration of the palace in its entire 200-year history. The official opening ceremony of the Fabergé Museum took place on 19 November 2013; the Fabergé Museum's collection has nine Imperial Easter eggs that were made to the order of the last two Romanov Tsars — the Emperors Alexander III and Nicolas II. The eggs were bought by Vekselberg in 2004 from the family of the American newspaper magnate Malcolm Forbes, he purchased them just before they came up for auction, paying $100 million for the Forbes family's entire Fabergé collection. In total, there are fifteen Fabergé eggs in the Blue Room of Shuvalov Palace, as well as a miniature picture frame in the form of a heart — the surprise from the lost Mauve egg of 1897.
First Hen egg Renaissance egg Rosebud egg Coronation egg Lilies of the Valley egg Cockerel egg Fifteenth Anniversary egg Bay Tree egg Order of St. George egg Kelch Hen egg Kelch Chanticleer egg Duchess of Marlborough egg Resurrection egg Scandinavian egg Spring Flowers egg Faberge's New Home in Russia - Video about the museum - WKYC-TV Fabergé Museum - official website The Link of Times Cultural-Historical Foundation
Vitreous enamel called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing between 750 and 850 °C. The powder melts and hardens to a smooth, durable vitreous coating; the word comes from the Latin vitreum, meaning "glassy". Enamel can be used on metal, ceramics, stone, or any material that will withstand the fusing temperature. In technical terms fired enamelware is an integrated layered composite of glass and another material; the term "enamel" is most restricted to work on metal, the subject of this article. Enamelled glass is called "painted", overglaze decoration to pottery is called enamelling. Enamelling is an old and adopted technology, for most of its history used in jewelry and decorative art. Since the 19th century, enamels have been applied to many consumer objects, such as some cooking vessels, steel sinks, enamel bathtubs, stone countertops, it has been used on some appliances, such as dishwashers, laundry machines, refrigerators, on marker boards and signage.
The term "enamel" has sometimes been applied to industrial materials other than vitreous enamel, such as "enamel" paint and the polymers coating "enamelled" wire. The word enamel comes from the Old High German word smelzan via the Old French esmail, or from a Latin word smaltum, first found in a 9th-century life of Leo IV. Used as a noun, "an enamel" is a small decorative object coated with enamel. "Enamelled" and "enamelling" are the preferred spellings in British English, while "enameled" and "enameling" are preferred in American English. The ancient Egyptians applied enamels to stone objects and sometimes jewellery, although to the last less than in contemporaneous cultures in the Near East; the ancient Greeks, Celts and Chinese used enamel on metal objects. Enamel was used to decorate glass vessels during the Roman period, there is evidence of this as early as the late Republican and early Imperial periods in the Levant, Egypt and around the Black Sea. Enamel powder could be produced in two ways, either by powdering coloured glass, or by mixing colourless glass powder with pigments such as a metallic oxide.
Designs were either painted freehand or over the top of outline incisions, the technique originated in metalworking. Once painted, enamelled glass vessels needed to be fired at a temperature high enough to melt the applied powder, but low enough that the vessel itself was not melted. Production is thought to have come to a peak in the Claudian period and persisted for some three hundred years, though archaeological evidence for this technique is limited to some forty vessels or vessel fragments. Ancient Persians used this method for colouring and ornamenting the surface of metals by fusing over it brilliant colours that are decorated in an intricate design and called it Meenakari; the French traveller, Jean Chardin, who toured Iran during the Safavid reign, made a reference to an enamel work of Isfahan, which comprised a pattern of birds and animals on a floral background in light blue, green and red. Gold has been used traditionally for Meenakari Jewellery as it holds the enamel better, lasts longer and its lustre brings out the colours of the enamels.
Silver, a introduction, is used for artifacts like boxes, bowls and art pieces while copper, used for handicraft products was introduced only after the Gold Control Act, which compelled the Meenakars to look for a material other than gold, was enforced in India. The work of Meenakari went unnoticed as this art was traditionally used as a backing for the famous kundan or stone-studded jewellery; this allowed the wearer to reverse the jewellery as promised a special joy in the secret of the hidden design. In European art history, enamel was at its most important in the Middle Ages, beginning with the Late Romans and the Byzantine, who began to use cloisonné enamel in imitation of cloisonné inlays of precious stones; the Byzantine enamel style was adopted by the "barbarian" peoples of Migration Period northern Europe. The Byzantines began to use cloisonné more to create images; the champlevé technique was easier and widely practiced in the Romanesque period. In Gothic art the finest work is in basse-taille and ronde-bosse techniques, but cheaper champlevé works continued to be produced in large numbers for a wider market.
