Chenopodium is a genus of numerous species of perennial or annual herbaceous flowering plants known as the goosefoots, which occur anywhere in the world. It is placed in the family Amaranthaceae in the APG II system. However, among the Amaranthaceae, the genus Chenopodium is the namesake member of the subfamily Chenopodioideae. In Australia, the larger Chenopodium species are among the plants called "bluebushes". Chualar in California is named after a Native American term for a goosefoot abundant in the region the California goosefoot; the species of Chenopodium are shrubs or small trees. They are sometimes fetid; the young stems and leaves are densely covered by vesicular globose hairs, thus looking farinose. Characteristically, these trichomes persist and becoming cup-shaped; the branched stems grow erect, prostrate or scrambling. Lateral branches are alternate; the alternate or opposite leaves are petiolate. Their thin or fleshy leaf blade is linear, rhombic or triangular-hastate, with entire or dentate or lobed margins.
Inflorescences are standing lateral. They paniculately arranged glomerules of flowers. Plants are monoecious. In monoecious plants flowers are pistillate. Flowers consist of 5 perianth segments connate. Basally or close to the middle membranous margined and with a roundish to keeled back. In fruit, perianth segments become sometimes coloured, but keep unchanged, somewhat closing over or spreading from the fruit. Pericarp membranous or sometimes succulent, adherent to or loosely covering the seed; the horizontally oriented seeds are depressed-globular to lenticular, with rounded to subacute margin. The black seed coat is smooth to finely striate, rugulose or pitted; the genus Chenopodium contains several plants of minor to moderate importance as food crops as leaf vegetables – used like the related spinach and similar plants called quelite in Mexico – and pseudocereals. These include kañiwa and quinoa. On the Greek island of Crete, tender shoots and leaves of a species called krouvida or psarovlito are eaten by the locals, boiled or steamed.
As studied by Kristen Gremillion and others, goosefoots have a history of culinary use dating back to 4000 BC or earlier, when pitseed goosefoot was a staple crop in the Native American eastern agricultural complex, white goosefoot was used by the Ertebølle culture of Europe. Members of the eastern Yamnaya culture harvested white goosefoot as an apparent cereal substitute to round out an otherwise meat and dairy diet c. 3500–2500 BCE. There is increased interest in particular in goosefoot seeds today, which are suitable as part of a gluten-free diet. Quinoa oil, extracted from the seeds of C. quinoa, has similar properties, but is superior in quality, to corn oil. Oil of chenopodium is extracted from the seeds of epazote, not in this genus anymore. Shagreen leather was produced in the past using the hard goosefoot seeds. C. album was one of the main model organisms for the molecular biological study of chlorophyllase. Goosefoot pollen, in particular of the widespread and abundant C. album, is an allergen to many people and a common cause of hay fever.
The same species, as well as some others, have seeds which are able to persist for years in the soil seed bank. Many goosefoot species are thus significant weeds, some have become invasive species; the 1889 book The Useful Native Plants of Australia records: This is another of the salt-bushes, besides being invaluable food for stock, can be eaten by man. All plants of the Natural Order Chenopodiaceae are less useful in this respect; the following account of its practical utilization will be of interest:— “We have gathered an abundant harvest of leaves from two or three plants growing in our garden. These leaves were put into boiling water to blanch them, they were cooked as an ordinary dish of spinach, with this difference in favour of the new plant, that there was no occasion to take away the threads which are so disagreeable in chicory and ordinary spinach. We partook of this dish with relish—the flavour—analogous to spinach, had something in it more refined, less grassy in taste; the cultivation is easy: sow the seed in April in a well-manured bed.
