Adham Khan was a general of Akbar. He was the younger son of Maham Anga, he thus became the foster brother of Akbar. In his fourth regnal year, Akbar married him to the daughter of Baqi Khan Baqlani. After the dismissal of Bairam Khan, Adham Khan was appointed as a general and was sent to Malwa to capture it. In 1561, the Mughal army led by Pir Muhammad Khan invaded Malwa, they defeated the army of Baz Bahadur, the Sultan of Malwa in the battle of Sarangpur on March 29, 1561. All his treasures and his harem was captured by the victors. Adham Khan tried to take possession of Baz Bahadur's Hindu mistress Rani Roopmati but she killed herself by consuming poison. According to the historian Badauni, both the commanders, Adham Khan and Pir Muhammad Khan, perpetrated acts of barbaric cruelty, massacring the prisoners and killing their wives and children. After the victory, Adham Khan sent to the emperor Akbar a report of victory along with only a few elephants, himself appropriating the rest of the spoils.
Akbar resented this insolence and marched to Sarangpur. He took Adham Khan by surprise. Adham Khan surrendered to Akbar and his spoils were seized, he was recalled from Malwa and the command was made over to Pir Muhammad Khan. In November, 1561 Akbar's favourite general Ataga Khan, was appointed replacing Munim Khan, his appointment displeased Maham Anga. On May 16, 1562, Adham Khan accompanied by a few ruffians burst in upon him as he sat in the hall of audience and murdered him. Adham Khan rushed to the inner apartment, where he was caught by Akbar, just roused from sleep by tumult. Akbar replied to Adham Khan's explanation to palliate his crime by striking him down with a heavy blow of his fist. Adham was thrown down twice from the roof of a one storied building whose height was about 10 feet by royal order and put to death. Akbar himself broke this news to Maham Anga, who made a dignified reply that he did well; the sudden demise of Adham Khan made his mother mentally depressed, after forty days she died.
After his death, his body was sent with respect to Delhi. Akbar built the mausoleum of Adham Khan in Mehrauli, where both Adham Khan and his mother Maham Anga were buried; this mausoleum, popularly known as Bhul-bhulaiyan, due to a labyrinthine maze inside, stands on the ramparts of the Lal Kot, located at the north of the Qutub Minar. He married Javeda Begum, the daughter of Baqi Khan Baqlani, in 1552, he had 2 sons and 2 daughters, Baqi Begum married to Akbar on 1567 by Rani Rupmati. The other daughter married a general and king of Jaipur. Adham Khan's Tomb
Berar was one of the Deccan sultanates. It was established in 1490 following the disintegration of the Bahmani Sultanate; the origin of the name Berar or Warhad as it is spelled in Marathi, is not known. The first authentic records show it to have been part of the Satavahana empire. On the fall of the Chalukyas in the 12th century, Berar came under the sway of the Yadavas of Deogiri, remained in their possession until the Muslim invasions at the end of the 13th century. On the establishment of the Bahmani Sultanate in the Deccan, Berar was constituted one of the five provinces into which their kingdom was divided, being governed by great nobles, with a separate army; the perils of this system became apparent when the province was divided into two separate provinces, named after their capitals Gawil and Mahur. The Bahmani dynasty was, however tottering to its fall. During the disintegration of Bahmani sultanate, in 1490 Fathullah Imad-ul-Mulk, governor of Gawil, who had held all Berar, proclaimed his independence and founded the Imad Shahi dynasty of Berar sultanate.
