Google Earth is a computer program that renders a 3D representation of Earth based on satellite imagery. The program maps the Earth by superimposing satellite images, aerial photography, GIS data onto a 3D globe, allowing users to see cities and landscapes from various angles. Users can explore the globe by using a keyboard or mouse; the program can be downloaded on a smartphone or tablet, using a touch screen or stylus to navigate. Users may use the program to add their own data using Keyhole Markup Language and upload them through various sources, such as forums or blogs. Google Earth is able to show various kinds of images overlaid on the surface of the earth and is a Web Map Service client. In addition to Earth navigation, Google Earth provides a series of other tools through the desktop application. Additional globes for the Moon and Mars are available, as well as a tool for viewing the night sky. A flight simulator game is included. Other features allow users to view photos from various places uploaded to Panoramio, information provided by Wikipedia on some locations, Street View imagery.
The web-based version of Google Earth includes Voyager, a feature that periodically adds in-program tours presented by scientists and documentarians. Google Earth has been viewed by some as a threat to privacy and national security, leading to the program being banned in multiple countries; some countries have requested that certain areas be obscured in Google's satellite images areas containing military facilities. The core technology behind Google Earth was developed at Intrinsic Graphics in the late 1990s. At the time, the company was developing 3D gaming software libraries; as a demo of their 3D software, they created a spinning globe that could be zoomed into, similar to the Powers of Ten film. The demo was popular, but the board of Intrinsic wanted to remain focused on gaming, so in 1999, they created Keyhole, Inc. headed by John Hanke. Keyhole developed a way to stream large databases of mapping data over the internet to client software, a key part of the technology, acquired patchworks of mapping data from governments and other sources.
The product, called "Keyhole EarthViewer", was sold on CDs for use in fields such as real estate, urban planning and intelligence. Despite making a number of capital deals with Nvidia and Sony, the small company was struggling to make payroll, employees were leaving. Fortunes for the company changed in early 2003 when CNN received a discount for the software in exchange for placing the Keyhole logo on-air whenever the map was used. Keyhole did not expect it would amount to more than brief 5 or 10 second prerecorded animation clips, but it was used extensively by Miles O'Brien live during the 2003 invasion of Iraq, allowing CNN and millions of viewers to follow the progress of the war in a way that had never been seen before. Public interest in the software exploded and Keyhole servers were not able to keep up with demand. Keyhole was soon contacted by the Central Intelligence Agency's venture capital firm, In-Q-Tel, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, for use with defense mapping databases, which gave Keyhole a much-needed cash infusion.
Intrinsic Graphics was sold in 2003 to Vicarious Visions after its gaming libraries did not sell well, its core group of engineers and management transitioned to Keyhole with Hanke remaining at the head. At the time, Google was finding that over 25% of its searches were of a geospatial character, including searches for maps and directions. In October 2004, Google acquired Keyhole as part of a strategy to better serve its users. Google Earth's imagery is displayed on a digital globe, which displays the planet's surface using a single composited image from a far distance. After zooming in far enough, the imagery transitions into different imagery of the same area with finer detail, which varies in date and time from one area to the next; the imagery is retrieved from satellites or aircraft. Before the launch of NASA and the USGS's Landsat 8 satellite, Google relied on imagery from Landsat 7, which suffered from a hardware malfunction that left diagonal gaps in images. In 2013, Google used datamining to remedy the issue, providing what was described as a successor to the Blue Marble image of Earth, with a single large image of the entire planet.
This was achieved by combining multiple sets of imagery taken from Landsat 7 to eliminate clouds and diagonal gaps, creating a single "mosaic" image. Google now uses Landsat 8 to provide imagery with greater frequency. Imagery is hosted on Google's servers, which are contacted by the application when opened, requiring an Internet connection. Imagery resolution ranges from 15 meters of resolution to 15 centimeters. For much of the Earth, Google Earth uses digital elevation model data collected by NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission; this creates the impression of three-dimensional terrain where the imagery is only two-dimensional. Every image created from Google Earth using satellite data provided by Google Earth is a copyrighted map. Any derivative from Google Earth is made from copyrighted data which, under United States Copyright Law, may not be used except under the licenses Google provides. Google allows non-commercial personal use of the images as long as copyrights and attributions are preserved.
