Waterloo Road, London
Waterloo Road is the main road in the Waterloo district of London, England straddling the boroughs of Lambeth and Southwark. It runs between Westminster Bridge Road close to St Georges Circus at the south-east end and Waterloo Bridge across the River Thames towards Londons West End district at the north-west end. At the northern end near the river are the Queen Elizabeth Hall and the Hayward Gallery to the west, the National Film Theatre below the road, in earlier times, this was the location of Cupers Gardens. Just to the south in the middle of a roundabout with underground walkways is the British Film Institute London IMAX Cinema. Nearby to the east is the James Clerk Maxwell Building of Kings College London, named in honour of the physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who was a professor at the college from 1860. A little further to the south is St Johns Waterloo church, designed by Francis Octavius Bedford, the church was firebombed in 1940 and much of the interior was destroyed. It was restored and reopened in 1951, serving as the church for the Festival of Britain on the South Bank nearby.
Continuing south, to the west is Waterloo station, to the east is the Union Jack Club in Sandell Street and, further on, the well-known and historic Old Vic Theatre to the south of the corner with The Cut. Also located even further south in Waterloo Road on the west side is the headquarters of the London Ambulance Service, on the opposite side is 157 Partnership House, former headquarters of USPG, CMS and other church mission/community-based organisations. Now boarded up and ready for redevelopment, the road is designated as the A301, which continues across Waterloo Bridge. Baylis Road The Cut Stamford Street Westminster Bridge Road York Road St Georges Circus Survey of London entry Waterloo Quarter Business Alliance — official Business Improvement District website
Edward Marcus Despard was an Irish soldier who served in the British Army. During the American War of Independence Despard led a force to victory at the Battle of the Black River, following the war Despard was appointed Superintendent of what became British Honduras. He was recalled to London in 1790 after questions were raised about his conduct, Despard soon found himself in jail for debt. He took up politics, becoming involved with the United Britons movement. Edward Despard was born in 1751 into a Protestant family of Huguenot and Anglo-Irish descent in Coolrain, Queens County and he was one of five brothers all of whom except the eldest, who inherited the family estate, served in the British military. His elder brother John Despard was an officer who rose to the rank of full General. In 1766 he entered the British British Army as an Ensign in the 50th Foot and he was promoted to Lieutenant in 1772, and stationed at Jamaica, where he soon proved himself to have considerable engineering talent.
When the American War of Independence broke out the regiment, heavily under strength and he served in the West Indies with credit, being promoted to Captain after taking part in the unsuccessful 1780 San Juan expedition. Despard struck up a friendship with the naval officer Horatio Nelson, in 1782 he commanded a successful expedition to recover the British settlement of Black River on the Mosquito Coast of present-day Honduras that the Spanish had taken. In 1783 the war was brought to an end by the Peace of Paris, Despard was subsequently made Superintendent of the Bay of Honduras, which became British Honduras and Belize. He administered this British enclave until 1790 when he had married a black woman, Catharine. This however did not go well with some of the settlers. These settlers sent letters of protest to London and as a result Despard was summoned back to London to explain himself and he was suspended by Home Secretary Lord Grenville. From 1790 to 1792 these charges were investigated, and he was suspended on half pay with his expenses from the Bay of Honduras withheld, pursued by a further lawsuit from his enemies in the Bay, he was arrested and confined in Kings Bench Prison from 1792 to 1794.
