Munshi Abdul Majid
Munshi Abdul Majid is an Afghan politician. He is an ethnic Pashtun from Baghlan Province. In the 1990s he served as an official in the Afghan Interior Ministry. In 2005 he was appointed governor of Badakhshan Province, where in 2007 he led a successful opium eradication campaign; the opium poppy cultivation zones were reduced to 200 hectares, whereas they had reached 15,607 hectares in 2004. However, the fall of opium prices might have played an important part in this decrease. In addition, the eradication campaign caused a worsening of the security situation in Badakhshan. In April 2009, protests erupted over Governor Majid's alleged abuse of power, he was removed from his post. In 2010, he was appointed governor of Baghlan Province. Governor Majid is a high-ranking member of Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin, he is involved in strengthening the party and rebuilding its communications network across the country, he is close to fellow Hezb-e-Islami member Juma Khan Hamdard
Mohammad Ismail Khan is a politician in Afghanistan, who served as Minister of Water and Energy from 2005 to 2013. He was the Governor of Herat Province, he is known as a warlord because of his rise to power during the Soviet–Afghan War when he controlled a large sized mujahideen force his fellow Tajiks from western Afghanistan. He is a key member of the political party Jamiat-e Islami and was a member of the now defunct United National Front party. Khan was born about 1946 in the Shindand District of Herat Province in Afghanistan, his family are Tajiks from the Chahar-Mahal neighbourhood of Shindand. In early 1979 Ismail Khan was a Captain in the Afghan National Army based in the western city of Herat. In early March of that year, there was a protest in front of the Communist governor's palace against the arrests and assassinations being carried out in the countryside; the governor's troops opened fire on the demonstrators, who proceeded to storm the palace and hunt down Soviet advisers. The Herat garrison mutinied and joined the revolt, with Ismail Khan and other officers distributing all available weapons to the insurgents.
Hundreds of civil workers and people not dressed in traditional Muslim clothes were murdered. A garrison of Soviet advisors was overtaken and all of its inhabitants: Soviet advisors along with their wives and children were massacred; the mob put paraded them through the city of Herat. The government led by Nur Mohammed Taraki responded, pulverizing the city using Soviet supplied bombers and killing an estimated 24,000 citizens in less than a week; this event marked the opening salvo of the rebellion which led to the Soviet military intervention in Afghanistan in December 1979. Ismail Khan escaped to the countryside. During the ensuing war, he became the leader of the western command of Burhanuddin Rabbani's Jamiat-e-Islami, political party associated with neighboring Pakistan's Jamaat-e-Islami. With Ahmad Shah Massoud, he was one of the most respected mujahideen leaders. In 1992, two years after the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, the mujahideen captured Herat and Ismail Khan became Governor.
In 1995, he defended his province against the Taliban, in cooperation with defense minister Ahmad Shah Massoud. Khan tried to attack the Taliban stronghold of Kandahar, but was repulsed. In September, an ally of the Jamiat, Uzbek General Abdul Rashid Dostum changed sides, attacked Herat. Ismail Khan was forced to flee to neighboring Iran with 8,000 men and the Taliban took over Herat Province. Two years while organizing opposition to the Taliban in Faryab area, he was betrayed and captured by Abdul Majid Rouzi who had defected to the Taliban along with Abdul Malik Pahlawan one of Dostum's deputies. In March 1999 he escaped from Kandahar prison. During the U. S. intervention in Afghanistan, he fought against the Taliban within the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan and thus regained his position as Governor of Herat after they were victorious in December 2001. After returning to Herat, Ismail Khan consolidated his control over the region, he took over control of the city from the local ulema and established control over the trade route between Herat and Iran, a large source of revenue.
As Emir of Herat, Ismail Khan exercised great autonomy, providing social welfare for Heratis, expanding his power into neighbouring provinces, maintaining direct international contacts. Although hated by the educated in Herat and accused of human rights abuses, Ismail Khan's regime provided security, paid government employees, made investments in public services. However, during his tenure as governor, Ismail Khan was accused of ruling his province like a private fiefdom, leading to increasing tensions with the Afghan Transitional Administration. In particular, he refused to pass on to the government the revenues gained from custom taxes on goods from Iran and Turkmenistan. On 13 August 2003, President Karzai removed Governor Ismail Khan from his command of the 4th Corps; this was announced as part of a programme removing the ability of officials to hold both civilian and military posts. Ismail Khan was removed from power in March 2004 due to pressure by neighbouring warlords and the central Afghan government.
