Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Andrésy is a commune in the Yvelines department in north-central France. Andrésy is twinned with: Międzyrzecz, Poland Oundle, United Kingdom Haren, Germany Communes of the Yvelines department INSEE
Béhoust is a commune in the Yvelines department in north-central France. Communes of the Yvelines department INSEE
Aubergenville is a commune in the Yvelines department in north-central France. It is located in the valley of the Seine; this city is located near the Côteau de Montgardé on the road to Normandy. At the time tradition, marked by the installation in Versailles of Monarchy, three fields structured the commune: The field of Acosta, in 1661, was acquired by Mr. de Mannevillette, who build the castle as well as the two houses located on both sides of the town. In 1671, a great number of trees were planted in the park of the castle: charms, elms, wild cherry trees, chestnuts and 400 fir trees, it is into 1758. The field of Garenne which extends close to the river was in the beginning a vast flanked middle-class house of an important farmer. Around 1766, it was transformed into a castle, its new owner acquires a great number of pieces of historical information and items, unique to the field. The field of Montgardé of which, in 1416, was purchased by the chapter of Notre Dame de Paris. In the 15th century, the old farm was converted into a middle-class house and became the residence of the lords of Nézel after the destruction of their castle.
The destiny of Aubergenville was marked by the French Revolution by law of 2 November 1789, which removes the monastic orders and declares property national all the goods of the clergy. With the passing of years, constructions became more consequent until the residents were able to build larger houses, suitable for starting larger families. A rural world settled and their life was changed by the great events which marked France from around 1400 AD to 1900 AD and of the more pleasant events at the local level. In 1780, the construction of the royal road between Mantes and Saint-Germain introduced the first and strongest lines to other villages and cities; the removal of certain grounds to the profit of roads pushed the inhabitants to find a solution to reduce the damage. They proposed a modification of its recovery by complaining to the council; this would have had the advantage of generating an increase of people to the town. Instead of that, the village tended to move away from the road to avoid this happening.
In 1843, the railway from Paris to Rouen was constructed. With the origin, the station of Aubergenville was equipped only with one stop for travellers. Following these evolutions, the council built a number of industrial buildings and houses to accommodate the great number of varied industrial activities. On 10 May 1944, a Royal Air Force Lancaster airplane crashed in Aubergenville. Seven airmen are buried in Aubergenville cemetery. After the war there was the local ways of life; the Renault factory was established in Flins in 1952 and Aubergenville saw its population multiplied by 5 in 20 years. Aubergenville passed from the stage of borough to that of city. Located at 80% on the territory of Aubergenville, the factory bears the name of Flins all the same; the site was retained to share the ideal situation for the time. The barges could bring weighty materials, the motorway of the west was born and allowed faster connections with the head office of Boulogne-Billancourt; the colossal size of the Renault factory and the brief history which precedes made it possible to appreciate the extent of the repercussions which appear on the territory.
It is necessary to build all the equipment necessary to the employees and their families. Kévin Afougou, footballer Tony Diagne, footballer Sébastien Schuller, Musician Aubergenville is twinned with: Bełchatów in Poland Alcobaça in Portugal Dieburg in Germany Horndean in England Communes of the Yvelines department INSEE
Boinvilliers is a commune in the Yvelines department in north-central France. Communes of the Yvelines department INSEE
Mantes-la-Jolie is a commune based in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France. It is located to the west of 48.4 km from the centre of the capital. Mantes-la-Jolie is a subprefecture of the department. Mantes was half way between the centres of power of the dukes of Normandy at Rouen and the Kings of France at Paris. Along with most of northern France, it changed hands in the Hundred Years' War. Philip Augustus died at Mantes, 14 July 1223. Louis XIV instituted the manufacture of musical instruments in Mantes, it was chosen as the centre of brass and woodwind instrument manufacture. In the 19th century, painters were attracted to the town Corot, whose paintings of the bridge and the cathedral are celebrated. Prokofiev spent the summer of 1920 there orchestrating the ballet Chout. Called Mantes-sur-Seine, Mantes merged with the commune of Gassicourt in 1930 and the commune born of the merger was called Mantes-Gassicourt. Mantes was the location of the first allied bridgehead across the Seine on 19 August 1944, by General Patton's 3rd Army.
Major rebuilding was needed after the war. On 7 May 1953, the commune of Mantes-Gassicourt was renamed Mantes-la-Jolie in reference to a letter of King Henry IV addressed to his mistress Gabrielle d'Estrées who resided in Mantes: "I am on my way to Mantes, my pretty". At the end of the 19th century, Impressionist painters like Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Édouard Manet and Claude Monet came to paint the Seine River which crosses the town. Jean Batiste Corot painting of the Old Mantes bridge is showed at the Louvres Inhabitants are called Mantais; the city had a total of 44,985 inhabitants in 2014. The city is divided into four districts each with a characteristic urban form: Centre-ville: city center, a dense and commercial area Gassicourt: residential area Val Fourré: large housing district Hautes Garennes: a non-urbanized area The main monument in Mantes is the church of Notre-Dame dating back to 12th century. A previous church was burnt down by William the Conqueror together with the rest of the town, at the capture of which he lost his life in 1087.
Modern bridges link Mantes with the town of Limay on the other side of the river. Mantes is home to small businesses working on concrete and chemical processing, but is drawn into the economic area of nearby Paris, it is and at present a center of musical instrument manufacturing. The well known Buffet-Crampon woodwind factory is located in the neighbourhood city of Mantes-la-Ville. Mantes-la-Jolie is served by two stations on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare and Transilien Paris – Montparnasse suburban rail lines: Mantes-Station and Mantes-la-Jolie; the Gare de Mantes-la-Jolie is served by TGV trains towards Le Havre, Cherbourg. The municipality has nineteen public preschools, sixteen public elementary schools, six public junior high schools, two public senior high schools/sixth form colleges, a private secondary school. Public junior high schools: Collège André Chénier Collège Paul Cézanne Collège Jules Ferry Collège Louis Pasteur Collège de Gassicourt Collège Georges ClemenceauPublic senior high schools: Lycée Saint-Exupéry Lycée Polyvalent Jean RostandPrivate secondary schools: Collège-Lycée Notre-DameColleges and universities: University Institute of Technology of Mantes en Yvelines Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University Mantes-la-Jolie is twinned with: Maia, Portugal Hillingdon, United Kingdom Schleswig, Germany Faudel, singer Sandy Casar, cyclist Benoit Poher, singer Angelo Tsagarakis basketball player Saïd Hireche, rugby player Moussa Sow, footballer Haoua Kessely athlete Omar Kossoko, footballer Kama Massampu, footballer Claudine Mendy, handball player Oumar N'Diaye, footballer Opa Nguette, footballer Hamady Tamboura, footballer Communes of the Yvelines department INSEE Mantes-la-Jolie city council website
La Boissière-École is a commune in the Yvelines department in north-central France. The village is located in the Southern West of Yvelines; the most part of the landscape is constituted of forest. The place is separated in two; the castle and the Olympe Hériot school are in "La Basse Boissière" but most of the inhabitants live in "La Haute Boissière". "La Gâtine" and "Mauzaize" are located in the west of the village centre. Lots of small village are located around this: "Adainville", "Condé-sur-Vesgre", "Poigny-la-Forêt", "Hermeray", "Mittainville", "La Hauteville", it can be reached by the 71 road and the 80. In the east of the village, tourists can enjoy an equestrian centre; the principal activity of the village is a farmer: "La Tremblay". Communes of the Yvelines department INSEE