The leaves may be gathered from the time. They grow up again quickly. In less than eight days afterwards another gathering may take place, so on to the end of the year.”—Journal de la Ferme et des Maisons de campagne, quoted in Pharm. Journ. Viii. 734. Certain species grow in large thickets. Goosefoot foliage is used as food by the caterpillars of certain Lepidoptera; the seeds are eaten by many birds, such as the yellowhammer of Europe or the white-winged fairy-wren of Australia. Goosefoot pathogens include the positive-sense ssRNA viruses - apple stem grooving virus, sowbane mosaic virus and tobacco necrosis virus; the genus Chenopodium was described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. Type species is Chenopodium album
Ormond Mound is a Pre-Columbian burial mound of the St. Johns culture, in Ormond Beach, Volusia County, Florida, US; the Ormond Mound has been preserved as an intact burial mound in eastern Florida. The site was turned into a City Park in 1982 due to the efforts of the community. In 1982, the owner of the property that the mound was constructed on wanted. Controversy surfaced in the community as the property owner attempted to level the land in order to build a house; as a result of public outrage. Government officials hired archaeologists in an effort to validate who built the site and for what purpose; the archaeologists concluded that the mound was constructed by Timucuan Indians identified as the St. Johns people; the Timucuan were inhabitants of the area before European settlers. It has been estimated that over 100 individual burials are in Ormond Mound, based on salvage excavations that were conducted in 1982; as more bodies were deposited into the area and were covered with sand and other minerals, the earthwork took its "distinctive mounded appearance".
Most of these remains were laid to rest during the late St. Johns period, after A. D. 800. The remains were oftentimes buried with their most prized possessions. Apart from human bones, items found after the site was analyzed included utensils, Indian beads, Spanish trading beads, pottery sherds. A charnel house, a structure used to store bodies prior to burial, was located near the Ormond Mound; these structures were separate from the village and were used by the St. Johns people to prepare the corpses of high-ranking and important people for the afterlife; the dead were allowed to decompose. A charnel house attendant a high priest or a bonepicker, would remove the flesh from the bones as they decomposed; the job of a bonepicker was known throughout the community as one of the most prestigious jobs to have. After the bodies dried away, the charnel house priest would end up with individual sets of cleaned bones.. Each set of bones was buried in mounds during special ceremonies; this method accounts for the many skeletons found in burial mounds.
Media related to Ormond Mound at Wikimedia Commons Ormond Mound at Volusia County Heritage site Ormond Beach Historical Society Ormond Beach Historical Trust
The persimmon is the edible fruit of a number of species of trees in the genus Diospyros. The most cultivated of these is the Asian or Japanese persimmon, Diospyros kaki. Diospyros is in the family Ebenaceae, a number of non-persimmon species of the genus are grown for ebony timber; the word Diospyros comes from the ancient Greek words "dios" and "pyron". A popular etymology construed this as "divine fruit", or as meaning "wheat of Zeus" or "God's pear" and "Jove's fire"; the dio-, as shown by the short vowel'i' has nothing to do with'divine', dio- being an affix attached to plant names, in classical Greek the compound referred to'the fruit of the nettle tree'. The word persimmon itself is derived from putchamin, pasiminan, or pessamin, from Powhatan, an Algonquian language of the eastern United States, meaning "a dry fruit"; the tree Diospyros kaki is the most cultivated species of persimmon. The tree reaches 4.5 to 18 metres in height and is round-topped. It stands erect, but sometimes can be crooked or have a willowy appearance.
The leaves alternate, are oblong with brown-hairy petioles. They are leathery and glossy on the upper surface and silky underneath; the leaves are bluish-green in color. In the fall, they turn to orange, or red. Persimmon trees are dioecious, meaning male and female flowers are produced on separate trees; some trees have both male and female flowers and in rare cases bear the'perfect' flower. Male flowers are pink and appear in groups of 3, they have a 4-parted calyx, a corolla, 24 stamens in 2 rows. Female flowers appear singly, they have a large calyx, a 4-parted, yellow corolla, 8 undeveloped stamens, a rounded ovary bearing the style and stigma.'Perfect' flowers are a cross between the two and contain both male and female reproductive organs. Persimmon fruit can stay on the tree until winter. In color, the ripe fruit of the cultivated strains range from glossy light yellow-orange to dark red-orange depending on the species and variety, they vary in size from 1.5 to 9 cm in diameter, in shape the varieties may be spherical, acorn-, or pumpkin-shaped.