He had capital at Ellichpur. Imad-ul-Mulk was by birth a Kanarese Hindu, but had been captured as a boy in one of the expeditions against the Vijayanagara empire and brought up as a Muslim. Gavilgad and Narnala were fortified by him, he died in 1504 and his successor, Ala-ud-din resisted the aggression of Ahmadnagar with the help from Bahadur Shah, sultan of Gujarat. The next ruler, Darya tried to align with Bijapur to prevent aggression of Ahamadnagar, but was unsuccessful. In 1568 when Burhan Imad Shah was deposed by his minister Tufail Khan, assumed the kingship; this gave a pretext for the intervention of Murtaza Nizam Shah of Ahmednagar, who invaded Berar and put to death Tufail Khan, his son Shams-ul-Mulk, the ex-king Burhan, annexed Berar to his own dominions of Ahmednagar sultanate. The Sultans of Berar belonged to the Imad Shahi Dynasty: Fathullah Imad-ul-Mulk 1490 – 1504 Aladdin Imad Shah 1504 – 1529 Darya Imad Shah 1529 – 1562 He developed a city Daryapur on the banks of Chandrabhaga River which today is a municipal counsil under Amravati District Burhan Imad Shah 1562 – 1568 Tufail Khan 1568 – 1572 List of Shi'a Muslim dynasties Battle of Talikota List of Sultans of Berar Berar Subah Berar Province
The Farooqi dynasty' was the ruling dynasty of the Khandesh sultanate from its inception in 1382 till its annexation by the Mughal emperor Akbar in 1601. The founder of the dynasty, Malik Ahmad participated in a rebellion against the Bahmani ruler Muhmmad Shah I in his early years; when he was compelled to flee from Deccan, he established in Thalner on the Tapti River. After receiving the grant of the fiefdoms of Thalner and Karanda from Firuz Shah Tughluq in 1370, he conquered the region around Thalner, which became known as Khandesh. By 1382, he started ruling independently. Malik Raja claimed his descent from the second Caliph Umar-al-Faruq. Hence, the dynasty founded by him was known as Faruqi dynasty; the next ruler, Nasir Khan made it his capital. He founded the new capital Burhanpur in 1399; the most illustrious ruler of this dynasty was Adil Khan II. During his long reign, Burhanpur was transformed to a major centre for textile production. In 1599, Akbar’s army occupied Burhanpur and on January 17, 1601 the citadel of Asirgarh fell after a long siege.
The last ruler Bahadur Shah surrendered to the Mughals. Khandesh became a Mughal Subah; the rulers of Faruqi dynasty were known as who fought against the Hindus and the Shia's. The ancestors of Malik Ahmad Khan Raja were amongst the most respectable nobles in the courts of Ala-ud-Din Khalji and Muhammad bin Tughluq. Malik Raja’s father Khan-i-Jahan Faruqi was a minister in the Delhi court. In 1365, Malik Raja and some other chieftains of Berar and Baglana, joined a rebellion against the Bahmani ruler led by the governor of Daulatabad, Bahram Khan Mazindarani, it failed, he was forced to flee from Deccan. He settled at Thalner, he helped Firuz Shah Tughluq during one of his hunting expeditions in Gujarat. In return he was first made an officer of two thousand horses and in 1370, he was granted the fiefdoms of Thalner and Karanda. In the same year, he defeated the Raja of Baglana and forced him to agree upon paying annual tributes to the Delhi sultan. In exchange, Firuz Shah Tughluq gave him the title of Sipah-salar and raised him to the rank of a commander of three thousand horses.
Within a few years he was able to muster twelve thousand horses and raise contributions from neighbouring rulers. By 1382, he became a independent ruler of the Khandesh. At the time of his accession, Khandesh was a backward region populated by a few thousand Bhils and Kolis; the only prosperous area in Khandesh was Asirgarh, populated by Ahirs. One of the first acts of Malik Raja was taking steps to develop the agriculture in his kingdom. During his rule he was able to increase his area of control to such an extent that the Gond Raja of Mandla was forced to pay tributes to him. Soon after his accession as an independent ruler, he attacked Gujarat and annexed Sultanpur and Nandurbar; the governor of Gujarat Zafar Khan retaliated and laid siege to Thalner. Malik Raja had to return all the territories annexed by him, he was buried in Thalner. Nasir Khan or Malik Nasir was the elder son of Malik Raja, who succeeded him in 1399, he commenced his rule from Laling, as Thalner was under the control of his younger brother Malik Iftikar Hasan.
