click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Bead Hill

Bead Hill is an archaeological site comprising the only known remaining and intact 17th-century Seneca site in Canada. It is located along the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail on the banks of the Rouge River in Rouge Park, a city park in Toronto, Ontario; because of its sensitive archaeological nature, it is not open to the public, nor identified in the park. It was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1991; the Bead Hill site is believed to be one of seven villages established along the north shore of Lake Ontario by the Iroquois in the 1660s. The Bead Hill site was settled temporarily as part of a mid 17th century push by the Iroquois Confederacy north, from their traditional homeland in New York state; the Huron Wendat Confederacy, had once occupied the north shores of Lake Ontario but had moved north toward Georgian Bay and Lake Simcoe at the end of the 16th century. Following extensive excavation undertaken in the 1980s it was determined that the Bead Hill site could be the documented village of Ganatsekwyagon.

Evidence from test excavations suggests that it was home to about 500 to 800 people for about 22 years. Bead Hill was a fur trading outlet, not a military or agricultural site, it was located at the nexus of major trade and transportation routes, including the lakeshore trail that follows modern-day Kingston Road and the historic Toronto Carrying-Place Trail. Bead Hill is adjacent to Campgrounds; the Bead Hill site is believed to contain the archaeological remains of the village of Ganatsekwyagon. French missionaries and explorers arrived at Ganatsekwyagon in 1669. François de Salignac de la Mothe-Fénelon passed the winter of 1669 in the village, the first recorded residence of Europeans in the neighbourhood of Toronto. François-Saturnin Lascaris d'Urfé may have spent the winter of 1669 in Ganatsekwyagon with Abbé Fénelon but the records are unclear; the village was an important fur trading post and was part of the regional power struggle between the French and Iroquois. The Comte de Frontenac wrote to Louis XIV of France in the fall of 1674 that the Iroquois "have given their word not to continue the trade, which as I informed you last year, they had commenced to establish at Ganatsekwyagon, with the Ottawas, which would have ruined ours by the transfer of the furs to the Dutch."

Tensions between the Iroquois and French lead to a number of conflicts over the course of the 17th century which are collectively known as the Beaver Wars, which would gravely affect Ganatsekwyagon. In 1687, the French, led by the Marquis de Denonville, began a campaign against the Senecas in northwest New York state. Denonville destroyed most of the Seneca villages in New York, it is unclear whether the French destroyed Ganatsekwyagon and other Iroquois villages on the North Shore of Lake Ontario in his 1687 campaign, or if the villages were abandoned as the Iroquois on the north shore of Lake Ontario retreated to New York state. Iroquois villages were temporary and tended to shift to a new location every 10–20 years. Therefore, it is not unusual. Regardless of the exact reason, following the 1687 campaign the Iroquois were restricted to south of Lake Ontario and Ganatsekwyagon was abandoned; because early Europeans had difficulty in transcribing First Nations names into European orthographic systems, numerous spelling variations exist.

Alternate names for the village included: Gandat Siagon Ganatsekwyagon Ganacheieskiagon Gandatsetiagon Gandatsekwyagon Ganatchekiagon Gandatsiagon Ganetsekiagon Gandatsekiagon Gandatsdhagon Kanatiochtiage Ganastiquiagon Gandalskiagon Le Portage de Toronto Toronto Carrying Place Toronto Portage William Brown, renting a saw mill on the Rouge River, was one of the first individuals to describe Bead Hill in 1849. After his employees found the site and he inspected it, he wrote, "There were pieces of broken pottery, broken guns, flint heads of some handsome tobacco pipes which the men brought away, they intended to go again... But I persuaded them to allow the dead to rest in peace, however, to view the place myself; the whole of the steep bank of the river had been used, the graves being one above another in the hillside, they looked like steps from the top to the bottom."In 1885, C. Blackett Robinson published A History of Toronto and County of York, which described artifacts found "near the mouth of the Rouge River, where the site of what was once a considerable Indian village was indicated by the remains of the logs which formed a wooden palisade surrounding their habitations."