By contrast, images created with NASA's globe software World Wind use The Blue Marble, Landsat, or USGS imagery, each of, in the public domain. In version 5.0, Google introduced Historical Imagery. Clicking the clock icon in the toolbar opens a time slider, which marks the tim
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
Proctor is a city in Saint Louis County, United States. The population was 3,057 at the 2010 census; the city was established as Proctorknott in 1894, with the name coming from J. Proctor Knott, former Governor of Kentucky, he became famous for delivering the speech The Untold Delights of Duluth to the U. S. House of Representatives; the name of the city was shortened to Proctor in 1904. Proctor's welcome sign on U. S. Highway 2 states "You Have a Place in Proctor". According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.00 square miles, all of it land. U. S. Highway 2 and County Road 14 are two of the main routes in Proctor. Interstate Highway 35 is in close proximity to the city. Other main routes in Proctor include 2nd Street, 2nd Avenue, 5th Street. Proctor is located beside the Bayview Heights neighborhood of Duluth, with which it forms something of a contiguous community unit due to Bayview Heights' topographical separation from adjacent West Duluth, it is bounded by the city of Hermantown to the north, Midway Township to the west, Duluth's Bayview Heights neighborhood to the east, a undeveloped area of Duluth to the south.
Kingsbury Creek flows through the central portion of Proctor. Knowlton Creek flows through the southeast part of Proctor. U. S. Highway 2 Interstate 35 Proctor is the home of the South Saint Louis County Fairgrounds, located on Boundary Avenue; the South Saint Louis County Fair takes place annually the second week of August. Some of the events at the Fair include karaoke contests, a teen dance, car show, petting zoo, pony rides, bull riding, carnival rides, 4-H exhibits, horse shows, lumberjack show, stock car racing. Auto Racing at the Proctor Speedway takes place at this same location on Sundays from May to October; the Proctor Hoghead Festival takes places every August. Hoghead celebrates Proctor's railroad heritage - the world's largest inland iron ore sorting facilities. Railroad oriented events include hand car races, spike driving contests, golden spike treasure hunt, fireworks, mile run, food & craft vendors, car show, rib cook-off, street dance, pet parade, softball & golf tourneys, Ecumenical church service, kids games, community picnic.
Proctor Area Museum operated by the Proctor Area Historical Society. Features the history of the DM&N/DM&IR Railroad as well as the City of Proctor and its surrounding communities which make up the Proctor School District; the DM&N was founded in 1891 and in 1930 took lease on the railroad properties of the D&IR located in Two Harbors Minnesota. In 1937 The DM&N merged with the Spirit Lake Transfer Railroad to become the DM&IR in 1938 the D&IR was dissolved and became part of the DM&IR. In 1904 both railroads had come under the ownership of the newly formed United States Steel Company; the DM&IR would be sold to the Canadian National Railroad. The museum is building a steam era interpretive exhibit of the DM&N/DM&IR Railroad featuring an o-gauge model railroad; the Yellowstone 225, one of the last three remaining Yellowstone steam engines in the world, is located on the grounds of the museum. The museum is worth seeing; as of the census of 2010, there were 3,057 people, 1,268 households, 795 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,019.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,361 housing units at an average density of 453.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.8% White, 0.2% African American, 1.1% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.2% of the population. There were 1,268 households of which 27.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.8% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.3% were non-families. 30.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.90. The median age in the city was 41.4 years. 20.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.3% male and 50.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,852 people, 1,196 households, 772 families residing in the city.
The population density was 942.8 people per square mile. There were 1,246 housing units at an average density of 411.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.49% White, 0.14% African American, 1.16% Native American, 0.53% Asian, 0.28% from other races, 1.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.74% of the population. 19.8% were of German, 17.9% Norwegian, 10.3% Swedish, 7.3% French, 7.0% Finnish, 6.2% Polish, 6.0% Irish and 5.4% Italian ancestry. There were 1,196 households out of which 28.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.4% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.99. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.0% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 27.3% from 25 to 44, 23.6% from 45 to 64, 15.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 an
The Denfeld neighborhood is located within the West Duluth district of Duluth, United States. It consists of spaced single-family residential homes, although a fair number of such houses have an area within the domicile registered as a rental unit. There are a number of stores and businesses in the neighborhood concentrated along Grand Avenue; the Denfeld neighborhood, according to the city's map, is bounded by West 8th Street until Central Avenue. Duluth Denfeld High School serves most of West Duluth. Cody Lincoln Park Oneota Spirit Valley 40th Avenue West – County Road 91 City of Duluth website City map of neighborhoods Duluth Denfeld High School website
The Downtown of Duluth, United States. The downtown area is accessible from Interstate Highway 35; as in most cities, the downtown area is home to a number of the city's cultural and social attractions, as well as government offices and business centers. Duluth's main library is located in downtown, as is the city's foremost museum, the courthouse, city hall, several local restaurants and bars with live music venues, many of the larger business offices. Stores and places to eat and drink tend to be locally or regionally owned and operated, with most chain and franchise establishments having located themselves in the "Miller Hill area" around the U. S. Highway 53 corridor. Most of the downtown is within walking distance of the touristy Canal Park district. A large portion of the eastern section of downtown is oriented around Essentia Health–St. Mary's Medical Center and Miller-Dwan Medical Center; the downtown area contains a number of historical buildings, many of them dating to the city's peak days in the late 19th century and early 20th.
