A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability. It may seek to achieve its objectives through either the use of nonviolent resistance, or the use of force, whether armed or unarmed. In many cases, as for example in Norway in the Second World War, a resistance movement may employ both violent and non-violent methods operating under different organizations and acting in different phases or geographical areas within a country. On the lawfulness of armed resistance movements in international law, there has been a dispute between states since at least 1899, when the first major codification of the laws of war in the form of a series of international treaties took place. In the Preamble to the 1899 Hague Convention II on Land War, the Martens Clause was introduced as a compromise wording for the dispute between the Great Powers who considered francs-tireurs to be unlawful combatants subject to execution on capture and smaller states who maintained that they should be considered lawful combatants.
More the 1977 Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts, referred in Article 1. Paragraph 4 to armed conflicts "... in which peoples are fighting against colonial domination and alien occupation and against racist regimes..." This phraseology contains many ambiguities that cloud the issue of, or is not a legitimate combatant. Hence depending on the perspective of a state's government, a resistance movement may or may not be labelled a terrorist group based on whether the members of a resistance movement are considered lawful or unlawful combatants and whether they are recognized as having a right to resist occupation; the distinction is a political judgment. The modern usage of the term "Resistance" originates from the self-designation of many movements during World War II the French Resistance; the term is still linked to the context of the events of 1939–45, to opposition movements in Axis-occupied countries.
Using the term "resistance" to designate a movement meeting the definition prior to World War II might be considered by some to be an anachronism. However, such movements existed prior to World War II, there have been many after it – for example in struggles against colonialism and foreign military occupations. "Resistance" has become a generic term, used to designate underground resistance movements in any country. Resistance movements can include any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority, government, or administration; this includes groups that consider themselves to be resisting tyranny. Some resistance movements are underground organizations engaged in a struggle for national liberation in a country under military occupation or totalitarian domination. Tactics of resistance movements against a constituted authority range from nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience, to guerrilla warfare and terrorism, or conventional warfare if the resistance movement is strong enough.
Any government facing violent acts from a resistance movement condemns such acts as terrorism when such attacks target only the military or security forces. Resistance during World War II was dedicated to fighting the Axis occupiers. Germany itself had an anti-Nazi German resistance movement in this period. Although the United Kingdom did not suffer invasion in World War II, preparations were made for a British resistance movement in the event of a German invasion When we talk about geographies of resistance, we take for granted that resistance takes place in the spaces where domination, power, or oppression is present. So, resistance is understood as something that always opposes to power or domination. However, some scholars believe and argue that looking at resistance in relation to only power and domination will not provide us a full understanding of the actual nature of resistance. Not all power, domination or oppression leads to resistance, not all cases of resistance are against or to oppose what we categorize as "power."
In fact, they believe that resistance has its own spatialities. In Steve Pile's "Opposition, political identities and spaces of resistance," geographies of resistance show: That people are positioned differently in unequal and multiple power relationships, that more or less powerful people are active in the constitution of unfolding relationships of authority and identity, that these activities are contingent and awkwardly situated, but that resistance seeks to occupy and create alternative spatialities from those defined through oppression and exploitation. From this perspective, assumptions about the domination/resistance couplet become questionable. We can better understand resistance by accounting different perspectives and by breaking the presumptions that resistance is always against power. In fact, resistance should be understood not only in relations to domination and authority, but through other experiences, such as "desire and anger and ability, happiness and fear and forgetting," meaning that resistance is not always about the dominated versus the dominator, the exploited versus the exploiter, or the oppressed versus the oppressor.
There are various forms of resistance for various reasons, which can be, classified as violent and nonviolent resistance. Different geographical spaces can make different forms of resistance p
Diepreye Solomon Peter Alamieyeseigha was a Nigerian politician, Governor of Bayelsa State in Nigeria from 29 May 1999 to 9 December 2005. Diepreye Alamieyeseigha was born on 16 November 1952 in Amassoma, Ogboin North Local Government Area, Bayelsa State, he attended Yenagoa. He joined the Nigerian Defence Academy as a Cadet Officer in 1974 joined the Nigerian Air Force, where he served in the department of Logistics and Supply, he held various air force positions in Enugu, Makurdi and Ikeja. Alamieyeseigha retired from the air force in 1992 as a Squadron Leader. After leaving the air force he became the Sole Administrator of Pabod Supplies Port Harcourt, he became Head of Budget, Planning and Development of the National Fertiliser Company. Diepreye Alamieyeseigha was elected as Governor of Bayelsa State in May 1999 as a member of the ruling People's Democratic Party, he was re-elected in 2003. Vice President Atiku Abubakar attended the March 2003 event that kicked of his campaign for reelection in 2003.