The flesh is astringent until ripe and is yellow, orange, or dark-brown in color. The calyx remains attached to the fruit after harvesting, but becomes easy to remove once the fruit is ripe; the ripe fruit is sweet in taste. Like the tomato, persimmons are not considered to be berries, but morphologically the fruit is in fact a berry. While many species of Diospyros bear fruit inedible to humans or only gathered, the following are grown for their edible fruit: Asian or Japanese persimmon is the commercially most important persimmon, is native to Japan, Korea and Nepal, it is deciduous, with broad, stiff leaves, is known as the shizi, as the Japanese Persimmon or kaki in Japanese. Its fruits are sweet and tangy with a soft to fibrous texture. Cultivation of the fruit extended first to other parts of east Asia and Nepal, it was introduced to California and southern Europe in the 1800s and to Brazil in the 1890s. Numerous cultivars have been selected; some varieties are edible in the crisp, firm state but it has its best flavor when allowed to rest and soften after harvest.
The Japanese cultivar'Hachiya' is grown. The fruit has a high tannin content, which makes the unripe fruit bitter; the tannin levels are reduced. Persimmons like'Hachiya' must be ripened before consumption; when ripe, this fruit comprises pulpy jelly encased in a waxy thin-skinned shell. "Sharon fruit" is the marketing name for the Israeli-bred cultivar'Triumph'. As with most commercial pollination-variant-astringent persimmons, the fruit are ripened off the tree by exposing them to carbon dioxide; the "sharon fruit" has no core, is seedless and sweet, can be eaten whole. In the Valencia region of Spain, there is a variegated form of kaki called the "Ribera del Xuquer", "Spanish persimon" or "Rojo Brillante". Date-plum known as lotus persimmon, is native to southwest Asia and southeast Europe, it was known to the ancient Greeks as "the fruit of the gods" and referred to as "nature's candy". Its English name derives from Persian Khormaloo خرمالو "date-plum", referring to the taste of this fruit, reminiscent of both plums and dates.
American persimmon is native to the eastern United States. Harvested in the fall or after the first frost, its fruit is eaten fresh, in baked goods, or in steamed puddings in the Midwest, sometimes its timber is used as a substitute for ebony. Black sapote is native to Mexico, its fruit has green skin and white flesh. The Mabolo or Velvet-apple is native to East Asia, ranging from China down into the Philippines, it is bright red when ripe. In China, it is referred to as shizi, it is known as Korean mango. Indian persimmon is a slow-growing tree, native to coastal West Bengal; the fruit turns yellow when ripe. It is small with an unremarkable flavor and is better known for uses in folk medicine rather than culinary applications. Texas persimmon is native to central and west Texas and southwest Oklahoma in the United States, eastern Chihuahua, Coahuil
The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system. Its source is Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota and it flows south for 2,320 miles to the Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains all or parts of 32 U. S. two Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. The main stem is within the United States; the Mississippi ranks as the fifteenth-largest river by discharge in the world. The river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana. Native Americans have lived along its tributaries for thousands of years. Most were hunter-gatherers, but some, such as the Mound Builders, formed prolific agricultural societies; the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century changed the native way of life as first explorers settlers, ventured into the basin in increasing numbers.
The river served first as a barrier, forming borders for New Spain, New France, the early United States, as a vital transportation artery and communications link. In the 19th century, during the height of the ideology of manifest destiny, the Mississippi and several western tributaries, most notably the Missouri, formed pathways for the western expansion of the United States. Formed from thick layers of the river's silt deposits, the Mississippi embayment is one of the most fertile regions of the United States. During the American Civil War, the Mississippi's capture by Union forces marked a turning point towards victory, due to the river's strategic importance to the Confederate war effort; because of substantial growth of cities and the larger ships and barges that replaced steamboats, the first decades of the 20th century saw the construction of massive engineering works such as levees and dams built in combination. A major focus of this work has been to prevent the lower Mississippi from shifting into the channel of the Atchafalaya River and bypassing New Orleans.
