A beaker is an archeological term for a small ceramic or metal drinking vessel shaped to be held in the hands. Archaeologists identify several different types including the inverted-bell beaker, the butt beaker, the claw beaker, the rough-cast beaker; when used alone “beaker” refers to the typical form of pottery cups called inverted-bell beakers associated with the European Beaker culture of the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age. The inverted-bell beaker or bell-beaker was first defined as a find-type by Lord Abercromby in the early twentieth century and comes in three distinct forms, the bell beaker, the rarer short-necked beaker, long-necked beaker. There are many variations on these basic types, with inter-grades between them. Bell-beakers have been found from North Africa to southern Scotland, from Portugal to the far east of Europe but is common in the Rhine valley and the coasts of the North Sea. “Typical” bell beakers appear to be the earliest type and are covered with decoration made from impressing twisted cord into the unfired clay.
When the decoration covers the whole vessel they are known as all-over corded beakers. Where comb designs are used along with cord impressions they are called all-over ornamented beakers; some have a looped handle on one side or a white coloured material pressed into the decoration, contrasting with the usual orange or brown ceramic. The traditional archeological interpretation is that the original, typical bell-beaker shape was replaced by the short-necked form, which in turn was replaced by long-necked bell-beakers. However, work by Humphrey Case in the 1990s suggests that all three styles were used contemporaneously, with different shapes used for different purposes. Beaker Beaker Beaker culture Pottery Darvill, Tim. Oxford Concise Dictionary of Archaeology. Oxford University Press. A bell beaker from Kent, England
A beaker is a beverage container, a term used in parts of the UK. A beaker is a non-disposable plastic or ceramic cup or mug without a handle, much like a laboratory beaker. Beaker is commonly used to describe a lidded cup designed for toddlers or small children, with a no-spill mouthpiece incorporated into the lid. In North American English, the term is exclusively used in the laboratory context. Shaped vessels in North American are referred to as tumblers. Beaker Beaker Beaker Häufebecher
A beaker is a cylindrical container with a flat bottom. Most have a small spout to aid pouring, as shown in the picture. Beakers are available in a wide range of sizes, from one millilitre up to several litres. Standard or "low-form" beakers have a height about 1.4 times the diameter. The common low form with a spout was devised by John Joseph Griffin and is therefore sometimes called a Griffin beaker; these are the most universal character and are used for various purposes—from preparing solutions and decanting supernatant fluids to holding waste fluids prior to disposal to performing simple reactions. In short, low form beakers are to be used in some way when performing just about any chemical experiment. "Tall-form" beakers have a height about twice their diameter. These are sometimes called Berzelius beakers and are used for titration. Flat beakers are called crystallizers because most are used to perform crystallization, but they are often used as a vessel for use in hot-bath heating; these beakers do not have a flat scale.
A beaker is distinguished from a flask by having straight rather than sloping sides. The exception to this definition is a conical-sided beaker called a Philips beaker. Beakers are made of glass, but can be in metal or certain plastics. A common use for polypropylene beakers is gamma spectral analysis of solid samples. Beakers are graduated, that is, marked on the side with lines indicating the volume contained. For instance, a 250 mL beaker might be marked with lines to indicate 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 mL of volume; these marks are not intended for obtaining a precise measurement of volume, but rather an estimation. Most beakers are accurate to within ~10%; the presence of a spout means. However, when in use, beakers may be covered by a watch glass to prevent contamination or loss of the contents, but allowing venting via the spout. Alternatively, a beaker may be covered with another larger beaker, inverted, though a watch glass is preferable. DIN EN ISO 3819:2015-12 defines the following types and sizes: Beaker Beaker Beaker Volumetric flask Stirring rod Test tube Graduated cylinder Scoop ASTM E960 - 93 Standard Specification for Laboratory Glass Beakers The dictionary definition of beaker at Wiktionary Media related to Beaker at Wikimedia Commons
Beaker is a Muppet character from The Muppet Show. He is the shy, long-suffering assistant of Dr. Bunsen Honeydew, is named after a piece of laboratory equipment. During the first season of The Muppet Show, Dr. Honeydew presented the Muppet Labs segments by himself. Beaker has bulging eyes, a shock of red hair, a drawbridge mouth which serves as a frown, he was puppeteered and voiced by Richard Hunt until Hunt's death in 1992, when the role was taken over by Steve Whitmire. After Whitmire was fired in 2016, David Rudman took over the character. Beaker is a magnet for disaster. Beaker communicates in a nervous, high-pitched squeak that sounds like "Mee-mee-mee mee". In books and merchandise, the sound is spelled "Meep". In The Muppet Movie he appeared to say something other than "mee" or "meep". Although he can say normal words at times, such as " Bye-bye." His tone or expression helps to communicate his meaning. Beaker became a favorite with audiences, who both sympathized with and enjoyed laughing at his humorous sufferings.
