Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay. According to the 2011 census, the city proper has a population of 1,319,108 in an area of 201 square kilometres; the southernmost capital city in the Americas, Montevideo is situated on the southern coast of the country, on the northeastern bank of the Río de la Plata. The city was established in 1724 by a Spanish soldier, Bruno Mauricio de Zabala, as a strategic move amidst the Spanish-Portuguese dispute over the platine region, it was under brief British rule in 1807. Montevideo is the seat of the administrative headquarters of Mercosur and ALADI, Latin America’s leading trade blocs, a position that entailed comparisons to the role of Brussels in Europe; the 2017 Mercer's report on quality of life, rated Montevideo first in Latin America, a rank the city has held since 2005. As of 2010, Montevideo was the 19th largest city economy in the continent and 9th highest income earner among major cities. In 2019, it has a projected GDP of $47.7 billion, with a per capita of $27,542.
In 2018, it was classified as a beta global city ranking eighth in Latin America and 84th in the world. Montevideo hosted every match during the first FIFA World Cup, in 1930. Described as a "vibrant, eclectic place with a rich cultural life", "a thriving tech center and entrepreneurial culture", Montevideo ranked eighth in Latin America on the 2013 MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. In 2014, it was regarded as the fifth most gay-friendly metropolis in the world, first in Latin America, it is higher education in Uruguay as well as its chief port. The city is the financial and cultural hub of a larger metropolitan area, with a population of around 2 million. There are several explanations about the word Montevideo. All agree that "Monte" refers to the Cerro de Montevideo, the hill situated across the Bay of Montevideo, but there is disagreement about the etymological origin of the "video" part. Monte vide eu is the most widespread belief but is rejected by the majority of experts, who consider it unlikely because it involves a mix of dialects.
The name would come from a Portuguese expression which means "I saw a mount", wrongly pronounced by an anonymous sailor belonging to the expedition of Fernando de Magallanes on catching sight of the Cerro de Montevideo. Monte Vidi: This hypothesis comes from the "Diario de Navegación" of boatswain Francisco de Albo, member of the expedition of Fernando de Magallanes, who wrote, "Tuesday of the said we were on the straits of Cape Santa María, from where the coast runs east to west, the terrain is sandy, at the right of the cape there is a mountain like a hat to which we gave the name "Montevidi"." This is the oldest Spanish document that mentions the promontory with a name similar to the one that designates the city, but it does not contain any mention of the alleged cry "Monte vide eu." Monte-VI-D-E-O: According to Rolando Laguarda Trías, professor of history, the Spaniards annotated the geographic location on a map or Portolan chart, so that the mount/hill is the VI mount observable on the coast, navigating Río de la Plata from east to west.
With the passing of time, these words were unified to "Montevideo". No conclusive evidence has been found to confirm this academic hypothesis nor can it be asserted with certainty which were the other five mounts observable before the Cerro. Monte Ovidio, a less widespread hypothesis of a religious origin, stems from an interpolation in the aforementioned Diario de Navegación of Fernando de Albo, where it is asserted "corruptly now called Santo Vidio" when they refer to the hat-like mount which they named Monte Vidi. Ovidio was the third bishop of the Portuguese city of Braga. Given the relationship that the Portuguese had with the discovery and foundation of Montevideo, despite the fact that this hypothesis, like the previous ones, lacks conclusive documentation, there have been those who linked the name of Santo Ovidio or Vidio with the subsequent derivation of the name "Montevideo" given to the region since the early years of the 16th century. Between 1680 and 1683, Portugal founded the city of Colonia do Sacramento in the region across the bay from Buenos Aires.