Since the 20th century, the Mississippi River has experienced major pollution and environmental problems – most notably elevated nutrient and chemical levels from agricultural runoff, the primary contributor to the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. The word Mississippi itself comes from Misi zipi, the French rendering of the Anishinaabe name for the river, Misi-ziibi. In the 18th century, the river was the primary western boundary of the young United States, since the country's expansion westward, the Mississippi River has been considered a convenient if approximate dividing line between the Eastern and Midwestern United States, the Western United States; this is exemplified by the Gateway Arch in St. Louis and the phrase "Trans-Mississippi" as used in the name of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition, it is common to qualify a regionally superlative landmark in relation to it, such as "the highest peak east of the Mississippi" or "the oldest city west of the Mississippi". The FCC uses it as the dividing line for broadcast call-signs, which begin with W to the east and K to the west, mixing together in media markets along the river.
The Mississippi River can be divided into three sections: the Upper Mississippi, the river from its headwaters to the confluence with the Missouri River. The Upper Mississippi runs from its headwaters to its confluence with the Missouri River at St. Louis, Missouri, it is divided into two sections: The headwaters, 493 miles from the source to Saint Anthony Falls in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The source of the Upper Mississippi branch is traditionally accepted as Lake Itasca, 1,475 feet above sea level in Itasca State Park in Clearwater County, Minnesota; the name "Itasca" was chosen to designate the "true head" of the Mississippi River as a combination of the last four letters of the Latin word for truth and the first two letters of the Latin word for head. However, the lake is in turn fed by a number of smaller streams. From its origin at Lake Itasca to St. Louis, the waterway's flow is moderated by 43 dams. Fourteen of these dams are located above Minneapolis in the headwaters region and serve multiple purposes, including power generation and recreation.
The remaining 29 dams, beginning in downtown Minneapolis, all contain locks and were constructed to improve commercial navigation of the upper river. Taken as a whole, these 43 dams shape the geography and influence the ecology of the upper river. Beginning just below Saint Paul and continuing throughout the upper and lower river, the Mississippi is further controlled by thousands of wing dikes that moderate the river's flow in order to maintain an open navigation channel and prevent the river from eroding its banks; the head of navigation on the Mississippi is the Coon Rapids Dam in Minnesota. Before it was built in 1913, steamboats could go upstream as far as Saint Cloud, depending on river conditions; the uppermost lock and dam on the Upper Mississippi River is the Upper St. Anthony Falls Lock an
A berry is a small and edible fruit. Berries are juicy, brightly colored, sweet or sour, do not have a stone or pit, although many pips or seeds may be present. Common examples are strawberries, blueberries, red currants, white currants and blackcurrants. In Britain, soft fruit is a horticultural term for such fruits; the scientific usage of the term "berry" differs from common usage. In scientific terminology, a berry is a fruit produced from the ovary of a single flower in which the outer layer of the ovary wall develops into an edible fleshy portion; the definition includes many fruits that are not known as berries, such as grapes, cucumbers, eggplants and chili peppers. Fruits excluded by the botanical definition include strawberries and blackberries, which are aggregate fruits. A plant bearing berries is said to be baccate. While many berries are edible, some pokeweed. Others, such as the white mulberry, red mulberry, elderberry, are poisonous when unripe, but are edible when ripe. Berries are eaten worldwide and used in jams, cakes, or pies.
Some berries are commercially important. The berry industry varies from country to country as do types of berries cultivated or growing in the wild; some berries such as raspberries and strawberries have been bred for hundreds of years and are distinct from their wild counterparts, while other berries, such as lingonberries and cloudberries, grow exclusively in the wild. Berries have been valuable as a food source for humans since before the start of agriculture, remain among the primary food sources of other primates, they were a seasonal staple for early hunter-gatherers for thousands of years, wild berry gathering remains a popular activity in Europe and North America today. In time, humans learned to store berries, they may be made into fruit preserves, among Native Americans, mixed with meat and fats as pemmican. Berries began to be cultivated in Europe and other countries; some species of blackberries and raspberries of the genus Rubus have been cultivated since the 17th century, while smooth-skinned blueberries and cranberries of the genus Vaccinium have been cultivated in the United States for over a century.
