Neal Casal is an American guitarist, singer and photographer. First rising to prominence as lead guitar with Rickey Medlocke's Blackfoot from 1988-1993, Casal is best known as a member of Ryan Adams' backing band the Cardinals from 2005 until 2009, with whom he recorded three studio albums, he plays in several groups, including the Chris Robinson Brotherhood, Hard Working Americans, The Skiffle Players and Circles Around the Sun – and has released twelve albums as a solo artist. In 2010, Casal released a photo-book, Ryan Adams & the Cardinals: A View of Other Windows, documenting his time spent within the band, he released his most recent solo album, Sweeten the Distance, in 2011. Casal began work on early solo demos from 1990 to 1993 at studios in Los Angeles, New York and New Jersey. During this period he teamed up with his manager Gary Waldman, keyboard player John Ginty and vocalist Angie McKenna. After signing a publishing deal with Warner/Chappell Music, he forged a long standing professional relationship with producer/engineer Jim Scott.
In 1994, Casal signed with Zoo Entertainment and recorded his debut album at Palacio del Rio, formally owned by James Stewart and Dean Martin in Santa Ynez, California with producer Jim Scott. The album featured Bob Glaub, Greg Leisz. Casal released Fade Away Diamond Time in September 1994 that to critical acclaim and supported by a US tour with his band. Casal parted ways with Zoo Records in 1996 and recorded Rain and Speed released by Buy or Die Records. In 1997, Casal signed with the Glitterhouse Records label and went on to release five albums, including Field Recordings and The Sun Rises Here. In 1998, Casal released the self-produced album Basement Dreams, named Americana Album of the Year in Mojo magazine. During the Spring of 1999, Casal teamed up with Six String Drag front man Kenny Roby and toured Europe that summer recording the live album Black River Sides. Casal released his sixth solo album Anytime Tomorrow in 2000, produced by Jim Scott. Anytime Tomorrow was the last album to be released by Glitterhouse in 2000 and prompted an extensive European tour into early 2001.
In 2002, Casal co-wrote and released the EP Ran On Pure Lightning collaborating with Shannon McNally and other musicians which included Benmont Tench, Greg Leisz and Brent Rademaker. Around this time, Casal started playing with bassist Jeff Hill and drummer Dan Fadel, forming Hazy Malaze. Railroad Earth’s 2002 album Bird in a House featured a cover version of Casal’s song “Dandelion Wine”. Shortly after signing to Paris-based Fargo Records in 2003, Fargo released the compilation album Maybe California resulting in a European tour and Casal's first solo tour of Japan; the following year, Fargo released two compilation albums, Leaving Traces, a selection of Casal’s original songs from 1994–2004, Return in Kind, a compilation of covers and he began recording his eighth solo album. Casal joined Ryan Adams and The Cardinals in 2005. In December of that year he embarked on his third Japanese tour, which featured his first photography exhibition and upon his return released No Wish to Reminisce in early 2006.
The album, produced by Michael Deming, took his music in a different direction from his previous work, with a more layered, psychedelic production. All Directions, a compilation album of live and unreleased songs, was released in 2007. In 2009, Casal recorded and produced Roots and Wings; the album included musicians Jon Graboff, Greg Leisz, Johnathan Rice, Jeff Hill, Dan Fadel and Andy Goessling. Casal began recording his tenth solo album in March 2010 with producer Thom Monahan. While Casal toured Europe, Fargo re-released the albums Basement Dreams and Rain and Speed. On March 6 it was announced. Casal's tenth studio album, Sweeten the Distance, was released in November 2011. In 2013, Casal joined Hard Working Americans alongside Todd Snider, Dave Schools, Chad Staehly and Duane Trucks; the supergroup's debut album Hard Working Americans was recorded at Bob Weir's TRI Studios in 2013 and released on January 21, 2014. In 2015, Casal along with Adam MacDougall, Dan Horne and Mark Levy recorded five hours of music as Circles Around the Sun, played as the pre-show and set break music at The Grateful Dead's Fare Thee Well concerts in Santa Clara and Chicago.
