Wilbarger County, Texas
Wilbarger County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,535; the county seat is Vernon. The county was created in 1858 and organized in 1881. Wilbarger is named for two early settlers. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 978 square miles, of which 971 square miles is land and 7.0 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 70 U. S. Highway 183 U. S. Highway 283 U. S. Highway 287 Tillman County, Oklahoma Wichita County Baylor County Foard County Hardeman County Jackson County, Oklahoma As of the census of 2000, there were 14,676 people, 5,537 households, 3,748 families residing in the county; the population density was 15 people per square mile. There were 6,371 housing units at an average density of 7 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 78.17% White, 8.86% Black or African American, 0.66% Native American, 0.63% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 9.73% from other races, 1.91% from two or more races. 20.54% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 5,537 households out of which 32.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.10% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.30% were non-families. In 2000, there were 136 unmarried partner households: 129 heterosexual, 3 same-sex male, 2 same-sex female. 29.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.90% under the age of 18, 9.50% from 18 to 24, 24.80% from 25 to 44, 21.60% from 45 to 64, 16.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,500, the median income for a family was $38,685. Males had a median income of $26,001 versus $19,620 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $16,520. About 9.00% of families and 13.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.00% of those under age 18 and 13.30% of those age 65 or over. Vernon Harrold Hoot and Holler Crossing Odell Oklaunion Clyde Gates, wide receiver for the New York Jets Jack English Hightower, Texas, native. S. Representative Roy Orbison, singer/songwriter born in Wilbarger County Daryl Richardson, running back for the St. Louis Rams Bernard Scott, running back for the Cincinnati Bengals Jack Teagarden and trombonist John Clay Wolfe, American radio personality who began his career in Wilbarger County on KSEY List of museums in North Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Wilbarger County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Wilbarger County Vernon Daily Record - Wilbarger County News Wilbarger County, Texas Official Website Wilbarger County from the Handbook of Texas Online Josiah Wilbarger's entry in the Biographical Encyclopedia of Texas hosted by the Portal to Texas History.
Wilbarger County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties
In geology and related fields, a stratum is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers. The "stratum" is the fundamental unit in a stratigraphic column and forms the basis of the study of stratigraphy; each layer is one of a number of parallel layers that lie one upon another, laid down by natural processes. They may extend over hundreds of thousands of square kilometers of the Earth's surface. Strata are seen as bands of different colored or differently structured material exposed in cliffs, road cuts and river banks. Individual bands may vary in thickness from a few millimeters to a kilometer or more. A band may represent a specific mode of deposition: river silt, beach sand, coal swamp, sand dune, lava bed, etc. Geologists categorize them by the material of beds; each distinct layer is assigned to the name of sheet based on a town, mountain, or region where the formation is exposed and available for study.
For example, the Burgess Shale is a thick exposure of dark fossiliferous, shale exposed high in the Canadian Rockies near Burgess Pass. Slight distinctions in material in a formation may be described as "members". Formations are collected into "groups" while groups may be collected into "supergroups". Archaeological horizon Geologic formation Geologic map Geologic unit Law of superposition Bed GeoWhen Database
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
Texas House of Representatives
The Texas House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral Texas Legislature. It consists of 150 members; as of the 2010 Census, each member represents about 167,637 people. There are no term limits, with the most senior member, Tom Craddick, having been elected in 1968; the House meets at the State Capitol in Austin. The Speaker of the House is highest-ranking member of the House; the Speaker's duties include maintaining order within the House, recognizing members during debate, ruling on procedural matters, appointing members to the various committees and sending bills for committee review. The Speaker pro tempore is a ceremonial position, but does, by long-standing tradition, preside over the House during its consideration of local and consent bills. Unlike other state legislatures, the House rules do not formally recognize majority or minority leaders; the unofficial leaders are the Republican Caucus Chairman and the Democratic House Leader, both of whom are elected by their respective caucuses.