In Japan, between the 10th and 18th centuries, the term ichibigo ichigo referred to many berry crops. The most cultivated berry of modern times, however, is the strawberry, produced globally at twice the amount of all other berry crops combined; the strawberry was mentioned by ancient Romans, who thought it had medicinal properties, but it was not a staple of agriculture. Woodland strawberries began to be grown in French gardens in the 14th century; the musky-flavored strawberry began to be grown in European gardens in the late 16th century. The Virginia strawberry was grown in Europe and the United States; the most consumed strawberry, the garden strawberry, is an accidental hybrid of the Virginia strawberry and a Chilean variety Fragaria chiloensis. It was first noted by a French gardener around the mid 18th century that, when F. moschata and F. virginiana were planted in between rows of F. chiloensis, the Chilean strawberry would bear abundant and unusually large fruits. Soon after, Antoine Nicolas Duchesne began to study the breeding of strawberries and made several discoveries crucial to the science of plant breeding, such as the sexual reproduction of strawberry.
In the early 1800s, English breeders of strawberry made varieties of F. ananassa which were important in strawberry breeding in Europe, hundreds of cultivars have since been produced through the breeding of strawberries. A form of the word "berry" is found in all the Germanic languages; these forms point to the Proto Germanic *bazją. In Old English, the word was applied to grapes, but has since grown to its current definition. In botanical terminology, a berry is a simple fruit with seeds and pulp produced from the ovary of a single flower, it is fleshy throughout, except for the seeds. It does not have a special "line of weakness" along. A berry may develop from an ovary with one or more carpels; the seeds are embedded in the fleshy interior of the ovary, but there are some non-fleshy examples such as peppers, with air rather than pulp around their seeds. The differences between the everyday and botanical uses of "berry" results in three categories: those fruits that are berries under both definitions.
Berries under both definitions include blueberries, cranberries and the fruits of many other members of the heather family, as well as gooseberries, goji berries and elderberries. The fruits of some "currants", such as blackcurrants, red currants and white currants, are botanical berries, are treated as horticultural berries though their most used names do not include the word "berry". Botanical berries not known as berries include bananas, grapes, persimmons and pumpkins. There are several different kinds of fruits which are called berries, but are not botanical berries. Blackberries and strawberries are kinds o
A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, is a fleshy drupe. The cherry fruits of commerce are obtained from cultivars of a limited number of species such as the sweet cherry and the sour cherry; the name'cherry' refers to the cherry tree and its wood, is sometimes applied to almonds and visually similar flowering trees in the genus Prunus, as in "ornamental cherry" or "cherry blossom". Wild cherry may refer to any of the cherry species growing outside cultivation, although Prunus avium is referred to by the name "wild cherry" in the British Isles. Many cherries are members of the subgenus Cerasus, distinguished by having the flowers in small corymbs of several together, by having smooth fruit with only a weak groove along one side, or no groove; the subgenus is native to the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with two species in America, three in Europe, the remainder in Asia. Other cherry fruits called bird cherries; the English word cherry derives from Old Northern French or Norman cherise from the Latin cerasum, referring to an ancient Greek region, Kerasous near Giresun, from which cherries were first thought to be exported to Europe.
The indigenous range of the sweet cherry extends through most of Europe, western Asia, parts of northern Africa, the fruit has been consumed throughout its range since prehistoric times. A cultivated cherry is recorded as having been brought to Rome by Lucius Licinius Lucullus from northeastern Anatolia known as the Pontus region, in 72 BC. Cherries were introduced into England at Teynham, near Sittingbourne in Kent, by order of Henry VIII, who had tasted them in Flanders. Cherries arrived in North America early in the settlement of Brooklyn, New York when the region was under Dutch sovereignty. Trades people leased or purchased land to plant orchards and produce gardens, "Certificate of Corielis van Tienlioven that he had found 12 apple, 40 peach, 73 cherry trees, 26 sage plants.. Behind the house sold by Anthony Jansen from Salee to Barent Dirksen... ANNO 18th of June 1639." The cultivated forms are of the species sweet cherry to which most cherry cultivars belong, the sour cherry, used for cooking.