Diepreye Alamieyeseigha was detained in London on charges of money laundering in September 2005. At the time of his arrest, Metropolitan police found about £1m in cash in his London home, they found a total of £1.8m in cash and bank accounts. He was found to own four homes in London worth an alleged £10 million, his state's monthly federal allocation for the last six years has been in the order of £32 million. He jumped bail in December 2005 from the United Kingdom by disguising himself as a woman, though Alamieyeseigha denies this claim. Alamieyeseigha was impeached on allegations of corruption on 9 December 2005. On July 26, 2007, Alamieyeseigha pleaded guilty before a Nigerian court to six charges and was sentenced to two years in prison on each charge. Many of his assets were ordered to be forfeited to the Bayelsa state government. According to Alamieyeseigha, he only pleaded guilty due to his age and would have fought the charges had he been younger. On July 27, just hours after being taken to prison, he was released due to time served.
In April 2009, Alamieyeseigha pledged a donation of 3,000,000 naira to the Akassa Development Foundation. In December 2009, the federal government hired a British law firm to help dispose of four expensive properties acquired by Alamieyeseigha in London. Alamieyeseigha had bought one of these properties for £ 1,750,000.00 in July 2003. Diepreye Solomon Peter Alamieyeseigha used it as his London residence, as the registered office of Solomon and Peters Inc. On June 28, 2012, the United States Department of Justice announced that it had executed an asset forfeiture order on $401,931 in a Massachusetts brokerage fund, traceable to Alamieyeseigha. US prosecutors filed court papers in April 2011 targeting the Massachusetts brokerage fund and a $600,000 home in Rockville, which they alleged were the proceeds of corruption. A motion for default judgement and civil forfeiture was granted by a Massachusetts federal district judge in early June 2012; the forfeiture order was the first to be made under the DoJ’s fledgling Kleptocracy Asset Recovery Initiative.
On 12 March 2013, Alamieyeseigha was pardoned by President Goodluck Jonathan, but his pardoning was criticised by many. Alamieyeseigha was reported to have died of cardiac arrest at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital on 10 October 2015. However, in a interview, Bayelsa State Information Commissioner, Esueme Kikile revealed that the former Governor "died of complications arising from high blood pressure and diabetes which affected his kidney." James Ibori
President of Nigeria
The President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is the head of state and head of government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The President of Nigeria is the commander-in-chief of the Nigerian Armed Forces; the President is elected in national elections. The first President of Nigeria was Nnamdi Azikiwe, who took office on October 1, 1963; the current President, Muhammadu Buhari took office on May 29, 2015 as the 15th President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. On October 1, 1960, Nigeria gained independence from Britain. An all-Nigerian Executive Council was headed by Alhaji Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa. On November 16, 1960, Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, became the first Governor-General of a Federation of three Regions of the North and West, with Lagos as the Federal Capital; each of the Regions was headed by a Premier with a Governor as Ceremonial Head. On October 1, 1963, Nigeria became a Federal Republic and severed whatever ties were left with the British monarchy, but remained a member of the Commonwealth of Nations.
An amendment to the 1960 Independence Constitution replaced the office of the Governor-General with that of the President. Nnamdi Azikwe was sworn into that office on October 1, 1963; the office at that time was ceremonial, the duties of a head of state, such as receiving foreign dignitaries and opening Parliament. In January 1966, a group of army officers, led by Major Chukwuma Nzeogwu, overthrew the central and regional governments, killed the prime minister, tried to take control of the government in a failed coup d'état. Nzeogwu was countered and imprisoned by General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi. General Aguiyi-Ironsi was named Military Head of State. In July 1966, a group of northern army officers revolted against the government, killed General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi, appointed the army chief of staff, General Yakubu Gowon as the head of the new military government. In 1975, General Yakubu Gowon was deposed and General Murtala Mohammed was the Head of the Federal Military Government of Nigeria until his assassination in 1976.