These include the Romanesque Revival Central High School building, the Duluth Opera House, the Union Depot, among many others. Newly constructed ones are less common than older edifices, although some large newer buildings such as the Tech Village are present. Downtown Duluth is the home of Fond-du-Luth Casino. Streets in Duluth's downtown area features dramatic upward slopes, a feature common to many of Duluth's neighborhoods due to 800 feet elevation difference between the shore and the hilltop; as a part of a beautification project during Duluth's economic crisis of the 1980s, several blacktop streets were converted to brick. Along with this change came the introduction of "old-fashioned" ornamental streetlamps. Due to the city's cold winter temperatures, a network of skywalks was constructed to provide indoor connectivity between most major buildings; the skywalk system is augmented by an over-the-freeway enclosed walkway leading to the Duluth Entertainment Convention Center in the Canal Park district.
Interstate Highway 35 Duluth, Minnesota Canal Park Central Hillside East Hillside Lincoln Park City of Duluth website Greater Downtown Council website
Duluth Transit Authority
The Duluth Transit Authority is the transit agency that provides mass transit service — only buses — in the city of Duluth, United States. The agency serves nearby Proctor and Superior, Wisconsin, as well as the eastern edge of Hermantown, Minnesota; the organization was formed in 1969 by the Minnesota State Legislature. In 2009, the DTA was named Transit System of the Year by the Minnesota Public Transit Association. Express service is provided during rush hours to New Duluth, Lakeside and Hermantown. During peak hours, an average of 45 buses will be in service at any one time; the transit agency owns three park-and-ride lots and has bike racks on the front of every bus. As of 2009, the DTA had 6 hybrid buses in service. According to the agency, the system carried 3.26 million riders in 2011, a 3% increase from 2010. Duluth Transit Authority is the Minnesota's third-largest transit system by ridership, after the Metro Transit and University of Minnesota Campus Shuttle systems in Minneapolis – Saint Paul.
This list is derived from the current DTA system map. 1 Grand Ave Zoo 2 New Duluth 3 Proctor 4 Ramsey – Raleigh via West 8th 5 West to the Mall 6 East Mainline/UMD 7 East Mainline/Lakeside 8 Downtown to LSC - Mall 9 Piedmont 9M Piedmont/Mall 10 Duluth Heights/Mall 10H Duluth Heights/Mall/Southeast 6th 10E Duluth Heights/Ecklund 11 East 8th–UMD 11K East 8th–UMD – Kenwood 11M East 8th–UMD – Morley Heights 12 Kenwood – UMD 13 Woodland - East 4th - UMD 14 West 4th Blvd 15 Park Point 16 Superior 17 Tower Ave 18 Duluth Heights-UMD 20 Downtown to United Healthcare/Airpark 21 Lakeside to the Mall 22 Lincoln Park to Lakeside 23 UMD Circulator GE Grocery Express Port Town Trolley Duluth Transportation Center is the downtown hub for the Duluth transit system. The DTC was built in February 2016; the building was constructed by Mortenson Construction. The DTC has eight docks for boarding buses, with space for layovers. Skyways to nearby buildings were replaced during construction, improving pedestrian access
Duluth is a major port city in the U. S. state of Minnesota and the county seat of Saint Louis County. Duluth is the 4th largest city in Minnesota, it is the 2nd largest city on Lake Superior. The largest is Thunder Bay, Canada, it has the largest metropolitan area on the lake, with a population of 279,771 in 2010, the second-largest in the state. Situated on the north shore of Lake Superior at the westernmost point of the Great Lakes, Duluth is accessible to oceangoing vessels from the Atlantic Ocean 2,300 miles away via the Great Lakes Waterway and the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Duluth forms a metropolitan area with Wisconsin; the cities share the Duluth–Superior harbor and together are the Great Lakes' largest port, transporting coal, iron ore, grain. A tourist destination for the Midwest, Duluth features the United States' only all-freshwater aquarium, the Great Lakes Aquarium; the city is the starting point for vehicle trips along Minnesota's North Shore. The city is named for Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut, the first known European explorer of the area.