†Representative was first elected in a special election. Eligio De La Garza, II, first Mexican-American to represent his region in the US House and the second Mexican-American from Texas to be elected to Congress. Ray Barnhart, Federal Highway Administrator Anita Lee Blair, first blind woman elected to a state legislature Jack Brooks, U. S. House of Representatives Dolph Briscoe, Governor of Texas Frank Kell Cahoon, Midland County oilman and representative from 1965 to 1969. S. Representative Tom DeLay, U. S. Representative and House Majority Leader John Nance Garner, U. S. Representative, Speaker of the House, Vice President of the United States O. H. "Ike" Harris, Dallas County representative from 1963–1965. Kay Bailey Hutchison, U. S. Senator Ray Hutchison, husband of Kay Bailey Hutchison Samuel Ealy Johnson, Jr. father of President Lyndon B. Johnson Dan Kubiak, representative from Rockdale known for his support of public education Mickey Leland, U. S. House of Representatives, died in a plane crash.
Charles Henry Nimitz Born in Bremen. In 1852, built the Nimitz Hotel in Fredericksburg, which now houses the National Museum of the Pacific War. Grandfather of United States Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz. Elected to the Texas Legislature 1890. Rick Perry, longest serving Governor of Texas, current U. S. Secretary of Energy. Colonel Alfred P. C. Petsch Lawyer, civic leader, philanthropist. Veteran of both World War I and World War II. Sam Rayburn, U. S. Representative and longest served Speaker of the House Coke R. Stevenson, Governor of Texas Sarah Weddington, attorney for "Jane Roe" for the 1973 Roe v. Wade case in the U. S. Supreme Court Ferdinand C. Weinert, coauthored bill to establish the Pasteur Institute of Texas, authored resolution for humane treatment of state convicts, coauthored the indeterminate sentence and parole law. Served as Texas Secretary of State Charles Wilson, U. S. House of Representatives, subject of the book and film Charlie Wilson's War The Speaker of the House of Representatives has duties as a presiding officer as well as administrative duties.
As a presiding officer, the Speaker must enforce and interpret the rules of the House, call House members to order, lay business in order before the House and receive propositions made by members, refer proposed legislation to a committee, preserve order and decorum, recognize people in the gallery and hold votes on questions, vote as a member of the House, decide on all questions to order, appoint the Speaker Pro Tempore and Temporary Chair, adjourn the House in the event of an emergency, postpone reconvening in the event of an emergency, sign all bills, joint resolutions, concurrent resolutions. The administrative duties of the Speaker include having control over the Hall of the House, appointing chair, vice-chair, members to each standing committee, appointing all conference committees, directing committees to make interim studies; the Chief Clerk is the head of the Chief Clerk's Office which maintains a record of all authors who sign legislation and distributes membership information to current house members, forwards copies of legislation to house committee chairs.
The Chief Clerk is the primary custodian of all legal documents within House. Additional duties include keeping a record of all progress on a document, attesting all warrants and subpoenas, receiving and filing all documents received by the house, maintaining the electronic information and calendar for documents; when there is a considerable update of the electronic source website, the Chief Clerk is responsible for noticing House members via email. Agriculture and Livestock AppropriationsSubcommittee on Articles I, IV & V Subcommittee on Article II Subcommittee on Article III Subcommittee on Articles VI, VII & VIII Subcommittee on Budget Transparency & Reform Business & Industry Calendars Corrections County Affairs Criminal Jurisprudenc
U.S. Route 183
U. S. Route 183 is a north–south United States highway. US 183 was the last U. S. Route to be paved; the 20-mile segment in Loup County, north of Taylor, was unpaved until 1967. The highway's southern terminus is in Refugio, Texas, at the southern intersection of U. S. Highway 77 and Alternate US 77, its northern terminus is in Presho, South Dakota, at an intersection with Interstate 90. US 183 and Alt US 77 overlap for their final 80 miles between Refugio. US-183 begins in Refugio, sharing a multiplex with US-77A; the two highways continue north through Goliad County. US-183 crosses I-10 south of the town of Luling; the largest city that US-183 passes through is Austin, where it is a limited access highway. Northwest of Austin, US-183 passes through the suburbs of Cedar Park and Leander, where the 183A toll road runs parallel to it. In Lampasas County, US-183 shares a multiplex with US-190 between the towns of Lometa. US-183 shares a multiplex with US-84 from Goldthwaite in Mills County to Early in Brown County.