On his death, the Chief-of-Staff, Supreme Headquarters General Olusegun Obasanjo assumed office head of state in a meeting of the Supreme Military Council, keeping the chain of command established by Murtala Muhammed in place. Gen. Obasonjo was responsible for completing the democratic transition begun by his predecessor, which culminated in an election in August 1979. In 1979, Nigeria adopted a federal presidential constitution, with provision for an executive President as head of government, a National Assembly, comprising a Senate and House of Representatives; this transformed the Presidency into the form. In October 1979, after more than 13 years of military rule, Nigeria returned to democratic rule; the National Party of Nigeria emerged victorious in the presidential election and Alhaji Shehu Shagari was elected President. On December 31, 1983, the military overthrew the Second Republic. Major General Muhammadu Buhari emerged as the Chairman of the Supreme Military Council, the new Head of State.
In August 1985, General Buhari's government was peacefully overthrown by Army Chief of Staff, Major General Ibrahim Babangida. Babangida became the Chairman of the Armed Forces Ruling Council. In August 1993, General Babangida chose an interim government to replace him. Ernest Shonekan was named as interim president. General Sani Abacha seized power from Shonekan in November 1993 and became the President and Chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council. On 8 June 1998, General Abacha died at the presidential villa in Abuja. Major General Abdulsalami Abubakar became the new President and Chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council. In May 1999, Major General Abdulsalami Abubakar stepped down, the former military head of state, Olusegun Obasanjo, became the newly elected civilian president. Obasanjo served two terms in office. In May 2007, Alhaji Umaru Yar'Adua was sworn in as President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, the 13th head of state of Nigeria. Yar'Adua died on 5 May 2010 in the Presidential villa, in Abuja, Nigeria.
On 6 May 2010, the Vice President Goodluck Jonathan was sworn in as President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the 14th head of state. On 29 May 2015, Muhammadu Buhari was sworn in as President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the 15th head of state after winning the general election; the President has the powers entrusted by the Constitution and legislation, including those necessary to perform the functions of Head of State and Head of the national executive. The President of Nigeria is responsible for: Assenting to and signing Bills Referring a Bill back to the National Assembly for reconsideration of the Bill's constitutionality Referring a Bill to the Supreme Court for a decision on the Bill's constitutionality Summoning the National Assembly or Parliament to an extraordinary sitting to conduct special business Making any appointments that the Constitution or legislation requires the President to make, other than as head of the national executive Appointing commissions of inquiry Appointing the Supreme Court Justices of Nigeria on the recommendation of the National Judicial Council of Nigeria and subject to confirmation by the Senate Calling a national referendum in terms of an Act of Parliament Receiving and recognising foreign diplomatic and consular representatives Appointing ambassadors, plenipotentiaries, diplomatic and consular representatives and other federal officers with the advice and consent of a majority of the Senate Pardoning or reprieving offenders and remitting any fines, penalties or forfeitures Conferring honours.
Chapter VI, Part I, Section 131 of the constitution states that
Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a
A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public. A journalist's work is called journalism. A journalist can specialize in certain issues. However, most journalists tend to specialize, by cooperating with other journalists, produce journals that span many topics. For example, a sports journalist covers news within the world of sports, but this journalist may be a part of a newspaper that covers many different topics. A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and reports on information in order to present in sources, conduct interviews, engage in research, make reports; the information-gathering part of a journalist's job is sometimes called reporting, in contrast to the production part of the job such as writing articles. Reporters may split their time between working in a newsroom and going out to witness events or interviewing people. Reporters may be assigned a specific area of coverage. Depending on the context, the term journalist may include various types of editors, editorial writers and visual journalists, such as photojournalists.
Journalism has developed a variety of standards. While objectivity and a lack of bias are of primary concern and importance, more liberal types of journalism, such as advocacy journalism and activism, intentionally adopt a non-objective viewpoint; this has become more prevalent with the advent of social media and blogs, as well as other platforms that are used to manipulate or sway social and political opinions and policies. These platforms project extreme bias, as "sources" are not always held accountable or considered necessary in order to produce a written, televised, or otherwise "published" end product. Matthew C. Nisbet, who has written on science communication, has defined a "knowledge journalist" as a public intellectual who, like Walter Lippmann, David Brooks, Fareed Zakaria, Naomi Klein, Michael Pollan, Thomas Friedman, Andrew Revkin, sees their role as researching complicated issues of fact or science which most laymen would not have the time or access to information to research themselves communicating an accurate and understandable version to the public as a teacher and policy advisor.