These compositions were released that year as the album Interludes for the Dead. Circles Around the Sun made its live debut at the 2016 Lockn' Festival at Oak Ridge Farm in Arrington, Virginia. In 2018, CATS released their second album Let It Wander. In 2016, Casal joined three other Beachwood Sparks alums, Farmer Dave Scher, Dan Horne, Aaron Sperske, songwriter Cass McCombs to form The Skiffle Players, their debut album Skifflin was released that year, followed by the Piffle Sayers EP and Skiff in 2018. In the summer of 2002, while touring with Shannon McNally, Casal formed Hazy Malaze with fellow band members Dan Fadel and Jeff Hill, their debut album Hazy Malaze was recorded and mixed at Village Recorders in Los Angeles in eleven days. That year they toured opening for Robert Randolph and the Family Band and during 2003 continued to tour the US, while beginning work on their second album Blackout Love. In 2005, Hazy Malaze released their second album Blackout Love, supported by a French tour.
In 2009 Hazy Malaze released their third album Connections. Casal joined Ryan Adams & The Cardinals in 2005, shortly after the release of Jacksonville City Nights, replacing J. P. Bowerstock, toured the US in the summer of 2006, followed by a UK and European tour in the autumn. In 2007, the Ryan Adams album Easy Tiger was released and went to number seven
Ingram Cecil Connor III, known professionally as Gram Parsons, was an American singer, songwriter and pianist. Parsons is best known for his work with the Byrds and Flying Burrito Brothers, he popularized what he called "Cosmic American Music", a hybrid of country and blues, soul and rock. He recorded as a solo artist and with the International Submarine Band, the Byrds and the Flying Burrito Brothers, his short career was described by AllMusic as "enormously influential" for country and rock, "blending the two genres to the point that they became indistinguishable from each other."Parsons was born in Winter Haven and developed an interest in country music while attending Harvard University. He founded the International Submarine Band in 1966 and, after several months of delay, their debut album Safe at Home was released in 1968. Parsons joined The Byrds in early 1968 and played a pivotal role in the making of the seminal Sweetheart of the Rodeo album. After leaving the group in late 1968, Parsons and fellow Byrd Chris Hillman formed The Flying Burrito Brothers in 1969, releasing their debut, The Gilded Palace of Sin, the same year.
The album failed commercially. After a sloppy cross-country tour, they hastily recorded Burrito Deluxe. Parsons was fired from the band before its release in early 1970, he soon signed with A&M Records but after several unproductive sessions he canceled his intended solo debut in early 1971. Parsons moved to France, where he lived for a short period at Villa Nellcôte with his friend Keith Richards of The Rolling Stones. Returning to America, Parsons met Emmylou Harris through his friend and former bandmate Chris Hillman, she assisted him on vocals for his first solo record, GP, released in 1973. Although it received enthusiastic reviews, the release failed to chart, his next album, Grievous Angel, met with a similar reception and peaked at number 195 on the Billboard chart. His health deteriorated due to several years of drug abuse and he died in 1973 at the age of 26. Since his death, Parsons has been credited with helping to found both country rock and alt-country, he did not consider his work "country rock" because he felt it should not be categorized in a single genre since it was a unique blend of many genres and styles of music with his own personal twang.
In 1968, the Byrds were met with a hostile crowd. They appeared on Ralph Emery's WSM radio show and were shocked to find he had none of their records. Parsons and Roger McGuinn wrote the song Drug Store Truck Drivin Man in response, his posthumous honors include the Americana Music Association "President's Award" for 2003 and a ranking at No. 87 on Rolling Stone's list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time." Ingram Cecil Connor III was born on November 5, 1946, in Winter Haven, Florida, to Ingram Cecil "Coon Dog" and Avis Connor. The Connors resided at their main residence in Waycross, but Avis traveled to her hometown in Florida to give birth, she was the daughter of citrus fruit magnate John A. Snively, who held extensive properties in Winter Haven and in Waycross; the senior Ingram Connor was a famous World War II flying ace, decorated with the Air Medal, present at the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor. Biographer David Meyer characterized these parents as loving. However, he notes that "unhappiness was eating away at the Connor family": Avis suffered from depression, both parents were alcoholics.