On his release he joined the London Corresponding Society, in 1798 Despard was arrested on suspicion of involvement in the Irish Rebellion. Only one week before the plot was to place, Despard. The evidence was thin but Despard was arrested and prosecuted by Attorney General Spencer Perceval, before Lord Ellenborough and it was the last time that anyone received that sentence in England. Prior to execution the sentence was commuted to simple hanging and beheading, Despard was executed on the roof of the gatehouse at Horsemonger Lane Gaol, in front of a crowd of at least 20,000 spectators, on 21 February 1803
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Victorian architecture is a series of architectural revival styles in the mid-to-late 19th century. Victorian refers to the reign of Queen Victoria, called the Victorian era, many elements of what is typically termed Victorian architecture did not become popular until in Victorias reign. The styles often included interpretations and eclectic revivals of historic styles mixed with the introduction of middle east, the name represents the British and French custom of naming architectural styles for a reigning monarch. Within this naming and classification scheme, it follows Georgian architecture and Regency architecture, during the early 19th century, the romantic medieval Gothic revival style was developed as a reaction to the symmetry of Palladianism, and such buildings as Fonthill Abbey were built. Paxton continued to build houses as Mentmore Towers, in the still popular English Renaissance styles. In this era of prosperity new methods of construction were developed, other notable Scottish architects of this period are Archibald Simpson and Alexander Marshall Mackenzie whose stylistically varied work can be seen in the architecture of Aberdeen.
Victorian architecture usually has many intricate window frames inspired by the famous architect Elliot Rae, some chose the United States, and others went to Canada and New Zealand. Normally, they applied architectural styles that were fashionable when they left England, the influence of English architecture spread across the world. Several prominent architects produced English-derived designs around the world, including William Butterfield, the Victorian period flourished in Australia and is generally recognised as being from 1840 to 1890, which saw a gold rush and population boom during the 1880s in the state of Victoria. There were fifteen styles that predominated, The Arts and Crafts style and Queen Anne style are considered to be part of the Federation Period, during the British colonial period of British Ceylon, Sri Lanka Law College, Sri Lanka College of Technology and the Galle Face Hotel. In the United States, Victorian architecture generally describes styles that were most popular between 1860 and 1900, a list of these styles most commonly includes Second Empire, Stick-Eastlake, Folk Victorian, Queen Anne, Richardsonian Romanesque, and Shingle.
As in the United Kingdom, examples of Gothic Revival and Italianate continued to be constructed during this period, some historians classify the years of Gothic Revival as a distinctive Victorian style named High Victorian Gothic. Stick-Eastlake, a manner of geometric, machine-cut decorating derived from Stick, on the other hand, terms such as Painted Ladies or gingerbread may be used to describe certain Victorian buildings, but do not constitute a specific style. The names of architectural styles varied between countries, many homes combined the elements of several different styles and are not easily distinguishable as one particular style or another. San Francisco is well known for its extensive Victorian architecture, particularly in the Haight-Ashbury, Lower Haight, Alamo Square, Noe Valley, Nob Hill, the extent to which any one is the largest surviving example is debated, with numerous qualifications. The Distillery District in Toronto, Ontario contains the largest and best preserved collection of Victorian-era industrial architecture in North America, cabbagetown is the largest and most continuous Victorian residential area in North America.
Other Toronto Victorian neighbourhoods include The Annex and Rosedale, in the USA, the South End of Boston is recognized by the National Register of Historic Places as the oldest and largest Victorian neighborhood in the country. Old Louisville in Louisville, Kentucky claims to be the nations largest Victorian neighborhood, Virginia is home to several large Victorian neighborhoods, the most prominent being The Fan
Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson
Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté KB was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy. He was wounded several times in combat, losing most of one arm in the attempt to conquer Santa Cruz de Tenerife. He was shot and killed during his victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. Nelson was born into a moderately prosperous Norfolk family and joined the navy through the influence of his uncle, Maurice Suckling and he rose rapidly through the ranks and served with leading naval commanders of the period before obtaining his own command in 1778. He developed a reputation in the service through his valour and firm grasp of tactics but suffered periods of illness. The outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars allowed Nelson to return to service and he fought in several minor engagements off Toulon and was important in the capture of Corsica and subsequent diplomatic duties with the Italian states. In 1797, he distinguished himself while in command of HMS Captain at the Battle of Cape St Vincent.