It crosses I-20 in Texas. US-183 enters a multiplex with US-283 in Throckmorton County, both highways share a multiplex with US-277 and US-82 in Baylor County from Seymour to Mabelle. In Wilbarger County, US-183 exits the multiplex with US-283 and turns east with US-70 to share a wrong way concurrency with US-287 between the towns of Vernon and Oklaunion. US-183 continues north sharing a multiplex with US-70. US 183/US 70 enters Oklahoma by crossing the Red River 3 miles south of Davidson, OK. In Davidson, US 70 splits from US 183; this continues as US 183 passes US 62 and BUS 62 in Snyder, OK. About 62 miles north of Snyder, US 183 crosses Interstate 40 at Interstate 40's exit 66. Another 47 miles US 183 co-signs with US 270 near Seiling, OK. US 183/US 270 continue in a northwesterly direction for 32 miles before picking up US 412 in Woodward, OK. US 183/US 270/US 412 leave Woodward in a due west fashion for a short time, until heading northwest again for 15 miles, at which time US 270 and US 412 leave US 183 near Fort Supply, OK to form their own duplex through the panhandle of Oklahoma as US 270/US 412.
US 183 continues north from the southern Harper County line to the Oklahoma/Kansas state line for a total of about 31 miles before leaving the state. US-183 enters Kansas in Clark County and turns east at Sitka, where it begins a multiplex with US-160, entering Comanche County, where it passes through Protection; the highways stay paired as it turns north to pass through Coldwater. At Coldwater, US-160 turns back to the east, US-183 continues its northerly track. Entering Kiowa County, US-183 reaches a junction with the multiplexed east–west route, US-54 and US-400, where it passes through Greensburg. In southern Edwards County, the highway makes a brief turn to the west before meeting up with US-56 in Kinsley, the Edwards County seat. US-56 and US-183 turn northeast before the highways split after entering Pawnee County. US-56 continues northeast toward Larned, US-183 straightens out to pass through unpopulated areas in Edwards County. In Rush County, US-183 intersects two primary east–west Kansas state highways, K-96 in Rush Center and K-4 in LaCrosse.
US-183 reaches the largest city along its route in Kansas, where a western bypass of the highway provides direct access to Gross Memorial Coliseum and Fort Hays State University. US-183 contains numerous businesses. US-183 runs through town for three miles before crossing Interstate 70, traveled in Hays with traffic between Denver and Kansas City; the interchange of US-183 and I-70 has been designated as the CW2 Bryan J. Nichols Fallen Veterans Memorial Interchange. North of Hays, the highway has been resurfaced and realigned for 23 miles to Plainville, one of two towns in Rooks County US-183 serves. At Plainville, US-183 has a junction with K-18. US-183 continues 15 miles north to the Rooks County seat, where US-24 crosses; the highway enters Phillips County 12 miles north of Stockton. US-183 meets US-36 west, the highways join for a multiplex through the city of Phillipsburg; the highways split in downtown Phillipsburg, US-183 has one last junction with K-383 before exiting the state south of Alma, Nebraska.
US-183 is two-laned throughout Kansas, except for the portion. U. S. Highway 183 enters Nebraska south of Alma, it enters Alma after crossing Harlan County Lake and the Republican River and runs concurrent with U. S. Highway 136 north out of Alma. After separating from US 136, US 183 continues north to Holdrege, where it intersects U. S. Highway 6 and U. S. Highway 34. US 183 continues north from Holdrege and intersects Interstate 80 south of Elm Creek shortly after crossing the Platte River, it proceeds north into Elm Creek and meets U. S. Highway 30. US 183 intersects Nebraska Highway 2 at Ansley, it continues north from Ansley through Sargent and Rose before meeting U. S. Highway 20 in Bassett. At Bassett, US 183 turns west with US 20 before turning north again near Long Pine. US 183 continues north through Springview before entering South Dakota. U. S. Highway 183 enters South Dakota just south of Wewela, it goes north to Colome, where it intersects U. S. Highway 18. US 183 and US 18 go northwest through Winner together US 183 turns north west of Winner.
It goes north to Presho, where it ends. The South Dakota section of U. S. 183, with the exception of a concurrency with U. S. 18, is
Texas Ranger Division
The Texas Ranger Division called the Texas Rangers, is a U. S statewide investigative law enforcement agency with statewide jurisdiction in Texas, based in the capital city of Austin. Over the years, the Texas Rangers have investigated crimes ranging from murder to political corruption, acted in riot control and as detectives, protected the governor of Texas, tracked down fugitives, functioned as a paramilitary force at the service of both the Republic and the state of Texas; the Texas Rangers were unofficially created by Stephen F. Austin in a call-to-arms written in 1823 and were first headed by Captain Morris. After a decade, on August 10, 1835, Daniel Parker introduced a resolution to the Permanent Council creating a body of rangers to protect the border; the unit was dissolved by the federal authorities during the post–Civil War Reconstruction Era, but was reformed upon the reinstitution of home government. Since 1935, the organization has been a division of the Texas Department of Public Safety.