Some of these artifacts, the account continued, "have all the characteristics of the stone age, mixed with the rude weapons and implements of'native industry' are those of copper and iron, glass beads, which were obtained by intercourse with the early French voyageurs and traders... A few yards from the site of the village a number of graves containing aboriginal remains were discovered." By the late 1660s various Five Nation Iroquois had established seven villages along the shores of Lake Ontario where trails led off into the interior. In addition to Ganatsekwyagon at the mouth of the Rouge River, the following settlements have been identified by historian Percy James Robinson: Ganneious - on the site of present-day Napanee Kente - on the Bay of Quinte Kentsio - on Rice Lake Ganaraske - on the site of present-day Port Hope Teiaiagon - on a hillside overlooking the Humber River, today's Baby Point neighbourhood in Toronto Quinaouatoua - Near modern-day Hamilton

Louie Sam

Louie Sam was a Stó:lō youth from native village near Abbotsford, British Columbia, lynched by an American mob. Sam was 14 at the time, he had been accused of the murder of a shopkeeper in Nooksack. The people of his band, today the Sumas First Nation at Kilgard turned him over to the B. C. government to settle the matter. Following this, an angry mob crossed the border into Canada on February 24 and captured Sam, in the custody of a B. C. deputy awaiting his trial at New Westminster. They hanged him from a tree close to the U. S. border. A subsequent investigation by Canadian authorities suggests that Sam was innocent and that the murderers were two white Americans who were leaders of the lynch mob, they were William Osterman, the Nooksack telegraph operator who took over Bell's business, David Harkness, who at the time of Bell's murder was living with Bell's estranged wife. Neither man was prosecuted. On March 1, 2006, the Washington State Senate and House of Representatives approved a resolution stating that "through this resolution, the Senate joins its peers in the government of British Columbia, acknowledging the unfortunate historical injustice to Louie Sam and the proud Stó:lō people".

Notes References Carlson, Keith. The Power of Place, the Problem of Time: Aboriginal Identity and Historical Consciousness in the Cauldron of Colonialism. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 9780802098399. - Total pages: 375 CBC News. "Washington state expresses regret over 1884 lynching of Canadian teen". CBC News. Retrieved December 10, 2018. Vaillant, John. "The Lynching of Louie Sam". The Walrus. Retrieved December 10, 2018

Wish/Starless Night

"Wish/Starless Night" is Olivia's 10th single, is her second single to be released under the name Olivia Lufkin Inspired by Reira. It was released on CD and CD&DVD on October 11, 2006; the two title tracks were recorded for the Nana anime. "Wish" was used as the second opening theme and "Starless Night" was used as the second ending theme to the show. "Wish/Starless Night" is Olivia's highest debuting single, at #7 on the Oricon weekly charts. Total sales thus far have reached 27,854 copies. CD track list "Wish" "Starless Night" "Close Your Eyes" / OliviaDVD track list "Wish" <Video Clip> Trapnest Original Animation Clip Vocals by Olivia Lufkin Keyboard & Programming by Tomoji Sogawa Guitar & Bass by Susumu Nishikawa Guitar & Synthesizer by Kansei Guitar by Makoto Totani Programming by Jeffrey Lufkin

C'est la vie

C'est la vie may refer to: C'est la vie, a French phrase, translated as "That's life" C'est la Vie, an English-language comic strip by Jennifer Babcock C'est la Vie, a 2004 memoir by Suzy Gershman C'est la vie, a Canadian radio program C'est la Vie, a 1967 musical review airing as an episode of ABC Stage 67 C'est la Vie, a 1981 French film directed by Paul Vecchiali La Baule-les-Pins, English title: C'est la vie C'est la Vie, a 2001 French film starring Sandrine Bonnaire C'est la vie, TV series Mauritius 2003 Karan Sharma Le Sens de la fête, English title: C'est la vie!, a 2017 French film C'est la Vie, or the title song, 2010 C'est la vie, or the title song, 2009 C'est la vie, or the title song, 2012 C'est la Vie, or the title song, 2008 C'est La Vie, 2018 C'est la Vie, 1997 C'est La Vie, 2003 C'est la Vie, by Alex Fox, 1997 C'est la Vie, by B*Witched, or the title song, 2006 C'est la Vie, by Chyi Yu, 1999 C'est la V, by Vanness Wu, 2011 "C'est la Vie", 2005 "C'est la Vie", 1998 "C'est la vie", 2004 "C'est la vie", 2012 "C'est la Vie", 2008 "C'est la Vie", 1986.