Ingram Connor committed suicide two days before Christmas in 1958, devastating the 12-year-old Gram and his younger sister named Avis. Avis subsequently married Robert Parsons, who adopted his sister. Gram Parsons attended the prestigious Bolles School in Jacksonville, Florida before transferring to the public Winter Haven High School. For a time, the family found a stability of sorts, they were torn apart in early 1965, when Robert became embroiled in an extramarital affair and Avis' heavy drinking led to her death from cirrhosis on June 5, 1965, the day of Gram's graduation from Bolles. As his family disintegrated around him, Parsons developed strong musical interests after seeing Elvis Presley perform in concert on February 22, 1956, in Waycross. Five years while in his teens, he played in rock and roll cover bands such as the Pacers and the Legends, headlining in clubs owned by his stepfather in the Winter Haven/Polk County area. By the age of 16, he graduated to folk music, in 1963 he teamed with his first professional outfit, the Shilos, in Greenville, South Carolina.
Influenced by The Kingston Trio and The Journeymen, the band played hootenannies, coffee houses and high school auditoriums. Forays into New York City included a performance at Florida's exhibition in the 1964 New York World's Fair and regular appearances at the Café Rafio on Bleecker Street in Greenwich Village in the summer of 1964. Although John Phillips arranged an exploratory meeting with Albert Grossman, the impresario balked at booking the group for a Christmas engagement at The Bitter End when he discovered that the Shilos were high school students. Following a recording session at the radio station of Bob Jo
Helen Folasade Adu, known professionally as Sade Adu or Sade, is a British Nigerian singer and actress, known as the lead singer of her self-titled band. Born in Ibadan and brought up in Essex, Sade gained modest recognition as a fashion designer and part-time model, prior to joining the band Pride in the early 1980s. After gaining attention as a performer, she formed the band Sade, secured a recording contract with Epic Records in 1983; the band released the album Diamond Life a year which became one of the best selling albums of the era, the best-selling debut by a British female vocalist. It gained widespread critical acclaim and is considered one of the best albums of all time. In July 1985, Sade was among the performers at the Live Aid charity concert at Wembley Stadium. In late 1985, they released Promise, a resounding critical and commercial success, topping the UK Albums Chart and becoming the band's first album to debut atop the Billboard 200, it earned quadruple platinum certification in the U.
S. and reached platinum across Europe. It earned the group the Grammy Award for Best New Artist in 1986, their following two releases, 1988's Stronger Than Pride and 1992's Love Deluxe, were critically and commercially successful. After a spell of eight years without an album, which came after Sade appeared in the film Absolute Beginners, the band reunited in 1999, released Lovers Rock in 2000; the album departed from the jazz-inspired inflections of their previous work, featuring more mellow sounds and pop compositions, was critically praised, earning the group the Grammy Award for Best Pop Vocal Album. The band would undergo another term of hiatus, not producing music for another ten years until the release of Soldier of Love; the album was another commercial success, although critical reception remained divided, but won the group the Grammy Award for Best R&B Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocals. Following the album's release, the band entered a third period of hiatus, have only released one new song to date.
Sade is considered a musical influence, her contributions to music have made her a global figure in popular culture for over two decades. She has been credited as one of the most successful British female artists in history, her services to music were recognised with an award of the Officer of the Order of the British Empire chivalry honour in 2002, the rank of the Commander of the same order in 2017. Helen Folasade Adu was born on 16 January 1959 in Oyo State, Nigeria, her middle name, means "honour confers a crown". Her parents are Adebisi Adu, a Nigerian lecturer in economics of Yoruba background, Anne Hayes, an English district nurse; when Sade was four years old, her parents separated. Anne Hayes returned to England, taking Sade and older brother Banji with her to live with their grandparents near Colchester, Essex; when Sade was 11 years old, she moved to Essex, to live with her mother. After completing her education at Clacton County High School at age 18, she moved to London and studied fashion design at Saint Martin's School of Art.