Various sources have presented different versions of the story, the exact dynamics cannot be known with certainty. What is known is that Ismail Khan found himself at odds with a few regional commanders who, although theoretically his subordinates, attempted to remove him from power. Ismail Khan claims. Afterwards, these commanders moved their forces near Herat. Ismail Khan, unpopular with the Herati military class, was slow to mobilise his forces waiting for the threat to Herat to become existential as a means to motivate his forces. However, the conflict was stopped with the intervention of International Security Assistance Force forces and soldiers of the Afghan National Army, freezing the conflict in its tracks. Ismail Khan's forces fought skirmishes with the Afghan National Army, in which his son, Mirwais Sadiq was killed; because Ismail Khan was contained by the Afghan National Army, the warlords who opposed him were able to occupy strategic locations unopposed. Ismail Khan was forced to give up his governorship and to go to Kabul, where he served in Hamid Karzai's cabinet as the Minister of Energy.
In 2005 Ismail Khan became the Minister of Energy. In late 2012, the Government of Afghanistan accused Ismail Khan of illegally distributing weapons to his supporters. About 40 members of the coun
Mohammad Gulab Mangal
Gulab Mangal, is the former Governor of Helmand and the former Governor of Laghman and Paktika. He served as head of the Committee that drafted Afghanistan's most recent Constitution. Mangal was considered an effective governor by military officials in Afghanistan. Mangal was born in Laja Mangal, Paktia Province in Afghanistan, belongs to the Mangal ethnic Pashtun tribe, he has a degree in literature from Kabul University. A former member of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan, Mangal served as a colonel in the Afghan army, worked in the Ministries of Interior and Defence in the late 1970s, joined the insurrection fighting the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. After the American led invasion in 2001, he was appointed a Regional Coordinator of the Constitutional Loya Jirga in Paktia. Mangal served as governor of Paktika Province from March 2004 until March 2006, as governor of Laghman Province. On March 22, 2008, he was made the governor of Helmand Province, while former Interior Ministry spokesman Lutfullah Mashal replaced him in Laghman.
When appointed governor of Helmand, he was said to be "one of the most accomplished governors to have served Afghanistan since 2001". The Washington Post attributes Mangal's popularity in Helmand to his appointing competent district leaders and focusing on delivering basic services to the population, who regard him as willing to stand up to the corrupt government in Kabul. Further, whom The New York Times calls "ardently anti-opium", succeeded in cutting back opium cultivation in Helmand by 33 percent in 2009. Mangal's subsidised wheat seed programme, giving an alternative to poppy crops, is reported to have reached 40,000 farmers. According to The New York Times, Mangal has faced at least four attempts on his life; the British tabloid the Sun reports that Mangal, whose son has been granted asylum in the UK, has survived more than a dozen assassination attempts and “lives in a heavily-fortified compound, lined with razor wire and blast-proof walls”, protected by British troops, “goes out in disguise, shadowed by 15 bodyguards”.
In October 2006, Mangal′s convoy was struck by a bomb attack east of Kabul, for which the Taliban claimed responsibility, narrowly missing him, killing one provincial official. In May 2008, while flying into Musa Qala with a British escort to dedicate a new mosque, the CH-47 Chinook helicopter in which he was flying was hit by rocket fire. In February 2009, two U. S. soldiers who were part of a convoy of coalition troops accompanying Mangal to a village where he intended to talk to residents about alternatives to opium farming were killed along with three Afghans, including a police official, while trying to disable a roadside bomb. In April 2010, three Italian citizens and six Afghans who worked at a hospital run by the Italian charity Emergency in the capital of Helmand Province, Lashkar Gah were detained, suspected of having planned suicide attacks. According to Mangal, he was the target of the planned attacks that would have killed many more people as well. Afghan authorities claimed the detainees confessed, but the Taliban denied hiring any foreign aid workers, they were released without charges.