Soon after his accession in 1400, he captured the fort of Asirgarh and killed its Ahir ruler, Asa Ahir. It became his capital till he shifted to Burhanpur, the new city founded by him. In 1417, with the help of Malwa sultan Hoshang Shah, he captured the fort of Thalner and imprisoned his brother Malik Iftikar. Next, the combined forces of Khandesh and Malwa occupied the Sultanpur fort, but soon, Gujarat sultan Ahmad Shah’s general Malik Turk repulsed the attack and Thalner was besieged. After swearing fealty to the Gujarat sultan, the siege was raised and Ahmad Shah honoured Malik Nasir with the title of Khan. In 1429, he married off his daughter to the Bahmani prince Ala-ud-Din, son of Ahmad Shah I. In the same year, Raja Kanha of Jhalawar took refuge to Asirgarh. On his advice, Raja Kanha went to Bidar to ask help from the Bahmani sultan Ahmad Shah I. After initial advances in Nandurbar by the Raja along with the legions of Khandesh and Bahmani army, the Gujarat army defeated the combined forces.
In 1435, Nasir Khan supported by the Raja of Gondwana and some discontented Bahmani officials attacked and captured Berar. The Bahmani governor fled to Narnala. In retaliation, the Bahmani sultan Ala-ud-Din Ahmad Shah II’s army led by his general Malik-ut-Tujjar, first defeated him in Rohankhedaghat followed him to Burhanpur, ransacked the city and crushed his army in Laling. Nasir Khan died within a few days after this humiliating defeat on September 18, 1437, he was buried in Thalner. Miran Adil Khan succeeded his father Nasir Khan. After the army of Gujarat reached Sultanpur for his help, Malik-ut-Tujjar raised the siege and went back, he accepted the suzerainty of Gujarat sultanate. He was assassinated in Burhanpur on April 30, 1441, he was buried in Thalner by the side of his father Miran Mubarak Khan succeeded his father. He did not attempt any conquest, except two campaigns against the Raja of Baglana, he buried in Thalner. Miran Adil Khan II, the eldest son of Miran Mubarak succeeded him, he was the most powerful ruler of the Khandesh Sultanate.
He fortified Asirgarh and built
Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar ابو الفتح جلال الدين محمد اكبر, popularly known as Akbar I as Akbar the Great, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605. Akbar succeeded his father, under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped the young emperor expand and consolidate Mughal domains in India. A strong personality and a successful general, Akbar enlarged the Mughal Empire to include nearly all of the Indian Subcontinent north of the Godavari river, his power and influence, extended over the entire country because of Mughal military, political and economic dominance. To unify the vast Mughal state, Akbar established a centralised system of administration throughout his empire and adopted a policy of conciliating conquered rulers through marriage and diplomacy. To preserve peace and order in a religiously and culturally diverse empire, he adopted policies that won him the support of his non-Muslim subjects. Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic state identity, Akbar strove to unite far-flung lands of his realm through loyalty, expressed through an Indo-Persian culture, to himself as an emperor who had near-divine status.
Mughal India developed a strong and stable economy, leading to commercial expansion and greater patronage of culture. Akbar himself was a patron of culture, he was fond of literature, created a library of over 24,000 volumes written in Sanskrit, Persian, Latin and Kashmiri, staffed by many scholars, artists, scribes and readers. He did much of the cataloging himself through three main groupings. Akbar established the library of Fatehpur Sikri for women, he decreed that schools for the education of both Muslims and Hindus should be established throughout the realm, he encouraged bookbinding to become a high art. Holy men of many faiths, poets and artisans adorned his court from all over the world for study and discussion. Akbar's courts at Delhi and Fatehpur Sikri became centres of the arts and learning. Perso-Islamic culture began to merge and blend with indigenous Indian elements, a distinct Indo-Persian culture emerged characterized by Mughal style arts and architecture. Disillusioned with orthodox Islam and hoping to bring about religious unity within his empire, Akbar promulgated Din-i-Ilahi, a syncretic creed derived from Islam and Hinduism as well as some parts of Zoroastrianism and Christianity.