The following year, he won a victory over the French at the Battle of the Nile. In 1801, he was dispatched to the Baltic and won another victory and he subsequently commanded the blockade of the French and Spanish fleets at Toulon and, after their escape, chased them to the West Indies and back but failed to bring them to battle. After a brief return to England, he took over the Cádiz blockade in 1805, on 21 October 1805, the Franco-Spanish fleet came out of port, and Nelsons fleet engaged them at the Battle of Trafalgar. The battle was Britains greatest naval victory, but during the action Nelson and his body was brought back to England where he was accorded a state funeral. Nelsons death at Trafalgar secured his position as one of Britains most heroic figures, numerous monuments, including Nelsons Column in Trafalgar Square and the Nelson Monument in Edinburgh, have been created in his memory and his legacy remains highly influential. Horatio Nelson was born on 29 September 1758 in a rectory in Burnham Thorpe, England and he was named after his godfather Horatio Walpole 2nd Baron Walpole, of Wolterton.
His mother, who died on 26 December 1767, when he was nine years old, was a great-niece of Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain. She lived in the village of Barsham and married the Reverend Edmund Nelson at Beccles church, Nelsons aunt, Alice Nelson was the wife of Reverend Robert Rolfe, Rector of Hilborough and grandmother of Sir Robert Monsey Rolfe. Rolfe twice served as Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, Nelson attended Paston Grammar School, North Walsham, until he was 12 years old, and attended King Edward VI’s Grammar School in Norwich. Shortly after reporting aboard, Nelson was appointed a midshipman and began officer training, early in his service, Nelson discovered that he suffered from seasickness, a chronic complaint that dogged him for the rest of his life. He twice crossed the Atlantic, before returning to serve under his uncle as the commander of Sucklings longboat, at his nephews request, Suckling arranged for Nelson to join the expedition as coxswain to Commander Lutwidge aboard the converted bomb vessel HMS Carcass
Lower Marsh is a street in the Waterloo neighbourhood of London, England. It is adjacent to Waterloo railway station in the London Borough of Lambeth and it is the location of Lower Marsh Market. Until the early 19th century much of north Lambeth was mostly marsh, the settlement of Lambeth Marsh was built on a raised through road over the marsh lands, potentially dating back to Roman times. The land on which it stands was owned by the church of England, Lower Marsh and The Cut formed the commercial heart of the area from the early 19th century. The northern tip of the ancient parish of Lambeth was a known as Lambeth Marshe. Sometime after the opening of Waterloo railway station in 1848 the locality around the station, Lower Marsh website Lower Marsh information
Kennington Road is a long straight road, approximately a mile in length, in the London Borough of Lambeth in London, running south from Westminster Bridge Road to Kennington Park Road. The road is designated as the A23, formerly open land, in 1751, a year after Westminster Bridge was opened, it was constructed by the Turnpike Trustees to improve communication from the bridge to routes south of the river Thames. Lambeth North tube station is located at the end of the road at the junction with Westminster Bridge Road. The Imperial War Museum is to the east, in Geraldine Mary Harmsworth Park, Kennington Park is to the south. Though there has been much rebuilding and demolition, many of the grand Georgian terraces lining Kennington Road still survive, felix Slade lawyer and collector, lived at Walcot Place, Kennington Road. He endowed professorships of fine art at Oxford and University College London, the artist Vincent van Gogh lived at Ivy Cottage,395 Kennington Road, from August to October 1874 and from December 1874 to May 1875.
Victoria Drummond, Queen Victorias god-daughter and Britains first qualified marine engineer, as a child, Charlie Chaplin lived at 287 Kennington Road and at various other locations on the road and in the immediate vicinity, such as 3 Pownall Terrace. Public houses on Kennington Road such as The Three Stags, The White Horse, The Tankard, survey of London entry LondonTown. com information Old Town Hall, Kennington Road,1925 The Three Stags pub website
The punk subculture, which centres on punk rock music, includes a diverse array of ideologies and forms of expression, including visual art, dance and film. The subculture is largely characterized by anti-establishment views and the promotion of individual freedom, the punk subculture is centered on a loud, aggressive genre of rock music called punk rock. It is usually played by small bands consisting of a vocalist, Punk politics cover the entire political spectrum. Punk-related ideologies are mostly concerned with freedom and anti-establishment views. Common punk viewpoints include anti-authoritarianism, a DIY ethic, non-conformity, direct action, there is a wide range of punk fashion, in terms of clothing, cosmetics, tattoos and body modification. Early punk fashion adapted everyday objects for aesthetic effect, such as T-shirts, leather jackets, hardcore punk fans adopted a dressed-down style of T-shirts, combat boots or sneakers and crewcut-style haircuts. Women in the hardcore scene typically wore masculine clothing, one part of punk was creating explicitly outward identities of sexuality.