This city met with no resistance from the Spanish until 1723, when they began to place fortifications on the elevations around Montevideo Bay. On 22 November 1723, Field Marshal Manuel de Freitas da Fonseca of Portugal built the Montevieu fort. A Spanish expedition was sent from Buenos Aires, organized by the Spanish governor of that city, Bruno Mauricio de Zabala. On 22 January 1724, the Spanish forced the Portuguese to abandon the location and started populating the city with six families moving in from Buenos Aires and soon thereafter by families arriving from the Canary Islands who were known as Guanches or Canarians. There was one significant early Italian resident by the name of Jorge Burgues. A census of the city's inhabitants was performed in 1724 and a plan was drawn delineating the city and designating it as San Felipe y Santiago de Montevideo shortened to Montevideo; the census counted fifty families of Galician and Canary Islands origin, more than 1000 indigenous people Guaraní, as well as Black African slaves of Bantu origin.
A few years after its foundation, Montevideo became the main city of the region north of the Río de la Plata and east of the Uruguay River, competing with Buenos Aires for dominance i
Downtown Tampa is the central business district of Tampa, United States, the chief financial district of the Tampa Bay Area. It is second only to Westshore regarding employment in the area. Companies with a major presence downtown include Bank of America, BB&T, Marshall & Ilsley, PNC Financial Services, SunTrust, Sykes Enterprises, TECO Energy, Frontier Communications; the Tampa Convention Center is located on the river. Downtown Tampa is bounded by the Hillsborough River to the west, Channelside to the east, Interstate 275 to the north, Davis Islands and Harbour Island to the south; the total area for the area is 521 acres. Historical Fort Brooke was located at the southern end of downtown Tampa, near the mouth of the Hillsborough River; the TECO Streetcar takes passengers from downtown to other core areas of Tampa. Tampa City Hall Tampa Police Department The Florida Aquarium is a large scale, 250,000-square-foot aquarium and is accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums; the facility is home to more than 20,000 aquatic plants and animals from Florida and all over the world.
The facility is located in the Channel District near the SS American Victory and the Port of Tampa's cruise terminals. The Florida Museum of Photographic Arts occupies the 2nd and 3rd floors of the architecturally significant Cube an adjacent to Rivergate Tower. FMoPA is part of the Waterfront Arts District, along with the Tampa Museum of Art and Glazer Children's Museum, all located alongside the Tampa Riverwalk; the Glazer Children’s Museum is located in central downtown, next door to the Tampa Museum of Art and Curtis Hixon Park, alongside the Tampa Riverwalk. It is part of the Waterfront Arts District. Based in a 53,000 square foot facility in downtown Tampa, the Museum has 170 hands-on exhibits in multiple themed areas. Exhibits are designed to engage children in the discovery process through play; the Henry B. Plant Museum is located in the south wing of Plant Hall on the University of Tampa’s campus, at 401 West Kennedy Boulevard; the museum's exhibits focus on the Gilded Age lifestyle of the old Tampa Bay Hotel’s guests during the 1890s, when Tampa was experiencing sudden population and economic growth, including the beginning of the local tourist industry.
The SS American Victory a Victory ship built during World War II and is located in the Channel District near the Florida Aquarium. American Victory was preserved in 1998 to serve as a museum ship, she is the main feature of the American Victory Ship & Museum known as the American Victory Mariners Memorial & Museum Ship. The Tampa Bay History Center is history museum located in the southern part of downtown near the Channel District and Amalie Arena. Exhibits include coverage of the Tampa Bay area's first native inhabitants, Spanish conquistadors, historical figures who shaped the area's history, as well as a reproduction of a 1920s cigar store; the Tampa Museum of Art is located in central downtown, next door to the Glazer Children’s Museum and Curtis Hixon Park, alongside the Tampa Riverwalk. The museum was founded in 1979 and debuted an innovative new building in 2010 on the banks of Hillsborough River just north of its original site; the current location is part of Tampa's Riverwalk and the Waterfront Arts District along with the Glazer Children's Museum and the Florida Museum of Photographic Arts and includes a gift shop and SONO Cafe, a restaurant operated by Mise En Place.