A simple, monotheistic cult, tolerant in outlook, it centered on Akbar as a prophet, for which he drew the ire of the ulema and orthodox Muslims. Many of his courtiers followed Din-i-Ilahi as their religion as well, as many believed that Akbar was a prophet. One famous courtier who followed this blended religion was Birbal. Akbar's reign influenced the course of Indian history. During his rule, the Mughal empire tripled in wealth, he instituted effective political and social reforms. By abolishing the sectarian tax on non-Muslims and appointing them to high civil and military posts, he was the first Mughal ruler to win the trust and loyalty of the native subjects, he had Sanskrit literature translated, participated in native festivals, realising that a stable empire depended on the co-operation and good-will of his subjects. Thus, the foundations for a multicultural empire under Mughal rule were laid during his reign. Akbar was succeeded as emperor by his son, Prince Salim known as Jahangir. Defeated in battles at Chausa and Kannauj in 1539 to 1540 by the forces of Sher Shah Suri, Mughal emperor Humayun fled westward to Sindh.
There he met and married the 14-year-old Hamida Banu Begum, daughter of Shaikh Ali Akbar Jami, a teacher of Humayun's younger brother Hindal Mirza. Jalal ud-din Muhammad Akbar was born the next year on 15 October 1542 at the Rajput Fortress of Umerkot in Sindh, where his parents had been given refuge by the local Hindu ruler Rana Prasad. During the extended period of Humayun's exile, Akbar was brought up in Kabul by the extended family of his paternal uncles, Kamran Mirza and Askari Mirza, his aunts, in particular Kamran Mirza's wife, he spent his youth learning to hunt and fight, making him a daring and brave warrior, but he never learned to read or write. This, did not hinder his search for knowledge as it is said always when he retired in the evening he would have someone read. On 20 November 1551, Humayun's youngest brother, Hindal Mirza, died fighting in a battle against Kamran Mirza's forces. Upon hearing the news of his brother's death, Humayun was overwhelmed with grief. Out of affection for the memory of his brother, Humayun betrothed Hindal's nine-year-old daughter, Ruqaiya Sultan Begum, to his son Akbar.
Their betrothal took place in Kabul, shortly after Akbar's first appointment as a viceroy in the province of Ghazni. Humayun conferred on the imperial couple all the wealth and adherents of Hindal and Ghazni. One of Hindal's jagir was given to his nephew, appointed as its viceroy and was given the command of his uncle's army. Akbar's marriage with Ruqaiya was solemnized in Jalandhar, when both of them were 14-years-old, she was his first chief consort. Following the chaos over the succession of Sher Shah Suri's son Islam Shah, Humayun reconquered Delhi in 1555, leading an army provided by his Persian ally Tahmasp I. A few months Humayun died. Akbar's guardian, Bairam Khan concealed the death. Akbar succeeded Humayun on 14 February 1556, while in the midst of a war against Sikandar Shah to reclaim
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental
The Mughal Empire or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by the Timurid dynasty, with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan and Timur, with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; the dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its court culture and administrative customs. The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat. During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was interrupted by the Sur Empire established by Sher Shah Suri; the "classic period" of the Mughal Empire began with the ascension of Akbar to the throne. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar.
All Mughal emperors were Muslims. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in native societies during most of its existence, rather co-opting and pacifying them through concilliatory administrative practices and a syncretic, inclusive ruling elite, leading to more systematic and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. Internal dissatisfaction arose due to the weakness of the empire's administrative and economic systems, leading to its break-up and declarations of independence of its former provinces by the Nawab of Bengal, the Nawab of Awadh, the Nizam of Hyderabad and other small states. In 1739, the Mughals were crushingly defeated in the Battle of Karnal by the forces of Nader Shah, the founder of the Afsharid dynasty in Persia, Delhi was sacked and looted, drastically accelerating their decline.