As of 2015, there are 162 commissioned members of the Ranger force. The Rangers have taken part in many of the most important events of Texas history, such as stopping the assassination of presidents William Howard Taft and Porfirio Díaz in El Paso, in some of the best-known criminal cases in the history of the Old West, such as those of gunfighter John Wesley Hardin, bank robber Sam Bass, outlaws Bonnie and Clyde. Scores of books have been written about the Rangers, from well-researched works of nonfiction to pulp novels and other such fiction, making the Rangers significant participants in the mythology of the Wild West; the Lone Ranger the best-known example of a Texas Ranger–derived fictional character, draws his alias from having once been a Texas Ranger. Other well-known examples include. During their mixed history, a distinct Ranger tradition has evolved. There is a museum dedicated to the Texas Rangers in Texas; the rangers were founded in 1823 when Stephen F. Austin, known as the Father of Texas, employed ten men to act as rangers to protect 600 to 700 newly settled families who arrived in Texas following the Mexican War of Independence.
While there is some discussion as to when Austin employed men as "rangers", Texas Ranger lore dates the year of their organization to this event. The Texas Rangers were formally constituted in 1835 and, in November, Robert McAlpin Williamson was chosen to be the first Major of the Texas Rangers. Within two years the Rangers comprised more than 300 men. Following the Texas Revolution and the creation of the Republic of Texas, newly elected president Mirabeau B. Lamar, raised a force of 56 Rangers to fight the Cherokee and the Comanche in retaliation for the support they had given the Mexicans at the Cordova Rebellion against the Republic. Ten rangers were killed in the Battle of Stone Houses in 1837; the size of the Ranger force was increased from 56 to 150 men by Sam Houston, as President of the Republic, in 1841, The Rangers continued to participate in skirmishes with Native Americans through 1846, when the annexation of Texas to the United States and the Mexican–American War saw several companies of Rangers mustered into federal service.
They played important roles at various battles, acting as guides and participating in Counter-guerrilla warfare, soon establishing a fearsome reputation among both Mexicans and Americans. At the Battle of Monterrey in September 1846, famous Texas Rangers such as John Coffee "Jack" Hays, Ben McCulloch, Bigfoot Wallace, Samuel Hamilton Walker played important roles in the battle, to include advising General William Jenkins Worth on the tactics required to fight inside a Mexican city. Richard Addison Gillespie, a famed Texas Ranger, died at Monterrey, General Worth renamed a hill "Mount Gillespie" after him. Colonel Hays organized a second regiment of Texas Rangers, including Rip Ford, who fought with General Winfield Scott in his Mexico City Campaign and the Anti-guerrilla campaign along his line of communications to Vera Cruz. John Jackson Tumlinson Sr. the first alcalde of the Colorado district, is considered by many Texas Ranger historians to be the first Texas Ranger killed in the line of duty.
One of his most urgent issues was protection of settlers from murder by marauders. On his way to San Antonio, in 1823, to discuss the issue with the governor, Tumlinson was killed by Native Americans, his traveling companion, a Mr. Newman, escaped. Tumlinson's body was never found. Following the end of the war in 1848, the Rangers were disbanded, but the election of Hardin Richard Runnels as governor in 1857 meant $70,000 was allocated to fund the Rangers under John Salmon "Rip" Ford, a veteran of the Mexican war; the now 100-strong Rangers participated in campaigns against the Comanche and other tribes, whose raids against the settlers and their properties had become common. Ford and his Rangers fought the Comanche in the Battle of Little Robe Creek in 1858 and Juan Cortina in the Battle of Rio Grande City the following year; the success of a series of campaigns in the 1860s marked a turning point in Rangers' history. The U. S. Army could provide only limited and thinly-stretched protection in the enormous territory of Texas.
By contrast, the Rangers' effectiveness when dealing with these threats convinced both the people of the state and the political leaders that a well-funded and organized state Ranger force was essential. Such a force could use the deep fa