The David A. Straz Jr. Center for the Performing Arts opened its doors as the Tampa Bay Performing Arts Center, Florida in July 1987 and has welcomed more than 10 million guests; the Straz Center is located in northern downtown on a 9-acre site along the east bank of the Hillsborough River. As the second largest performing arts complex in the Southeastern United States, the 335,000-square-foot venue provides an environment for a variety of events, it has a leading Broadway series, produces grand opera, is the home of the resident professional theater company Jobsite Theater, presents a wide variety of concerts and other events. The Tampa Theatre a historic U. S. theater and city landmark in the Uptown District of downtown Tampa, Florida. On January 3, 1978, it was added to the U. S. National Register of Historic Places; the Theatre features a wide range of independent and documentary films on a daily basis. It is Tampa's only non-profit movie theater and operating costs are covered by its membership program, various corporate sponsors as well as ticket sales.
It has periodically been used as a backdrop for MTV videos and local programming. Known as the River Arts District, this northwestern chunk of downtown contains the majority of nightlife and dining in the neighborhood. Important cultural landmarks such as Tampa Theatre, Straz Center for the Performing Arts, the John F. Germany public library, Glazer Children's Museum, the Tampa Museum of Art are all centered around Curtis Hixon Waterfront Park, called "Tampa's town square". Collectively, this area represents the focal point of downtown proper due to having a large concentration of interest points and establishments. Although technically downtown, Channelside is thought to be adjacent to the main CBD; this district is the location for many prominent downtown venues. The Tampa Convention Center, Amalie Arena, Tampa Bay History Center, the Florida Aquarium and the SS American Victory are located in the Channel District. Twin 30 story condos were completed in 2007, called the Towers of Channelside.
Many other residential mid and high-rises have been completed since. Many locals know the Channel District for its nightlife; the Channelside Bay Plaza, wh
The Bayshore Freeway is a part of U. S. Route 101 in the San Francisco Bay Area of the U. S. state of California. It runs along the west shore of the San Francisco Bay. Within the city of San Francisco, the freeway is known as James Lick Freeway, named after the California philanthropist; the road was built as a surface road, the Bayshore Highway, upgraded to freeway standards. Before 1964, it was marked as U. S. Route 101 Bypass, with US 101 using the present State Route 82; the Bayshore Freeway begins at the Blossom Hill Road interchange on US 101. The freeway curves north and northwest, bypassing downtown San Jose to the east, curves west-northwest, crossing I-880 and SR 87, the latter just north of the San Jose International Airport; the portion of the highway from San Jose to South San Francisco is straight and flat, running near the west edge of the San Francisco Bay. Junctions here include SR 237 in Sunnyvale, SR 85 in Mountain View, SR 84 in Menlo Park and Redwood City, SR 92 in San Mateo, the San Francisco International Airport and I-380 in San Bruno.
In South San Francisco, the freeway curves northeast around San Bruno Mountain, crossing its east edge at Sierra Point, heads north on a causeway across the former Candlestick Cove to the San Francisco city line. In San Francisco, where the road is known as the James Lick Freeway, it continues north-northwesterly between Bayview Park and McLaren Park, crosses I-280 at the Alemany Maze. There it curves north-northeasterly around Bernal Heights and northwest around Potrero Hill, meeting the Central Freeway at the border between the Mission District and South of Market; the Bayshore Freeway ends at the intersection of US 101 and Interstate 80, although signed as Interstate 80, is not Interstate 80 until the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge. The freeway that goes from US 101 to the Bay Bridge, signed as I-80 but not I-80 is called the San Francisco Skyway. Before the Dumbarton and San Mateo-Hayward Bridges were built across the San Francisco Bay in the 1920s, San Francisco was bottled up at the north end of a long peninsula, with driving south on El Camino Real towards San Jose as the only reasonable alternative to the ferries for crossing the bay.