By the mid-18th century, the Marathas had routed Mughal armies and won over several Mughal provinces from the Punjab to Bengal. During the following century Mughal power had become limited, the last emperor, Bahadur Shah II, had authority over only the city of Shahjahanabad. Bahadur issued a firman supporting the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Consequent to the rebellion's defeat he was tried by the British East India Company for treason and exiled to Rangoon; the last remnants of the empire were formally taken over by the British, the British Parliament passed the Government of India Act 1858 to enable the Crown formally to displace the rights of the East India Company and assume direct control of India in the form of the new British Raj. At its height, the Mughal Empire stretched from Kabul, Afghanistan in the west to Arakan, Myanmar in the east, from Kashmir in the north to the Deccan Plateau in the south, extending over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent, it was the third largest empire in the Indian subcontinent, spanning four million square kilometers at its zenith, 122% of the size of the modern Republic of India.
The maximum expansion was reached during the reign of Aurangzeb, who ruled over more than 150 million subjects, nearly 25% of the world's population at the time. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic and manufacturing power, responsible for 25% of global industrial output until the 18th century; the Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires. The reign of Shah Jahan represented the height of Mughal architecture, with famous monuments such as the Taj Mahal, Moti Masjid, Red Fort, Jama Masjid and Lahore Fort being constructed during his reign. Contemporaries referred to the empire founded by Babur as the Timurid empire, which reflected the heritage of his dynasty, this was the term preferred by the Mughals themselves; the Mughal designation for their own dynasty was Gurkani. The use of Mughal derived from the Arabic and Persian corruption of Mongol, it emphasised the Mongol origins of the Timurid dynasty.
The term remains disputed by Indologists. Similar terms had been used to refer to the empire, including "Mogul" and "Moghul". Babur's ancestors were distinguished from the classical Mongols insofar as they were oriented towards Persian rather than Turco-Mongol culture. Another name for the empire was Hindustan, documented in the Ain-i-Akbari, and, described as the closest to an official name for the empire. In the west, the term "Mughal" was used for the emperor, by extension, the empire as a whole; the Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a Central Asian ruler, descended from the Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur on his father's side and from Chagatai, the second son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother's side. Ousted from his ancestral domains in C
Mandu, Madhya Pradesh
Mandu or Mandavgad is an ancient city in the present-day Mandav area of the Dhar district. It is located in the Malwa region of India, at 35 km from Dhar city. In the 11th century, Mandu was the sub division of the Taranga kingdom; this fortress town on a rocky outcrop about 100 km from Indore is celebrated for its architecture. An inscription discovered from Talanpur states that a merchant named Chandra Simha installed a statue in a temple of Parshvanatha located in the Mandapa Durga; the word "Mandu" is believed to be a Prakrit corruption of "Mandapa Durga". The inscription is dated 612 VS. Mandu gained prominence in 11th century under the Paramaras; the town of Mandu, situated at an elevation of 633 metres, is perched on the Vindhya Range extending for 13 km while overlooking the plateau of Malwa to the north and the valley of the Narmada River to the south which acted as natural defences for the fort-capital the Paramaras. As "Mandapa-Durga", Mandu is mentioned as the royal residence in the inscriptions of the Paramara kings starting from Jayavarman II.