From either Byzantium or the Islamic world, the cloisonné technique reached China in the 13–14th centuries. The first written reference to cloisonné is in a book from 1388, where it is called "Dashi ware". No Chinese pieces that are from the 14th century are known. Cloisonné remained popular in China until the 19th century and is still produced today; the most elaborate and most valued Chinese pieces are from the early Ming Dynasty the reigns of the Xuande Emperor and Jingtai Emperor, although 19th century or modern pieces are far more common. Starting from the mid-19th century, the Japanese produced large quantities of high technical quality. More the bright, jewel-like colors have made enamel a favoured choice for jewellery designers, including the Art Nouveau jewellers, for designers of bibelots such as the eggs of Peter Carl Fabergé and the enameled copper boxes of the Battersea enamellers, for artists such as George Stubbs and other painters of portrait miniatures. A resurgence in enamel-based art
Diamond is a solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure called diamond cubic. At room temperature and pressure, another solid form of carbon known as graphite is the chemically stable form, but diamond never converts to it. Diamond has the highest hardness and thermal conductivity of any natural material, properties that are utilized in major industrial applications such as cutting and polishing tools, they are the reason that diamond anvil cells can subject materials to pressures found deep in the Earth. Because the arrangement of atoms in diamond is rigid, few types of impurity can contaminate it. Small numbers of defects or impurities color diamond blue, brown, purple, orange or red. Diamond has high optical dispersion. Most natural diamonds have ages between 1 billion and 3.5 billion years. Most were formed at depths between 150 and 250 kilometers in the Earth's mantle, although a few have come from as deep as 800 kilometers. Under high pressure and temperature, carbon-containing fluids dissolved minerals and replaced them with diamonds.
Much more they were carried to the surface in volcanic eruptions and deposited in igneous rocks known as kimberlites and lamproites. Synthetic diamonds can be grown from high-purity carbon under high pressures and temperatures or from hydrocarbon gas by chemical vapor deposition. Imitation diamonds can be made out of materials such as cubic zirconia and silicon carbide. Natural and imitation diamonds are most distinguished using optical techniques or thermal conductivity measurements. Diamond is a solid form of pure carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal. Solid carbon comes in different forms known as allotropes depending on the type of chemical bond; the two most common allotropes of pure carbon are graphite. In graphite the bonds are sp2 orbital hybrids and the atoms form in planes with each bound to three nearest neighbors 120 degrees apart. In diamond they are sp3 and the atoms form tetrahedra with each bound to four nearest neighbors. Tetrahedra are rigid, the bonds are strong, of all known substances diamond has the greatest number of atoms per unit volume, why it is both the hardest and the least compressible.
It has a high density, ranging from 3150 to 3530 kilograms per cubic metre in natural diamonds and 3520 kg/m³ in pure diamond. In graphite, the bonds between nearest neighbors are stronger but the bonds between planes are weak, so the planes can slip past each other. Thus, graphite is much softer than diamond. However, the stronger bonds make graphite less flammable. Diamonds have been adapted for many uses because of the material's exceptional physical characteristics. Most notable are its extreme hardness and thermal conductivity, as well as wide bandgap and high optical dispersion. Diamond's ignition point is 720 -- 800 °C in 850 -- 1000 °C in air; the equilibrium pressure and temperature conditions for a transition between graphite and diamond is well established theoretically and experimentally. The pressure changes linearly between 1.7 GPa at 0 K and 12 GPa at 5000 K. However, the phases have a wide region about this line where they can coexist. At normal temperature and pressure, 20 °C and 1 standard atmosphere, the stable phase of carbon is graphite, but diamond is metastable and its rate of conversion to graphite is negligible.
However, at temperatures above about 4500 K, diamond converts to graphite. Rapid conversion of graphite to diamond requires pressures well above the equilibrium line: at 2000 K, a pressure of 35 GPa is needed. Above the triple point, the melting point of diamond increases with increasing pressure. At high pressures and germanium have a BC8 body-centered cubic crystal structure, a similar structure is predicted for carbon at high pressures. At 0 K, the transition is predicted to occur at 1100 GPa; the most common crystal structure of diamond is called diamond cubic. It is formed of unit cells stacked together. Although there are 18 atoms in the figure, each corner atom is shared by eight unit cells and each atom in the center of a face is shared by two, so there are a total of eight atoms per unit cell; each side of the unit cell is 3.57 angstroms in length. A diamond cubic lattice can be thought of as two interpenetrating face-centered cubic lattices with one displaced by 1/4 of the diagonal along a cubic cell, or as one lattice with two atoms associated with each lattice point.
Looked at from a <1 1 1> crystallographic direction, it is formed of layers stacked in a repeating ABCABC... pattern. Diamonds can form an ABAB... structure, known as hexagonal diamond or lonsdaleite, but this is far less common and is formed under different conditions from cubic carbon. Diamonds occur most as euhedral or rounded octahedra and twinned octahedra known as macles; as diamond's crystal structure has a cubic arrangement of the atoms, they have many facets that belong to a cube, rhombicosidodecahedron, tetrakis hexahedron or disdyakis dodecahedron. The crystals can be elongated. Diamonds are found coated in nyf, an opaque gum-like skin; some diamonds have opaque fibers. They are referred to as opaque if the fibers