After completing a three-year course work in fashion design, modeling Sade began backup singing with British band Pride. During this time, she formed a songwriting partnership with Pride's guitarist/saxophonist Stuart Matthewman, her solo performances of the song "Smooth Operator" attracted the attention of record companies, in 1983 Sade and Matthewman split from Pride, along with keyboardist Andrew Hale, bassist Paul Denman and drummer Paul Cook, to form the band Sade. By the time she performed her first show at London's Heaven nightclub, she had become so popular that 1,000 people were turned away at the door. In May 1983, Sade performed their first US show at the Danceteria nightclub in New York City. On 18 October 1983, Sade Adu signed with Epic Records, while the rest of the band signed in 1984. Following the record deal, the group began recording their debut album, Diamond Life, which took six weeks to record and was recorded at The Power Plant in London. Diamond Life was released on 16 July 1984, reached number two in the UK Album Chart, sold over 1.2 million copies in the UK, won the Brit Award for Best British Album in 1985.
The album was a hit internationally, reaching number one in several countries and the top ten in the US, where it has sold in excess of four million copies. Diamond Life had international sales of over six million copies, becoming one of the top-selling debut recordings of the'80s, the best-selling debut by a British female vocalist."Your Love Is King" was released as the album's lead single on 25 February 1984 and was a success in European territories, charting at number seven in Ireland and number six on the UK Singles Chart. The song was less successful in the US, where it peaked at number 54 on the US Billboard Hot 100; the third single, "Smooth Operator", was released on 15 September 1984 and became the most successful song in the US from the album Diamond Life. The track peaked at number five on the US Billboard Hot 100 and the US Billboard Hot Black Singles, as well as peaking at number one on the US Billboard Adult Contemporary chart. In Europe the
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Everly Brothers
The Everly Brothers were an American country-influenced rock and roll duo, known for steel-string acoustic guitar playing and close harmony singing. Isaac Donald "Don" Everly and Phillip Jason "Phil" Everly were inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1986 and the Country Music Hall of Fame in 2001. Don was born in Brownie, Muhlenberg County, Kentucky, on February 1, 1937, Phil in Chicago, Illinois, on January 19, 1939, their parents were Isaac Milford "Ike" Everly, Jr. a guitar player, Margaret Embry Everly. Actor James Best from Muhlenberg County, was the son of Ike's sister. Margaret was 15 when she married Ike, 26. Ike worked in coal mines from age 14, but his father encouraged him to pursue his love of music and Ike and Margaret began singing together; the Everly brothers spent most of their childhood in Iowa. They attended Longfellow Elementary School in Waterloo, for a year, but moved to Shenandoah in 1944, where they remained through early high school. Ike Everly had a show on KMA and KFNF in Shenandoah in the mid-1940s, first with his wife and with their sons.
The brothers sang on the radio as "Little Donnie and Baby Boy Phil." The family sang as the Everly Family. Ike, with guitarists Merle Travis, Mose Rager, Kennedy Jones, was honored in 1992 by the construction of the Four Legends Fountain in Drakesboro, Kentucky; the family moved to Tennessee, in 1953, where the brothers attended West High School. In 1955, the family moved to Madison, while the brothers moved to Nashville, Tennessee. Don had graduated from high school in 1955, Phil attended Peabody Demonstration School in Nashville, from which he graduated in 1957. Both could now focus on recording. While in Knoxville, the brothers caught the attention of family friend Chet Atkins, manager of RCA Victor's studio in Nashville; the brothers moved to Nashville. Despite affiliation with RCA, Atkins arranged for the Everly Brothers to record for Columbia Records in early 1956, their "Keep a-Lovin' Me," which Don wrote and composed and they were dropped from the Columbia label. Atkins introduced the Everly Brothers to Wesley Rose, of Acuff-Rose music publishers.