The hospital staff had become unpopular with local officials, as they had a reputation for treating wounded Taliban fighters. In the WikiLeaks cables released in 2010, Mangal was cited as one of the officials in Afghanistan who criticised the British. According to U. S. cables of January 2009, Mangal accused the British of doing too little to interact with the local community, telling a U. S. team led by Vice-President Joe Biden that he did not “have anything against them but they must leave their bases and engage with the people.” As reported by The New York Times, the Wikileaks cables confirm that Mangal is considered an effective governor by foreign diplomats, that he only kept his job as governor in Helmand Province thanks to “a concerted effort by the British, backed up by NATO allies”, when President Hamid Karzai wanted to replace him with a “tribal power broker with unsavory connections”. Helmand Provincial Reconstruction Team "Helmand's Hope. U. S. and British forces believe provincial Gov. Gulab Mangal will be key to progress in Afghanistan's restive Helmand province, where Marines are trying to support the struggling Afghan government.
Photos". The Washington Post. 2009-07-11. Retrieved 2010-12-20. "Helmand Province". U. S. Navy, Program for Culture and Conflict Studies. Retrieved 2010-12-20. "Laghman Province". U. S. Navy, Program for Culture and Conflict Studies. Retrieved 2010-12-20. "Paktika Province". U. S. Navy, Program for Culture and Conflict Studies. Retrieved 2010-12-20. Karen Parrish. "Partnership Brings Better Governance to Helmand". American Forces Press Service. Retrieved 2010-12-20. Pamela Constable. "Anti-Terror Efforts Put Vise on Afghan Region. Border Offensive Has Paktika Residents on Edge"; the Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 29, 2011. Retrieved 2010-12-20. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty "Afghanistan: New Helmand Governor Confirms Desire For Talks With Taliban". March 21, 2008. Retrieved 2010-12-20. Richard Norton-Taylor. "Britain could start Afghan withdrawal next year, says Helmand governor Gulab Mangal". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2010-12-20. Mohammed Al Shafey. "Taliban Forcing Framers to Harvest Opium- Helmand Governor".
Ashark Alawsat, Saudi Research and Publishing company. Retrieved 2010-12-20. Jon Boone. "Helmand governor impresses British with tough line on crime". FT.com. Archived from the original on July 10, 2011. Retrieved 2010-12-20
Ahmad Yusuf Nuristani
Dr. Ahmad Yusuf Nuristani is a well-known and respected politician in Afghanistan. Nuristani played an important role in the resistance against the Russian invasion of Afghanistan, he was the spokesperson for President Hamid Karzai, Chief of Presidential Media, Office of the President, during the interim administration. Subsequently, he was appointed as a Minister of Irrigation, Water Resources, Environment during the transitional period of Afghan government. Responsible for planning and policy development and oversight of the ministry's budget/spending, he secured funding for training from the Asian Development Bank and from USAID, Canadian CIDA, GTZ and KFW Germany in order to repair damaged reservoirs. From 2005 to 2008 Nuristani was the 1st Deputy Defense Government of Afghanistan, he assisted Minister of Defense in policy development and implementation in relation to the Afghan National Army. From 1992 to 1996 Nuristani has worked as a Project Coordinator, Basic Education for Afghan Refugees, GTZ/UNHCR- sponsored project, in Peshawar, Pakistan.
As a project coordinator, Nuristani managed programs aimed at serving educational needs of Afghan refugee children from grades one through six in the entire North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. From 1988 to 1990 Nuristani worked as a Senior Cultural Specialist, United States Information Service -Afghan Program, in Peshawar, Pakistan. In this position, Nuristani administered US international visitors exchange program by sending prospective political leaders to the US in order to acquire leadership and democratic skills. From 1975 to 1978, Nuristani worked as a Graduate Research and Teaching Assistant in the Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Arizona, United States of America, he worked as an assistant professor in the Department of Social Sciences and Humanities, Kabul University, Afghanistan. He has been involved in Afghan politics for the last 30 years and has participated in major conferences related to Afghan issues, he was one of the founding members of the Writer's Union of Free Afghanistan as well as the Afghan Professor's University Association during the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan while living in Peshawar, Pakistan.