Both species originate in western Asia. Some other species, although having edible fruit, are not grown extensively for consumption, except in northern regions where the two main species will not grow. Irrigation, spraying and their propensity to damage from rain and hail make cherries expensive. Nonetheless, demand is high for the fruit. In commercial production, sour cherries, as well as sweet cherries sometimes, are harvested by using a mechanized'shaker'. Hand picking is widely used for sweet as well as sour cherries to harvest the fruit to avoid damage to both fruit and trees. Common rootstocks include Mazzard, Mahaleb and Gisela Series, a dwarfing rootstock that produces trees smaller than others, only 8 to 10 feet tall. Sour cherries require no pollenizer. A cherry tree will take three to four years once it's planted in the orchard to produce its first crop of fruit, seven years to attain full maturity. Like most temperate-latitude trees, cherry trees require a certain number of chilling hours each year to break dormancy and bloom and produce fruit.
The number of chilling hours required depends on the variety. Because of this cold-weather requirement, no members of the genus Prunus can grow in tropical climates. Cherries can grow in most temperate latitudes. Cherries blossom in April and the peak season for the cherry harvest is in the summer. In southern Europe in June, in North America in June, in England in mid-July, in southern British Columbia in June to mid-August. In many parts of North America, they are among the first tree fruits to flower and ripen in mid-Spring. In the Southern Hemisphere, cherries are at their peak in late December and are associated with Christmas.'Burlat' is an early variety which ripens during the beginning of December,'Lapins' ripens near the end of December, and'Sweetheart' finish later. The cherry can be a difficult fruit tree to grow and keep alive. In Europe, the first visible pest in the growing season soon after blossom is the black cherry aphid, which causes leaves at the tips of branches to curl, with the blackfly colonies exuding a sticky secretion which promotes fungal growth on the leaves and fruit.
At the fruiting stage in June/July, the cherry fruit fly lays its eggs in the immature fruit, whereafter its larvae feed on the cherry flesh and exit through a small hole, which in turn is the entry point for fungal infection of the cherry fruit after rainfall. In addition, cherry trees are susceptible to bacterial canker, cytospora canker, brown rot of the fruit, root rot from overly wet soil, crown rot, several viruses; the following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit: See cherry blossom and Prunus for ornamental trees. In 2014, world production of sweet cherries was 2.25 million tonnes, with Turkey producing 20% of this total. Other major producers of sweet cherries were Iran. World production of sour cherries in 2014 was 1.36 million tonne
Plum Bayou culture
Plum Bayou culture is a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that lived in what is now east-central Arkansas from 650—1050 CE, a time known as the Late Woodland Period. Archaeologists defined the culture based on the Toltec Mounds site and named it for a local waterway; the Baytown culture preceded the Plum Bayou culture, was followed by early Mississippian cultures, which flourished from 900—1600 CE, until diseases brought by Europeans decimated their populations. The Plum Bayou culture had contact with the Coles Creek culture, located along the Mississippi River, early Caddoan cultures, located in river valleys of the Red and Arkansas Rivers in Arkansas and into Oklahoma. Exotic materials found at Plum Bayou sites reveal trade with the Ozark Plateau, West Gulf Coastal Plain, the Ouachita Mountains. Major Plum Bayou sites with single or multiple mounds include: Plum Bayou culture was one of the earliest groups to build ceremonial community centers with platform mounds and rectangular plazas.
They lived in small villages in the uplands and floodplains of the White and Arkansas Rivers. Archaeologists divide Plum Bayou settlements into "single household, multiple household, multiple household with mound, multiple mound sites." Farmers grew crops such as amaranth, bottle gourd, little barley, squash and sumpweed. In some Plum Bayou sites, maize was cultivated in small amounts. Supplementing their farming, Plum Bayou peoples hunted game and gathered wild plants, such as cherries, plums and nuts; this culture is defined in part by its ceramics. Much of Plum Bayou ceramics was plainware. Named types of ceramics found at Plum Bayou sites include Coles Creek incised var. Keyo, Larto Red, Officer Punctated, French Fork incised. Red slip, or clay paint, was used to decorate some ceramic vessels. While neighboring cultures adopted maize cultivation and complex religions and political organization, the Plum Bayou people did not. People continued to occupy the region; the exact descendants of the Plum Bayou culture are not known.
Culture and chronological table for the Mississippi Valley Odell, George H. Stone Tools: Theoretical Insights into Human Prehistory. New York: Springer, 1996. ISBN 978-0-306-45198-0