The Anishinaabe known as the Ojibwe or Chippewa, have inhabited the Lake Superior region for more than 500 years. They were preceded by the Dakota, Menominee and Gros Ventre peoples, whom they pushed out of the area. Established as traders, after the arrival of Europeans, the Anishinaabe found a niche as the middlemen between the French fur traders and other Native peoples, they soon became the dominant Indian nation in the region, forcing out the Dakota Sioux and Fox and winning a victory against the Iroquois west of Sault Ste. Marie in 1662. By the mid-18th century, the Ojibwe occupied all of Lake Superior's shores. For both the Ojibwe and the Dakota, interaction with Europeans during the contact period revolved around the fur trade and related activities; the Ojibwe are known for their crafting of birch bark canoes, use of copper arrow points, cultivation of wild rice. In 1745, they adopted guns from the British for use against the Dakota nation of the Sioux, whom they pushed to the south; the Ojibwe Nation was the first to set the agenda with European-Canadian leaders for signing more detailed treaties before many European settlers were allowed too far west.
The settlement in Ojibwe is Onigamiinsing, a reference to the small and easy portage across Minnesota Point between Lake Superior and western Saint Louis Bay, which forms Duluth's harbor. According to Ojibwe oral history, Spirit Island, near the Spirit Valley neighborhood, was the "Sixth Stopping Place", where the northern and southern branches of the Ojibwe Nation came together and proceeded to their "Seventh Stopping Place" near the present city of La Pointe, Wisconsin; the "Stopping Places" were the places the Native Americans occupied during their westward migration as the Europeans overran their territory. Several factors brought fur traders to the Great Lakes in the early 17th century; the fashion for beaver hats in Europe generated demand for pelts. French trade for beaver in the lower Saint Lawrence River had led to the depletion of the animals in that region by the late 1630s, so the French searched farther west for new resources and new routes, making alliances with the Native Americans along the way to trap and deliver their furs.
Étienne Brûlé is credited with the European discovery of Lake Superior before 1620. Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers explored the Duluth area, Fond du Lac in 1654 and again in 1660; the French soon established fur posts near Duluth and in the far north where Grand Portage became a major trading center. The French explorer Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut, whose name is sometimes anglicized as "DuLuth", explored the Saint Louis River in 1679. After 1792 and the independence of the United States, the North West Company established several posts on Minnesota rivers and lakes, in areas to the west and northwest, for trading with the Ojibwe, the Dakota, other native tribes; the first post was where Superior, Wisconsin developed. Known as Fort Saint Louis, the post became the headquarters for North West's new Fond du Lac Department, it had stockaded walls, two houses of 40 feet each, a shed of 60 feet, a large warehouse, a canoe yard. Over time, Indian peoples and European Americans settled nearby, a town developed at this point.
In 1808, the American Fur Company was organized by German-born John Jacob Astor. The company began trading at the Head of the Lakes in 1809. In 1817, it erected a new headquarters at present-day Fond du Lac on the Saint Louis River. There, portages connected Lake Superior with Lake Vermillion to the north, with the Mississippi River to the south. After creating a powerful monopoly, Astor got out of the business about 1830, as the trade was declining, but active trade was carried on until the failure of the fur trade in the 1840s. European fashions had changed and many American areas were getting over-trapped, with game declining. Two Treaties of Fond du Lac were signed by natives with the United States in the present neighborhood of Fond du Lac in 1826 and 1847, by which the Ojibwe ceded land to the American government; as part of the Treaty of Washington with the Lake Superior Band of Chippewa, the United States set aside the Fond du Lac Indian Reservation upstream from Duluth near Cloquet, Minnesota.
The Ojibwe population was moved there. As European Americans continued to settle and encroach on Ojibwe lands, the U. S. gove