In his best-known books, Public Opinion and The Phantom Public, Lippmann argued that most individuals lacked the capacity and motivation to follow and analyze news of the many complex policy questions that troubled society. Nor did they directly experience most social problems, or have direct access to expert insights; these limitations were made worse by a news media that tended to over-simplify issues and to reinforce stereotypes, partisan viewpoints, prejudices. As a consequence, Lippmann believed that the public needed journalists like himself who could serve as expert analysts, guiding “citizens to a deeper understanding of what was important.” In 2018, the United States Department of Labor's Occupational Outlook Handbook reported that employment for the category, "reporters and broadcast news analysts," will decline 9 percent between 2016 and 2026. Journalists sometimes expose themselves to danger when reporting in areas of armed conflict or in states that do not respect the freedom of the press.
Organizations such as the Committee to Protect Journalists and Reporters Without Borders publish reports on press freedom and advocate for journalistic freedom. As of November 2011, the Committee to Protect Journalists reports that 887 journalists have been killed worldwide since 1992 by murder, crossfire or combat, or on dangerous assignment; the "ten deadliest countries" for journalists since 1992 have been Iraq, Russia, Mexico, Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka. The Committee to Protect Journalists reports that as of December 1, 2010, 145 journalists were jailed worldwide for journalistic activities. Current numbers are higher; the ten countries with the largest number of currently-imprisoned journalists are Turkey, Iran, Burma, Vietnam, Cuba and Sudan. Apart from the physical harm, journalists are harmed psychologically; this applies to war reporters, but their editorial offices at home do not know how to deal appropriately with the reporters they expose to danger. Hence, a systematic and sustainable way of psychological support for traumatized journalists is needed.
However, only little and fragmented support programs exist so far. The Newseum in Washington, D. C. is home to the Journalists Memorial, which lists the names of over 2,100 journalists from around the world who were killed in the line of duty. The relationship between a professional journalist and a source can be rather complex, a source can sometimes impact the direction of the article written by the journalist; the article'A Compromised Fourth Estate' uses Herbert Gans' metaphor to capture their relationship. He uses a dance metaphor'The Tango' to illustrate the co-operative nature of their interactions "It takes two to tango". Herbert suggests that the source leads but journalists object to this notion for two reasons: It signals source supremacy in news making, it offends journalists' professional culture, which emphasizes editorial autonomy. This dance metaphor helps showcase consensus within the relationship but the article describe the common relation between the two "A relationship with sources, too cozy is compromising of journalists’ integrity and risks becoming collusive.
Journalists have favored a
People's Democratic Party (Nigeria)
The People's Democratic Party is a major contemporary political party in Nigeria. Its policies lie towards the centre-right of the political spectrum, it won every Presidential election between 1999 and 2011, was until the 2015 elections, the governing party in the Fourth Republic although in some cases, amid a few controversial electoral circumstances. PDP controls 14 states out of 36 states in Nigeria. In 1998 the PDP in its first presidential primary election held in Jos, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria norminated former military leader Olusegun Obasanjo who had just been released from detention as political prisoner as the presidential candidate in the elections of February 1999, with Atiku Abubakar as his running mate, they won the presidential election and were inaugurated 29 May, 1999. In the legislative election held on 12 April 2003, the party won 54.5% of the popular vote and 223 out of 360 seats in the House of Representatives, 76 out of 109 seats in the Senate. Its candidate in the presidential election of 19 April 2003, Olusegun Obasanjo, was re-elected with 61.9% of the vote.
In December 2006 Umaru Yar'Adua was chosen as the presidential candidate of the ruling PDP for the April 2007 general election, receiving 3,024 votes from party delegates. Yar'Adua was declared the winner of the 2007 general elections, held on April 21, was sworn in on May 29, 2007, amid widespread allegations of electoral fraud. In the Nigerian National Assembly election, the party won 260 out of 360 seats in the House of Representatives and 85 out of 109 seats in the Senate. At the PDP's 2008 National Convention, it chose Prince Vincent Ogbulafor as its National Chairman on March 8, 2008. Ogbulafor, the PDP's National Secretary from 2001 to 2005, was the party's consensus choice for the position of National Chairman, selected as an alternative to the rival leading candidates Sam Egwu and Anyim Pius Anyim. All 26 other candidates, including Egwu and Anyim, withdrew in favor of Ogbulafor. Meanwhile, Alhaji Abubakar Kawu Baraje was elected as National Secretary. In 2011, after the People's Democratic Party saw members defect for the Action Congress of Nigeria, some political commentators suspected that the PDP would lose the Presidency.