He received his Ph. D. in Near Eastern Studies from the University of Arizona located in Tucson, Arizona. DR. Nuristani was a central figure in the 2014 election crisis of Afghanistan, as the chairman of the election commission his deputies were accused of ballot stuff in favor now president Ashraf Ghani. Nuristani has been a controversial figure in the election process of Afghanistan and despite Afghan public opinion being against him he still insisted on staying as the chairman of the election commission. March 26, 2016 in a surprise move Nuristani resigned from his post as the chairman of election commission
Abdul Haq Shafaq
Abdul Haq Shafaq is an ethnic Hazara politician in Afghanistan. He is the former governor of Faryab, Daykundi and Sar-e Pol provinces. Abdul Haq Shafaq is former commander of the Hezbe Wahdat. After the fall of the Taliban he was appointed governor of Sar-e Pol Province. In 2004, Abdul Haq Shafaq switched to the province of Samangan, he has one child. List of Hazara people
Herat is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the western part of the country. Together with Badghis and Ghor provinces, it makes up the north-western region of Afghanistan, its primary city and administrative capital is Herat City. The province of Herat contains over 1,000 villages, it has a population of about 1,780,000, making it the second most populated province in Afghanistan behind Kabul Province. The population is multi-ethnic but Persian-speaking. Herat province shares border with Iran in the west and Turkmenistan in the north, making it an important trading province; the Trans-Afghanistan Pipeline is expected to pass through Herat from Turkmenistan to Pakistan and India in the south. The province has two airports, one is the Herat International Airport in the capital of Herat and the other is at the Shindand Air Base, one of the largest military bases in Afghanistan; the Salma Dam, fed by the Hari River is located in this province. The region of Herat was part of Greater Khorasan, successively controlled by the Tahirids followed by the Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ilkhanates, Safavids, Afsharids, Qajarids until it became part of the modern state of Afghanistan.
During the 19th century, the British arrived from southern Afghanistan as part of its imperialistic policies and backed up the Afghans during one Persian siege and one capture of the city, the former in 1838, the latter in 1856 in order to prevent Persian or Russian influence reaching deeper in South Asia, more Britain's colony India as part of the Great Game. In the process, parts of the city of Herat were destroyed; the province remained peaceful until the 1979 Soviet invasion. The province saw a number of battles during the 1980s Soviet war, remained an active area of guerrilla warfare throughout, with local mujahideen commander Ismail Khan leading resistance against the Soviet-backed Afghan government; this continued until the Soviet Union withdrew all its forces in 1989. When the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan, Ismail Khan became the governor of the province, a position he retained until the Taliban forces from the south took control of the province in 1995. Following the ousting of the Taliban and establishment of the Karzai administration, led by Hamid Karzai, Ismail Khan once again became governor of Herat.
Ismail Khan become a figure of controversy when the media began reporting that he was attempting to restrict freedom of the people, that he was becoming more of an independent ruler as a warlord. He lost a son Mirwais Sadiq in 2004 during a fight with forces of other warlords. In response to this, the central government began expanding into the provide with the newly trained Afghan National Security Forces. Ismail Khan was ordered to leave his post to live in Kabul. After 2005, the International Security Assistance Force established presence in the area to help assist the Afghan government, it is led by Italy. A multi-national Provincial Reconstruction Team was established to help the local population of the province; the United States established a consulate in Herat, trained Afghan security forces, built schools, clinics. Herat was one of the first seven areas that transitioned security responsibility from NATO to Afghanistan. On July 21, 2011, Afghan security forces assumed lead security responsibility from NATO.
On the occasion, Minister of Defense Wardak told the audience, "this is our national responsibility to take over our security and defend our country." The current governor of the province is Mohammad Asif Rahimi, before him was Fazlullah Wahidi who had succeeded Daud Shah Saba in 2013. The provincial Police Chief, who leads the regular Afghan National Police and the Afghan Border Police, is responsible for all law enforcement activities; the Police Chief represents the Ministry of the Interior in Kabull. The province is home to 90% of Afghanistan's Saffron production. In 2015 the World Bank noted that saffron cultivation had provided Herat Province's farmers a steady source of income, jobs for both men and women, a decreased dependency on poppy cultivation. With international borders to Iran and Turkmenistan and an international airport, trade could play an important part in the economy of Herat Province. Due to the lack of urbanization in Herat Province, around 75% of the population lives in rural areas and economic activity is correspondingly reliant on agriculture and horticulture production with around 82% of economic activity coming from these fields in 2011.