Everything that was supposed to be hidden was brought to the front. Punk aesthetics determine the type of art punks enjoy, usually underground, iconoclastic. Punk artwork graces album covers, flyers for concerts, and punk zines, Punk has generated a considerable amount of poetry and prose. Punk has its own press in the form of punk zines, which feature news, cultural criticism. Some zines take the form of perzines, important punk zines include Maximum RocknRoll, Punk Planet, No Cure, Cometbus and Search & Destroy. Many punk-themed films have made, as have punk rock music videos. Some punk films intercut stock footage with news clips and amateur videos of concerts, Punks can come from any and all walks of life and economic classes, and punk culture has aspects of gender equalist ideology. The punk subculture emerged in the United Kingdom, exactly which region originated punk has long been a major controversy within the movement. Various musical, political and artistic movements influenced the subculture.
In the late 1970s, the subculture began to diversify, which led to the proliferation of such as new wave, post-punk,2 Tone, pop punk, hardcore punk, no wave, street punk. Hardcore punk, street punk and Oi. sought to do away with the frivolities introduced in the years of the original punk movement
Squatting is the action of occupying an abandoned or unoccupied area of land or a building, usually residential—that the squatter does not own, rent or otherwise have lawful permission to use. Author Robert Neuwirth suggested in 2004 that there were one billion squatters globally and he forecasts there will be two billion by 2030 and three billion by 2050. Yet, according to Kesia Reeve, squatting is largely absent from policy and academic debate and is rarely conceptualised, as a problem, as a symptom, Squatting can be related to political movements, such as anarchist, autonomist, or socialist. It can be a means to conserve buildings or to provide housing, while these settlements may, in time, grow to become both legalised and indistinguishable from normal residential neighbourhoods, they start off as squats with minimal basic infrastructure. Thus, there is no sewage system, drinking water must be bought from vendors or carried from a nearby tap, besides being residences, some squats are used as social centres or host give-away shops, pirate radio stations or cafés.
In Spanish-speaking countries, squatters receive several names, such as okupas in Spain, Chile or Argentina, Squatting by necessity is in itself a political issue, therefore a statement or rather a response to the political system causing it. During the period of recession and increased housing foreclosures in the 2000s, squatting became far more prevalent in Western. In some cases, need-based and politically motivated squatting go hand in hand, conservational – i. e. preserving monuments because the authorities have let them decay Political – e. g. Property law and the state have traditionally favored the property owner, however, in many cases where squatters had de facto ownership, laws have been changed to legitimize their status. Anarchist Colin Ward comments, Squatting is the oldest mode of tenure in the world and this is as true of the Queen with her 176,000 acres as it is of the 54 percent of householders in Britain who are owner-occupiers. They are all the recipients of stolen land, for to regard our planet as a commodity offends every conceivable principle of natural rights. U. K.
police official Sue Williams, for example, has stated that Squatting is linked to Anti-Social Behaviour and can cause a great deal of nuisance, in some cases there may be criminal activities involved. The public attitude toward squatting varies, depending on legal aspects, socioeconomic conditions, in particular, while squatting of municipal buildings may be treated leniently, squatting of private property often leads to strong negative reaction on the part of the public and authorities. Adverse possession is a method of acquiring title to property through possession for a period under certain conditions. Countries where this principle exists include England and the United States, some non-common law jurisdictions have laws similar to adverse possession. For example, Louisiana has a doctrine called acquisitive prescription. There are large communities in Kenya, such as Kibera in Nairobi. An estimated 1,000 people live in the Grande Hotel Beira in Mozambique, the Zabbaleen settlement and the City of the Dead are both well-known squatter communities in Cairo
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
London Waterloo station
Waterloo main line station is one of 19 in the country that are managed by Network Rail and the station complex is in fare zone 1. The first railway station on site opened in 1848, the present structure was inaugurated in 1922. Part of the station is a Grade II listed building, with just under 100 million National Rail passenger entries/exits in 2015/16, Waterloo is Britains busiest railway station by patronage. Waterloo railway station alone is the 15th-busiest passenger station in Europe, including National Rail interchanges, the Underground station, and Waterloo East, the complex handled a total of 211 million passengers in the 2015/2016 financial year. It is therefore the busiest transport hub in Europe and it has more platforms and a greater floor area than any other station in the UK. The station was the London terminus for Eurostar international trains from 1994 until 2007, the London and South Western Railway opened the station on 11 July 1848 as Waterloo Bridge Station when its main line was extended from Nine Elms.