Rose told them. They signed in late 1956, in 1957 Rose introduced them to Archie Bleyer, looking for artists for his Cadence Records; the Everlys signed and made a recording in February 1957. "Bye Bye Love" had been rejected by 30 other acts. Their record reached No. 2 on the pop charts, behind Elvis Presley's " Teddy Bear," and No. 1 on the country and No. 5 on the R&B charts. The song, by Felice and Boudleaux Bryant, became the Everly Brothers's first million-seller. Working with the Bryants, they had hits in the United States and the United Kingdom, the biggest being "Wake Up Little Susie," "All I Have to Do Is Dream," "Bird Dog," and "Problems." The Everlys, though they were interpretive artists succeeded as songwriters with Don's " I Kissed You," which hit No. 4 on the US pop charts. The brothers toured with Buddy Holly in 1957 and 1958. According to Holly's biographer Philip Norman, they were responsible for persuading Holly and the Crickets to change their outfits from Levi's and T-shirts to the Everlys' Ivy League suits.
Don said Holly composed "Wishing" for them. "We were all from the South," Phil observed of their commonalities. "We'd started in country music." Although some sources say Phil Everly was one of Holly's pallbearers in February 1959, Phil said in 1986 that he attended the funeral and sat with Holly's family, but was not a pallbearer. Don did not attend. I couldn't go anywhere. I just took to my bed." After three years on Cadence, the Everlys signed with Warner Bros. Records in 1960, where they recorded for 10 years, their first Warner Bros. hit, 1960's "Cathy's Clown," which they wrote and composed themselves, sold eight million copies and became the duo's biggest-selling record. "Cathy's Clown" was number WB1, the first selection Warner Bros. Records released in the United Kingdom. We're not Grand Ole Opry... we're not Perry Como... we're just pop music. But, you could call us an American skiffle group! Other successful Warner Bros. singles followed in the United States, such as "So Sad", "Walk Right Back", "Crying in the Rain", "That's Old Fashioned".
From 1960 to 1962, Cadence Records released Everly Brothers singles from the vaults, including "When Will I Be Loved", written and composed by Phil, "Like Strangers." In the UK, they had top 10 hits until 1965, including "Lucille"/"So Sad", "Walk Right Back"/"Ebony Eyes", "Temptation", "Cryin' in the Rain" and "The Price of Love". They had 18 singles into the UK top 40 with Warner Bros. in the 1960s. By 1962, the Everlys had earned $35 million from record sales. In 1961, the brothers fell out with Wesley Rose during the recording of "Temptation." Rose was upset that the Everlys were recording a song which he had not published and, for which he would not receive any publishing royalties, he made strenuous efforts to block the single's release. The Everlys held firm to their position, as a result, in the early 1960s, they were shut off from Acuff-Rose songwriters; these included Felice and Boudleaux Bryant, who had written and composed most of their hits, as well as Don and Phil Everly themselves, who were still contracted to Acuff-Rose as songwriters and had writ
Laurel Canyon, Los Angeles
Laurel Canyon is a mountainous neighborhood/canyon located in the Hollywood Hills region of the Santa Monica Mountains, in the Hollywood Hills West district of Los Angeles, California. Laurel Canyon is focused on Laurel Canyon Boulevard. However, unlike other nearby canyon neighborhoods, Laurel Canyon has houses lining one side of the main street most of the way up to Mulholland Drive. There are many side roads that branch off the main canyon, but most are not through streets, reinforcing the self-contained nature of the neighborhood; some of the main side streets are Mount Olympus, Wonderland Avenue, Willow Glen, Lookout Mountain Avenue. The zip code for a portion of the neighborhood is 90046. Laurel Canyon Boulevard is an important North-South route between: West Hollywood and Central Los Angeles; the canyon's division between the two regions is defined by Mulholland Drive. The Laurel Canyon area was inhabited by the Tongva people, a regional tribe of the indigenous peoples of California, for thousands of years.