The first of several highways built as an alternate to El Camino Real was the Skyline Boulevard, added to the state highway system in 1919. A second route, the Bay Shore Highway, became a state highway in 1923, but only from the San Francisco city limits into San Mateo County, where the Dumbarton Bridge would begin. Just prior to the start of construction on the Dumbarton Bridge, San Francisco Supervisor Richard J. Welch noted that the Bay Shore Highway would need to be built all the way to San Jose as an escape valve for the additional traffic that the bridge would attract. Groundbreaking ceremonies were held in South San Francisco for the Bayshore Highway on September 11, 1924; the route used a right-of-way, 125 feet wide with a four-lane undivided highway 40 feet wide. The state legislature extended the highway in 1925, defining it to run from near the intersection of Army Street and San Bruno Avenue in San Francisco to a point in San Jose; the governor approved the bill with the stipulation that only the portion between the city limits of San Francisco and San Jose would be a state highway.
Construction between South San Francisco and Burlingame had begun by 1924, funded by a $500,000 contribution from San Francisco, was completed in 1928. A disconnected segment north of San Mateo was built by the state at the same time, it was not until February 1929 that the road was paved between San Francisco and Burlingame, on October 20, 1929 the new highway was dedicated to San Mateo, several months after the connecting San Mateo-Hayward Bridge opened. Motorists had to wait until May 7, 1931 to reach Jefferson Avenue in Redwood City; the roadway was extended to Oregon Avenue in Palo Alto in mid-1932, Lawrence Station Road in mid-1933, to Lafayette Street near Santa Clara, across the Guadalupe River from San Jose, by 1934. The final piece to Oakland Road in San Jose, the main road - Legislative Route 5 and Sign Route 17 - between San Jose and Oakland, was dedicated on June 12, 1937, over ten years after the Dumbarton Bridge opened in January 1927. Although the highway was designed and built to what were, at the time, high standards, with a 100-foot wide right-of-way in most places, it was accident-prone because it lacked a median barrier.
One segment of the so-called "Bloody Bayshore" was "Boneyard Hill", a steep grade through the Visitacion Valley near the San Francisco city line, running past a bone meal plant. Causes of the crashes included turning conflicts at intersections, speeding drivers crossing the centerline to use the oncoming lanes as a passing lane; the roadway was at-grade except for crossings of rail lines. It followed the present alignment of the Bayshore Freeway, but deviated in several places: Old Bayshore Highway in San Jose, Veterans Boulevard in Redwood City, Bayshore Highway in Burlingame, a destroyed section of road through San Francisco International Airport, Airport and Bayshore Boulevards from South San Francisco through Brisbane into San Francisco. Within that city, the new highway continued three miles along the present Bay Shore Boulevard to Army Street and Potrero Avenue; when the Bayshore Highway was completed in 1937, U. S. Route 101 signs were moved to it from El Camino Real, El Camino became U.
S. Route 101 Altern
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
Republican National Convention
The Republican National Convention is a series of presidential nominating conventions of the United States Republican Party since 1856. Administered by the Republican National Committee, the stated purpose of the convocation is to nominate an official candidate in an upcoming U. S. presidential election, to adopt the party platform and rules for the election cycle. Like the Democratic National Convention, it signifies the end of a presidential primary season and the start of campaigning for a general election. In recent years, the nominee has been known well before the convention; some 2,472 delegates have attended the 2016 Republican National Convention in Cleveland, July 18–21 to select the presidential nominee. The winner must carry 1,237—half of the total, plus one. If no single candidate has secured a majority of delegates after the first ballot, a brokered convention results, it has not happened since the 1976 Republican National Convention. The convention was the final determinant of the nomination, contentious as various factions of party insiders maneuvered to advance their candidates.
Since the universal adoption of the primary election for selecting delegates in the last quarter of the 20th century, the convention's significance has diminished. The national party focuses on the convention as a unity point to bring together a party platform and state parties by having delegates vote on issues, which the nominee can incorporate into his presidential campaign. In case of a brokered convention, Rule 40 of the 2016 convention rules states that a candidate must have the support of a majority of the delegates of at least eight delegations in order to get the nomination. On the first ballot, delegates from all states and territories except Colorado, North Dakota, Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam and a few from Louisiana must vote for the candidate who won their support on the day of their state's primary or caucus. On the second ballot, 55 percent of the delegates are free to vote for whomever. By the third ballot, 85 percent of the delegates are free; the size of delegations to the Republican National Convention, for each state, territory, or other political subdivision, are determined by Rule 14 of the party's national rules.