Following PDP candidate Goodluck Jonathan's victory in the 2011 elections, it was reported that there were violent protests from northern youth. The longtime slogan of the People's Democratic Party has been "Power to the people". During the party's National Convention in Port Harcourt, Rivers State on 21 May 2016, David Mark, a former President of the Senate of Nigeria, introduced "Change the change" as the party's campaign slogan for the 2019 general elections; the party has a neoliberal stance in its economic policies and maintains a conservative stance on certain social issues, such as same-sex relations. The PDP favors free-market policies which support economic liberalism, limited government regulation. In 2003, President Olusegun Obasanjo and Finance Minister Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala embarked on a radical economic reform program, which reduced government spending through conservative fiscal policies, saw the deregulation and privatization of numerous industries in Nigerian services sector — notably the Nigerian Telecommunications industry.
On the other hand, the PDP adopts a more leftist stance towards welfare. In 2005, President Obasanjo launched Nigeria's first National Health Insurance Scheme to ensure that every Nigerian has access to basic health care services; the PDP strives to maintain the status quo on oil revenue distribution. Though the PDP government set up the Niger Delta Development Commission to address the needs of the oil-producing Niger Delta states, it has rebuffed repeated efforts to revert to the 50% to 50% federal-to-state government revenue allocation agreement established in 1966 during the First Republic; the PDP is against same-sex relations, favors social conservatism on moral and religious grounds. In 2007, the PDP-dominated National Assembly sponsored a bill to outlaw homosexual relations, making it punishable by law for up to five years in prison; the party is a moderate advocate of religious freedom for the Nigerian states. In the year 2000 the introduction of Islamic law in some states in Northern Nigeria triggered sectarian violence in Kaduna and Abia states.
The PDP-led federal government refused to bow to pressure from the southern, predominantly Christian states to repeal the law, instead opted for a compromise where Islamic law would only apply to Muslims. Tunde Ayeni, chairman of the PDP fundraising event in December 2014 who donated N2 billion was involved in the mismanagement of bank's funds. In the 2015 elections, the incumbent president and PDP presidential nominee, Goodluck Jonathan, was defeated by General Muhammadu Buhari of the All Progressives Congress by 55% to 45%, losing by 2.6 million votes, out of 28.6 million valid votes cast. Out of Nigeria's 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, General Muhammadu Buhari won 21 states while President Goodluck Jonathan won 15 states and the Federal Capital Territory. In the 2019 elections, Former vice president Atiku Abubakar and PDP presidential candidadate and his party on 25th of February, 2019 rejected the outcome of the elections as INEC was yet to conclude the entire process and make official pronouncement.
PDP National Party, Prince Uche Secondus alleged that the result as announced by INEC were incorrect. Official website
Edumanom Forest Reserve
The Edumanom Forest Reserve is an area in the Niger Delta region of southeast Nigeria, home to some of the last chimpanzees in Nigeria. It covers part of the old Nembe Kingdom, now divided into the Nembe and Brass local government areas, in Bayelsa State; the reserve is a freshwater swamp forest with an area of 9,324 hectares. The habitat has been degraded by logging operations. Although there are few roads in the region, hunters can gain access to the forest through the creeks and along oil pipelines; the forest is under threat from expansion of oil palm plantations. A proposed federal road from Ogbia to Nembe would run between two of the patches inhabited by chimps in the Edumanom forest. In 1995, hunter's reports suggested that there were 5-10 small chimpanzee groups in the general area with no more than 50 individuals. Older hunters tended to avoid chimpanzees. Young chimps captured as a result of hunting are sold as pets or to zoos. A June 2008 report noted that the reserve was the last known site for chimpanzees in the Niger Delta.
The reserve shelters the endemic Sclater's guenon and other IUCN Red List species olive colobus and Niger Delta red colobus. The Sclater's monkey was considered vulnerable but not endangered in 2008, it is hunted throughout the area, except in a few places where it is held sacred, is managing to survive. A 2005 report recommended that it be protected within other reserves in Nigeria. There used to be red-capped mangabeys in the forest, but these are now thought to be extirpated