Night School, 2015 "C'est La Vie", by Despina Vandi from 10 Hronia Mazi, 2007 Shit Happens "Sing C'est la Vie", a song by Sonny & Cher from Look at Us Such Is Life That's Life

Ifakara

Ifakara is a small rural town in the Kilombero District, Morogoro Region, south central Tanzania. It is the headquarters of the Kilombero District administration and the main trading centre for Kilombero and Ulanga districts; the town is located near the Tanzania-Zambia Railway line, at the edge of the Kilombero Valley, a vast swampland flooded by the mighty Kilombero River. Ifakara is home to six major institutions of the Tanzanian health and water sectors: the Ifakara Health Institute Ifakara Health Research and Development Centre, recognized internationally for its research on malaria, other tropical diseases and health systems and services the St. Francis University College of Health and Allied Sciences, a constituent college of St. Augustine University of Tanzania, a higher learning institution established in 2010 offering Doctor of Medicine degree and other Allied health programs; the St. Francis Designated Referral Hospital the newly renovated the Tanzanian Training Centre for International Health, Ifakara offering assistant medical officer, Clinical officers, Clinical officers upgrading course and Health Information Science training.

TTCIH hosts and tailors courses for partners and course provider. The TTCIH has expertise in developing course curricular on international health issues in our core areas clinical course, community health and neonatal health, medical education and health management with expanding expertise in non-communicable diseases. Maji Safi Kwa Afya Bora Ifakara is an NGO implementing cost effective, community based water and hygiene projects in Tanzania; the Ifakara School of Nursing former Edgar Maranta Nursing school. Etymologically, the name Ifakara is composed of two Ndamba words: ufa and kara which mean “land is destructed” or “land is dead”, it was named during the invasions by Lipangalala’s group in 1860s when the Ndamba were in great fear and were driven out of the Kilombero River. While on the way back home they were informing their fellows they met on the way to the valley that things had fallen apart because of the invasions. During the colonial period Europeans couldn’t pronounce it hence “Ifakara” instead of “ufakara”.

Ifakara is the home of many sports. The sports game, famous in Ifakara is football where there are famous football teams which participate in different leagues and tournament in and out of Ifakara. Famous football clubs are Shupavu FC,Mlabani rangers, Techfort academy, kilombero soccernet, the wailers, kibaoni boys and other. Ifakara has passed through different administrative districts. While from 1899 to 1917 it was part of Mahenge militarbezirk, between 1917 and 1936 it was under Mahenge District. From 1936 to independence, Ifakara became part of Ulanga District. Today, Ifakara is part of Morogoro Region, it is both the district headquarters. The population is heterogeneous; the indigenous people are the Ndamba and Pogolo tribes and the population today constitutes the descendants of Lipangalala and Mfalikuivahaa, who as leaders from Zululand and Southern Africa arriving in Ifakara and the region as of the late 1860s. Other ethnic groups include Hehe, Bena, Ruguru, Kyurya and Chagga. In terms of religion, Christians outnumber Moslems and pagans because of early settlements of missionaries in the area.