The rules use a mix of at-large delegates, delegates based on population, delegates awarded based on the state party's success in electing or supporting Republican candidates at the national and state levels. As of 2012 the size of each state's delegation is calculated as follows: At-large delegates The national committeeman, the national committeewoman and the chairperson of the state Republican Party of each state, American Samoa, the District of Columbia, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, the U. S. Virgin Islands, are automatically nominated as delegates to the national convention. In addition, each of the fifty states are allowed ten additional at-large delegates. Congressional delegation delegates Each state is allowed three district delegates for each member of the United States House of Representatives. In lieu of Congressional delegation delegates, non-state political subdivisions are allowed specified numbers of delegates: 16 from D. C. 20 from Puerto Rico, six each from American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U.
S. Virgin Islands. Presidential support delegates A state can earn additional delegates if the state voted in the plurality for the GOP candidate. If the state casts at least a majority of its Electoral College votes for the Republican nominee in the preceding presidential election, the state can earn four and one-half delegates at large plus a number of the delegates at large equal to 60 percent of the number of electoral votes of that state. Should Puerto Rico become a state between national conventions, it would earn additional delegates under this provision regardless of whether its voters supported the GOP or Democratic candidate. Should the District of Columbia cast its electoral votes, or a majority thereof, for the Republican nominee for President of the United States in the last preceding presidential election, it shall be permitted four and one half delegates at large plus the number of delegates at large equal to thirty percent of the 16 delegates at large allotted to the District of Columbia, rounding any fraction upward.
Republican state success delegates Each state can earn additional delegates based on how well the state party does in electing candidates to state and national elections. The accomplishments are determined in the year of the last preceding presidential election or at any subsequent election held prior to January 1 of the year in which the next national convention is held; as such, a state is not penalized if it had a Republican Governor voted a Democratic governor into office, but if the state had a Democratic governor voted in a Republican governor it is rewarded for taking the seat. A Republican Governor of a State.
Robert Francis Buckhorn Jr. is an American politician serving as the mayor of Tampa, Florida. He served on Tampa's city council. Born in Evanston, the eldest of three sons, Buckhorn grew up in Falls Church, Virginia, he graduated in 1980 from Pennsylvania State University with a degree in Political Science, where he was on the college lacrosse team. He is married to Dr. Catherine Lynch Buckhorn and they have two daughters. Buckhorn was the Director of Governmental Affairs for the Builders Association of Greater Tampa, in 1987, became the Special Assistant to Mayor Sandra Freedman. In 1995, Buckhorn was elected Tampa City Council and was reelected to the Tampa City Council for a second term with 75% of the vote. Having come third in the 2003 mayoral election, Buckhorn announced his intention to run again in the Mayoral election, received an endorsement from outgoing incumbent Pam Iorio. In June 2011, he formed the Economic Competitiveness Committee to review the City of Tampa's permitting and regulatory processes and to look for ways to improve the system.
The ECC made several recommendations, the City of Tampa is in the process of instituting those, including the implementation of Accela to allow for permitting to be done online. Through the Invision Tampa plan, Buckhorn outlined his commitment to creating a more connected, livable city by focusing on the city's underutilized riverfront, generating a strong mix-use pedestrian environment, building links between neighborhoods, developing an urban pattern that supports transit, he has worked to restore the street grid, foster new retail opportunities, tried to work to attract new high density residential development such as the Residences on the Riverwalk and Skyhouse Tampa. Buckhorn helped secure a Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery Grant from the U. S. Department of Transportation to complete the Tampa Riverwalk, in the molding process by city officials for more than 40 years; the Riverwalk is part of plans to generate new possibilities for economic development along the Hillsborough River.