Marble manufacturing and light industry comprised the remaining areas of economic activity. The percentage of households with clean drinking water fell from 31% in 2005 to 28% in 2011; the percentage of births attended to by a skilled birth attendant increased from 24% in 2005 to 25% in 2011. The overall literacy rate fell from 36% in 2005 to 25% in 2011; the overall net enrolment rate fell from 55% in 2005 to 52% in 2011. Herat University is Afghanistan's second largest university with over 10,000 students, 14 faculties and 45 departments in 2014; the total population of the province is about 1,780,000. Persian-speaking Tajiks form the majority. According to Afghanistan's Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development: "Around three quarters of the population of Hirat lives in rural districts while just under a quarter lives in urban areas. Around 50% of the population is male and 50% is female. Dari and Pashtu are spoken by 98% of the populati
Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch is an international non-governmental organization, headquartered in New York City, that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. The group pressures some governments, policy makers and human rights abusers to denounce abuse and respect human rights, the group works on behalf of refugees, children and political prisoners. Human Rights Watch in 1997 shared in the Nobel Peace Prize as a founding member of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines, it played a leading role in the 2008 treaty banning cluster munitions; the organization's annual expenses totaled $50.6 million in 2011 and $69.2 million in 2014, $75.5 million in 2017. Human Rights Watch was co-founded by Robert L. Bernstein and Aryeh Neier as a private American NGO in 1978, under the name Helsinki Watch, to monitor the then-Soviet Union's compliance with the Helsinki Accords. Helsinki Watch adopted a practice of publicly "naming and shaming" abusive governments through media coverage and through direct exchanges with policymakers.
By shining the international spotlight on human rights violations in the Soviet Union and its European partners, Helsinki Watch says it contributed to the democratic transformations of the region in the late 1980s. Americas Watch was founded in 1981. Relying on extensive on-the-ground fact-finding, Americas Watch not only addressed perceived abuses by government forces but applied international humanitarian law to investigate and expose war crimes by rebel groups. In addition to raising its concerns in the affected countries, Americas Watch examined the role played by foreign governments the United States government, in providing military and political support to abusive regimes. Asia Watch, Africa Watch, Middle East Watch were added to what was known as "The Watch Committees". In 1988, all of these committees were united under one umbrella to form Human Rights Watch. Pursuant to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Human Rights Watch opposes violations of what are considered basic human rights under the UDHR.
This includes capital discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. HRW advocates freedoms in connection with fundamental human rights, such as freedom of religion and freedom of the press. HRW seeks to achieve change by publicly pressuring governments and their policy makers to curb human rights abuses, by convincing more powerful governments to use their influence on governments that violate human rights. Human Rights Watch publishes research reports on violations of international human rights norms as set out by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and what it perceives to be other internationally accepted, human-rights norms; these reports are used as the basis for drawing international attention to abuses and pressuring governments and international organizations to reform. Researchers conduct fact-finding missions to investigate suspect situations using diplomacy, staying in touch with victims, making files about public and individuals, providing required security for them in critical situations and in a proper time generate coverage in local and international media.
Issues raised by Human Rights Watch in its reports include social and gender discrimination, military use of children, political corruption, abuses in criminal justice systems, the legalization of abortion. HRW has documented and reported various violations of the laws of war and international humanitarian law. Human Rights Watch supports writers worldwide, who are being persecuted for their work and are in need of financial assistance; the Hellman/Hammett grants are financed by the estate of the playwright Lillian Hellman in funds set up in her name and that of her long-time companion, the novelist Dashiell Hammett. In addition to providing financial assistance, the Hellman/Hammett grants help raise international awareness of activists who are being silenced for speaking out in defense of human rights; each year, Human Rights Watch presents the Human Rights Defenders Award to activists around the world who demonstrate leadership and courage in defending human rights. The award winners work with HRW in investigating and exposing human rights abuses.
Human Rights Watch was one of six international NGOs that founded the Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers in 1998. It is the co-chair of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines, a global coalition of civil society groups that lobbied to introduce the Ottawa Treaty, a treaty that prohibits the use of anti-personnel landmines. Human Rights Watch is a founding member of the International Freedom of Expression Exchange, a global network of non-governmental organizations that monitor censorship worldwide, it co-founded the Cluster Munition Coalition, which brought about an international convention banning the weapons. HRW employs more than 275 staff—country experts, lawyers and academics – and operates in more than 90 countries around the world. Headquartered in New York City, it has offices in Amsterdam, Berlin, Chicago, Johannesburg, Los Angeles, Nairobi, Paris, San Francisco, Tokyo, Washington, D. C. and Zürich. HRW maintains direct access to the majority of countries. Cuba, North Korea, Iran, the United Arab Emirates and Venezuela are among the handful of countries that have blocked access for HRW staff members.
The current executive director of HRW is Kenneth Roth, who has held the position since 1993. Roth conducted investigations on abuses in Poland after martial law was declared 1981, he focused on Haiti, which had just emerged from the Duvalier dictatorship but continued to be plagued wi