A spring-fed stream flowed year-round providing water. The reliable water supply attracted colonial Spanish ranchers who started grazing sheep on the hillsides in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. After the Mexican–American War and the advent of U. S. statehood for California in 1850, the area was settled by Americans interested in water rights. Until the twentieth century, passage up the canyon was made by mule. In 1907, an 82-mile dirt road named Laurel Canyon Boulevard, was built, it ran up the canyon. In 1908, the Lookout Mountain Park and Water Co. was formed to purchase 280 acres on Lookout Mountain, just west of Laurel Canyon and marketed as mountain vacation properties. On Aug. 14, 1908, the Los Angeles Times announced that the company would build Lookout Mountain Inn at the summit of Lookout Mountain and Sunset Plaza roads, Lookout Mountain Park, Bungalow Land at Laurel Canyon Boulevard and Lookout Mountain Avenue and Wonderland Park. Two years the company widened the winding dirt road to the top of Lookout Mountain where they built the Lookout Mountain Inn.
In 1912, Charles Mann, a real estate developer and Richard Shoemaker, an engineer, built a trackless electric trolley bus line which ran between the Laurel Canyon Pacific Electric Shuttle stop at the foot of Laurel Canyon at Sunset Boulevard, The Laurel Canyon Pacific Electric Shuttle ran from the foot of Laurel Canyon at Sunset Boulevard to Gardner Junction at Gardner Street and Sunset Boulevard, Beverly Hills line of the Pacific Electric Railway station. (1451 N Gardner St, West Hollywood, CA 90046 up Laurel Canyon Road from Sunset Boulevard to the Tavern at the base of Lookout Mountain Road, a road house serving visitors. The car had two trolley poles, one to a positive overhead wire and one to a ground overhead wire, was able to sway to either side of the street, only using power uphill; the trolley was a 1912 Oldsmobile with an electric motor and 10-passenger capacity. The overhead wires came down and the service was replaced by Stanley Steamers about 1915; until 1918, the trackless trolley traveled up and down Laurel Canyon to meet the half hour schedule to Los Angeles.
It was insufficiently patronized and discontinued when Pacific Electric stopped running streetcars between Gardner Junction and Laurel Canyon Boulevard, demand failed to support it. On October 26, 1918, a fire, fanned by strong Santa Ana winds, burned about 200 acres and destroyed Lookout Mountain Inn at the summit of Lookout Mountain Avenue and Sunset Plaza Drive. Another major fire occurred in July 1959; as the roads were improved access was possible by automobile. Now a vacant lot, the corner of Lookout Mountain Avenue and Laurel Canyon Blvd is where the Tavern, a famous 1915 "Log Cabin" mansion stood, with its 80-foot living room, floor to ceiling fireplace, bowling alley and indoor sunken swimming pool, it spent years on the rental market. In 1968 it was rented by Frank Zappa who turned it into a recording celebrity hangout. However, Zappa moved out after six months; the house burned to the ground on Halloween 1981. Directly across the street, at 2400 Laurel Canyon Blvd. is site of the home, long-gone, that magician Harry Houdini may have rented around 1919.
It was the Walker estate. Laurel Canyon found itself a nexus of counterculture activity and attitudes in the mid-late 1960s and early 1970s, becoming famous as home to many of L. A.'s rock musicians, such as Frank Zappa. Tork's home was considered one of Laurel Canyon's biggest party houses with all-night, drug-fueled sleepovers, well attended by the hippest musicians and movie stars of the era. John Phillips of the Mamas & the Papas took inspiration from their home in Laurel Canyon for the song "Twelve Thirty, released in 1967; the following year, blues artist John Mayall recorded and released the album Blues from Laurel Canyon based on his experiences during a vacation that he spent in the Canyon. Most famously, the area and its denizens served as inspiration for Joni Mitchell's third album, Ladies of the Canyon, released in 1970; the house she lived in was immortalized in the Crosby and Nash song, "Our House", written by her