He has supported the expansion of mass transit and bike share. Buckhorn came under fire for aiming a twin.50 caliber machine gun at journalists and pretending to shoot them during a military parade and joking about it afterwards. Buckhorn apologized to the military journalists for his joke. Buckhorn approved the arrest of a group of volunteers "Tampa Food, Not Bombs" on January 7, 2017 for feeding the homeless. Mayor Buckhorn on City of Tampa Website Official campaign website Bob Buckhorn's Facebook Bob Buckhorn on Twitter Appearances on C-SPAN
The median strip or central reservation is the reserved area that separates opposing lanes of traffic on divided roadways, such as divided highways, dual carriageways and motorways. The term applies to divided roadways other than highways, such as some major streets in urban or suburban areas; the reserved area may be paved, but it is adapted to other functions. There is no international English standard for the term. Median, median strip, median divider island are common in North American and Antipodean English. Variants in North American English include regional terms such as neutral ground in New Orleans usage. In British English central reservation is the preferred usage. Among other coinages, central nature strip occurs in Australian English. Additionally, different terminology is used to identify traffic lanes in a multi-lane roadway. North American usage calls the lanes located closest to the roadway centerline the "inner" lanes, while British usage calls these lanes the "outer" lanes. Thus, it is less confusing to call these central lanes the "passing", "fast", or "overtaking" lanes in international contexts, instead of using the ambiguous inner/outer distinction.
Regional differences between right-hand traffic and left-hand traffic can cause further confusion. Some medians function secondarily as green belts to beautify roadways. Jurisdictions can: plant lawn grasses with regular mowing. Where space is at a premium, dense hedges of shrubs filter the headlights of oncoming traffic and provide a resilient barrier. In other areas, the median may be occupied by a right-of-way for a public transportation system, such as a light rail or rapid transit line. In contrast to the median of a major road, those in urban areas take the form of central traffic islands that rise above the roadway; these are found on urban arterial roads. In their simplest form, these are just raised concrete curbs, but can be landscaped with grass or trees or decorated with bricks or stones; such medians are sometimes found on more minor or residential streets, where they serve as a traffic-calming or landscaping element rather than a safety enhancement to restrict turns and separate opposite directions of high-volume traffic flow.
In some areas, such as California, highway medians are sometimes no more than a demarcated section of the paved roadway, indicated by a space between two sets of double yellow lines. Such a double-double yellow line or painted median is similar to an island median: vehicles are not permitted to cross it, unlike a single set of double yellow lines which may in some cases permit turns across the line; this arrangement has been used to reduce costs, including narrower medians than are feasible with a planted strip, but research indicates that such narrow medians may have minimal safety benefit compared to no median at all. The medians of United States Interstate Highways break only for emergency service lanes, with no such restrictions on lower classification roads. On British motorways, the median is never broken, but there are no such restrictions on other dual carriageways; the median strip in the United Kingdom and other densely populated European countries is no wider than a single lane of traffic.
In some cases, however, it is extended. For instance, if the road is running through hilly terrain, the carriageways may have to be built on different levels of the slope. An example of this is on the M5 motorway as it climbs up the side of the Gordano Valley south of Bristol. Two examples on the UK road network where the carriageways are several hundred yards/meters apart, are on a section of the M6 between Shap and Tebay, which allows a local road to run between them, on the M62 where the highest section through the Pennines famously splits wide enough to contain a farm; the other major exception is the A38 Aston Expressway, a single carriageway of seven lanes, where the median lane moves to account for traffic flow. With effect from January 2005 and based on safety grounds, the UK's Highways Agency's policy is that all new motorway schemes are to use high containment concrete step barriers in the median. All existing motorways will introduce concrete barriers as part of ongoing upgrades and through replacement as and when the current systems have reached the end of their useful life.
This change of policy applies only to barriers in the median of high speed roads and not to verge side barriers. Other routes will continue to use steel barriers. In North America, some other countries with large sparsely populated areas, opposing lanes of traffic may be separated by several hundred meters of fields or forests outside of populated areas, but converge to a lan