It is possible that Jayavarman or his predecessor Jaitugi have moved from the traditional Paramara capital Dhara to Mandu, because of attacks from the neighbouring kingdoms. Balban, the general of the Delhi's Sultan Nasir-ud-din, had reached the northern frontier of the Paramara territory by this time. Around the same time, the Paramaras faced attacks from the Yadava king Krishna of Deogiri and the Vaghela king Visaladeva of Gujarat. Compared to Dhara, located in the plains, the hilly area of Mandu would have offered a better defensive position. In 1305, the Muslim Sultan of Delhi Alauddin Khalji captured the Paramara territory. Ayn al-Mulk Multani, the newly appointed Governor of Malwa, was sent to expel the Paramara king Mahalakadeva from Mandu and cleanse that place from "the odour of infidelity". With help of a spy, Multani's forces found a way to enter the fort secretly. Mahalakadeva was killed while attempting to flee, on 24 November 1305; when Timur captured Delhi in 1401, the Afghan Dilawar Khan, governor of Malwa, set up his own little kingdom and the Ghuri dynasty was established, His son, Hoshang Shah, shifted the capital from Dhar to Mandu and raised it to its greatest splendour.
His son and third and last ruler of Ghuri dynasty, ruled for just one year till his poisoning by the militaristic Mohammed Khalji. Mohammed Khalji went on to rule for the next 33 years. However, it was under his reign, he was ruled for the next 31 years. He had a large harem and built the Jahaz Mahal for housing the women, numbering thousands.. Ghiyas-ud-din was poisoned by Nasir-ud-din, his son. In 1526, Mahmud II the sixth Khalji ruler made no resistance against the invading Bahadur Shah of Gujarat who conquered Mandu 28 March 1531. In 1530 Humayun, the second Mughal Emperor, succeeded Babur. Babur had established the Mughal dynasty. Humayun had two major rivals: Bahadur Shah of Sher Shah Suri. Humayun was engaged in a war with Sher Shah Suri when he learned of an imminent attack by Bahadur Shah of Gujarat, being aided by the Portuguese. With an unusual swiftness Humayun defeated Bahadur Shah, thus in 1534 Mandu came under Humayun's rule and he ordered large scale massacre of prisoners there. Humayun fancied Mandu so he relaxed here for a brief, peaceful interlude Humayun lost the kingdom to Mallu Khan, an officer of the Khalji dynasty.
Ten more years of feuds and invasions followed and in the end Baz Bahadur emerged on top. By this time Humayun had fled India. Sher Shah Suri died in 1545 and his son Islam Shah died in 1553. Islam Shah's 12-year-old son Feroz Khan became the king but was killed by Adil Shah Suri within 3 days. Adil Shah appointed Hemu known as'Hemu Vikramaditya' as his Chief of Army and Prime Minister. Hemu had a rapid rise during Sur regime. A grain supplier to Sher Shah Suri's army and Chief of Intelligence or Daroga-i-Chowki under Islam Shah, he became the Prime Minister and Commander-in-Chief of the Afghan Army under the reign of Adil Shah Suri. Adil Shah Suri was many rebellions occurred against his rule. Hemu was sent to quell these rebellions. During this period Hemu attacked Mandu and Baz Bahadur ran away from Mandu. Hemu appointed his own Governor here. During this period Humayun had returned to India and in 1555 was again the emperor. In 1556 Humayun died after falling. Hemu was in Bengal at the time. Soon Agra, Eastern UP, Madhya Pradesh were all won and on 6 October 1556 he won Delhi, defeating Akbar's forces, had his coronation at Purana Quila, the next day.
Akbar defeated and killed Hemu in the second Battle of Panipat on 7 November 1556. In 1561, Akbar's army led by Adham Khan and Pir Muhammad Khan attacked Malwa and defeated Baz Bahadur in the battle of Sarangpur on 29 March 1561. One of the reasons for Adham Khan's attack seems to be his love for Rani Roopmati. Rani Roopmati poisoned herself to death on hearing the news of fall of Mandu. Baz Bahadur fled to Khandesh. Akbar, soon made over command to Pir Muhammad. Pir Muhammad attacked Khandesh and proceeded up to Burhanpur but he was defeated by a coalition of three powers: Miran Mubarak Shah II of Khandesh, Tufal Khan of Berar and Baz Bahadur. Pir Muhammad died; the confederate army drove them out of Malwa. Baz