A year after the British mandate was pronounced by the League of Nations in 1920s, the Capuchin Mission started work in Ifakara. The Swiss missionary work emerged in a context of acute political change; the missionary range of services offered was not only spiritual and pedagogical, but medical. Christian missions had a reputation as conveyors of European medical science. Sr. Arnolda Kury, from the Franciscan Baldegg congregation of the “Schwestern von der Göttlichen Vorsehung"Baldegger_Schwestern built a small dispensary in 1927; this facility developed over the years and grew when the St. Annaheim maternity hospital was added in 1944. In 1953 Dr Karl Schöpf designed and built a modern and new hospital, now called St. Francis Hospital, with support from Sr. Arnolda, the powerful parish priest and not least the Capuchin Bishop of the Archdiocese of Dar es Salaam. Today the mission hospitals have become ‘health projects’ executing‘ health programmes’ which are ‘sold’ on the secular and spiritual, as well as private and public, market created by donors in Switzerland and elsewhere.

Fishing has always been the main economic activity of the people living along the Kilombero River. The river provides different fish species including prawns, ndipi, kitoga, mjongwa, sulusulu, juju, ngufu, nguyu and mbala; the Ndamba are distinguished from the Pogoro of Mahenge highlands and its lowland peripheries by their riverine economy and technology. The technological superiority of the Ndamba lies in their control of canoe transport and grasp of riverine lore, which enables them to slip into vast and complicated waterways and survive there for lengthy periods. For along time, Larson notes, the Ndamba gained access to the fertile alluvial fans only during the dryseason. Other subsistence activities include cultivation. Today, people farm. While rice is the main food stuff, maize and wheat are grown for food and trade. Ifakara occupies the central position on the fertile alluvial fan of Kilombero valley land, it is an authentic savannah grassland with natural grass fields that are green during the rainy season and brown in the dry season.

Some exceptions are the beautiful evergreen banks of the Ki

Rutland United Brethren in Christ Meeting House and Cemetery

The Rutland United Brethren in Christ Meeting House and Cemetery is a rather simple frame church built in 1852 in Rutland, Wisconsin. The site was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2004 for its religious significance; the Church of the United Brethren in Christ is an evangelical denomination with Mennonite and German Reformed roots, formed in 1800. The first prayer meeting in Wisconsin of United Brethren occurred around 1840 at the home of "father" Johnson near Rutland. In 1840 the first United Brethren class in the state commenced in the home of Joseph Dominic DeJean in Rutland. In 1851 a congregation was formed, with 65 members. Charter members included Joseph DeJean, Taylor Valentine, A. G. Newton, Mr. and Mrs. David Anthony, E. D. Sholts, Emma Graves, the Burtons, the Haskins, the Prentices, Dan Pond; the congregation bought 1.5 acres for a meeting house and burial ground in a rise above the Janesville and Madison Road - now US-14. The land cost ten dollars, they built the meeting house in 1852 or 1853.

The building is 26 by 36 feet. Walls are frame. At the top are frieze boards. Above that are returned eaves - simple features drawn from the Greek Revival style, popular. A wooden stoop spans the front of the building, now rebuilt several times. Inside, a platform spans the west end of the building; the original pews stand in four rows facing the platform. The walls are finished with horizontal wainscoting; the meeting house was dedicated in the fall of 1853, - the first United Brethren building in Wisconsin. The oldest headstones in the cemetery are from the 1850s; some are decorated with "symbols characteristic of the era, such as clasped hands, roses not yet in full bloom, a hand pointing toward heaven."It was in this Rutland meeting house that the Wisconsin Conference of the United Brethren in Christ was organized in 1858. Revival meetings were held at the meeting house, including one led by George K. Little in the summer of 1883. At the end, Little baptized 38 converts in a nearby lake with 3,000 in attendance.

Church membership dropped. In 1903 some women of the congregation formed a group called the Mite Society to maintain the property, but they couldn't keep up with the cemetery, so the Rutland Center Cemetery Association formed in 1908. In 1912 the Conference quit sending a minister to Rutland. A pastor from Janesville came to preach but in 1922 the United Brethren sold the meeting house to the Cemetery Association. In years the building was used from time to time for public events and funerals, Seventh Day Adventist services. In 1974 the Cemetery Association could no longer keep up the cemetery, so deeded it to the town of Rutland. In 2003 the Rutland Church and Cemetery Committee formed to care for the site