The station, designed by William Tite, was raised above ground on a series of arches. The unfulfilled intention was for a station with services to the City of London. In 1886, it officially became Waterloo Station, reflecting long-standing common usage, the L&SWRs aim throughout much of the 19th century was to extend its main line eastward beyond Waterloo into the City of London. Given this, it was reluctant to construct a grand terminus at Waterloo. However traffic and passenger usage continued to grow and the company expanded the station at regular intervals and this resulted in the station becoming increasingly ramshackle. The original 1848 station became known as the Central Station as other platforms were added, each of these stations-within-a-station had its own booking office, taxi stand and public entrances from the street, as well as often poorly marked and confusing access to the rest of the station. Passengers were, not surprisingly, confused by the layout and by the two adjacent stations called Waterloo, from 1897 there had been the adjacent Necropolis Company station.
This complexity and confusion became the butt of jokes by writers and music hall comics for many years in the late 19th century, by the late 1890s the L&SWR accepted that main-line access to the City was impossible. In 1898, the company opened the Waterloo & City line and this gave the company the direct commuter service it had long desired. Legal powers to carry out the work were granted in 1899 and extensive groundwork and slum clearance were carried out until 1904, the new station was opened in stages, the first five new platforms being opened in 1910. The engineers J. W. Jacomb-Hood and Alfred Weeks Szlumper designed the roof and platforms, construction continued sporadically throughout the First World War, and the new station finally opened in 1922, with 21 platforms and a concourse nearly 800 feet long. The new station included a stained glass window depicting the L&SWRs company crest over the main road entrance
The A23 road is a major road in the United Kingdom between London and Brighton, East Sussex, England. The road has been a route for centuries, and seen numerous upgrades, bypasses. The A23 begins as Westminster Bridge Road near Waterloo station, almost immediately it turns south, the straightness of much of the heading south shows its Roman origins. Continuing south through Coulsdon on the Farthing Way, over the North Downs to Hooley, when roads were originally classified, the A23 started at Purley Cross. The road north of this section, including Purley Way, which opened to traffic in April 1925, was part of the A22, the current route north to Westminster Bridge dates from April 1935. The A23 in London has frequently been one of the citys most congested roads, the M23 motorway was originally proposed to run as far north as Streatham, relieving congestion on the route, but the section north of Hooley was never built. At junction 7 of the M25 motorway, signs for the northbound M23 simply read Croydon with no other London destinations marked, in July 2000, control of the section of road inside the Greater London boundary was transferred from The Highways Agency to Transport for London.
This caused delays to a relief road of Coulsdon, which had been announced in 1998. The mayor, Ken Livingstone apologised in 2002 that TfL was unable to construct the road due to a lack of funds. The road was completed in 2007, and which under TfLs ownership had acquired a bus lane that suffered ridicule for not having any buses actually running on it. On 18 March 2010, plans to widen the section between Handcross and Warninglid in West Sussex to three lanes, removing an accident prone bend, were given the go ahead. The 53-mile road from London to Brighton forms the basis of the route of the annual London to Brighton Veteran Car Run and this is featured in the film Genevieve, although most of the rural motoring scenes were shot in Buckinghamshire. The A23 is used for various other London to Brighton events, great Britain road numbering scheme SABRE page on the A23