Beaker was able to take revenge in a segment when he inadvertently made numerous copies of himself and spent the rest of the episode chasing Dr. Honeydew around the theater. In the 2008 TV special, A Muppets Christmas: Letters to Santa, Beaker is more fortunate when he tests a wish machine and gets the company of model Petra Němcová, not only refuses Honeydew's order to send her back, but also teleports away with her to enjoy his first wish for the rest of the story... Beaker has appeared as a musical performer, singing "Danny Boy," "Carol of the Bells," and "Habanera" with the Swedish Chef and Animal, "Feelings" and "Dust in the wind" solo, he sang "Ode to Joy" with his clones who were accidentally formed by Dr. Honeydew's copying machine; the "Danny Boy" performance was marked by the Chef's singing in his trademark gibberish and Animal's inability to remember anything but the first three words. For "Feelings," Animal had to shush the unruly crowd so Beaker could finish: "QUIET!!... Thank you."
In the 2011 film The Muppets, Beaker sang a comedic a cappella version of Nirvana's "Smells Like Teen Spirit" as part of a barbershop quartet with Sam the Eagle, Rowlf the Dog and Link Hogthrob. Because of Disney's designation of the Muppets franchise as being for family audiences, Beaker was given a crucial role replacing the song's more questionable lines like "a mulatto" and "my libido" with "mee-mee-mee-mo."The two scientists were incorporated into the Muppet Babies animated series. Howie Mandel and Dave Coulier voiced Bunsen, Frank Welker provided Beaker's squeaky meeps. Beaker was performed by Kevin Clash in The Muppet Show Live. An animated Beaker was voiced by Richard Hunt, his usual performer during that period, when he appeared in the short lived Little Muppet Monsters series. Beaker's "meep" sound has become a well-known catchphrase, is referenced in various media. In a 2004 Internet poll sponsored by the BBC and the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Beaker and Dr. Bunsen Honeydew were voted Britain's favourite cinematic scientists.
They beat their closest rival, by two-to-one, winning a third of the total votes. Beaker features in an episode of WWE Raw, assisting Santino Marella ringside in his match with Jack Swagger by providing him with a special energy drink formulated by Dr. Honeydew. In the same episode, Beaker is revealed to be distantly related to WWE wrestler Sheamus. UK politicians Danny Alexander and Ed Miliband have both been disparagingly likened to Beaker in appearance. Beaker Muppet Mobile Lab Beaker on Muppet Wiki Disney's Muppets.com
The Bell Beaker culture or short Beaker culture, is an archaeological culture named after the inverted-bell beaker drinking vessel used at the beginning of the European Bronze Age. Arising from around 2800 BC, lasting in continental Europe until 2300 BC, succeeded by the Unetice culture, in Britain until as late as 1800 BC; the culture was scattered throughout Western Europe, from various regions in Iberia and spots facing northern Africa to the Danubian plains, the British Isles, the islands of Sicily and Sardinia. The Bell Beaker culture follows the Corded Ware culture and for north-central Europe the Funnelbeaker culture; the name Glockenbecher was coined for its distinctive style of beakers by Paul Reinecke in 1900. The term's English translation Bell Beaker was introduced by John Abercromby in 1904. In its early phase, the Bell Beaker culture can be seen as the western contemporary of the Corded Ware culture of Central Europe. From about 2400 BC, the "Beaker folk" expanded eastwards, into the Corded Ware horizon.
In parts of Central and Eastern Europe – as far east as Poland – a sequence occurs from Corded Ware to Bell Beaker. This period marks a period of cultural contact in Atlantic and Western Europe following a prolonged period of relative isolation during the Neolithic. In its mature phase, the Bell Beaker culture is understood as not only a collection of characteristic artefact types, but a complex cultural phenomenon involving metalwork in copper and gold, specific types of ornamentation, shared ideological and religious ideas. A wide range of regional diversity persists within the widespread late Beaker culture in local burial styles, housing styles, economic profile, local ceramic wares. While Bell Beaker was introduced as a term for the artefact type at the beginning of the 20th century, recognition of an archaeological Bell Beaker culture has long been controversial, its spread has been one of the central questions of the migrationism vs. diffusionism debate in 20th-century archaeology, variously described as due to migration of small groups of warriors, craftsmen or traders, or due to the diffusion of ideas and object exchange.
Gordon Childe interpreted the presence of its characteristic artefact as the intrusion of "missionaries" expanding from Iberia along the Atlantic coast, spreading knowledge of copper metallurgy. Stephen Shennan interpreted the artefacts as belonging to a mobile cultural elite imposing itself over the indigenous substrate populations. Sangmeister interpreted the "Beaker folk" as small groups of mobile traders and artisans. Christian Strahm used the term "Bell Beaker phenomenon" as a compromise in order to avoid the term "culture"; the Bell Beaker artefacts at least in their early phase are not distributed across a contiguous areal as is usual for archaeological cultures, but are found in insular concentrations scattered across Europe. Their presence is not associated of burial customs. However, the Bell Beaker culture does appear to coalesce into a coherent archaeological culture in its phase. More recent analyses of the "Beaker phenomenon", published since the 2000s, have persisted in describing the origin of the "Beaker phenomenon" as arising from a synthesis of elements, representing "an idea and style uniting different regions with different cultural traditions and background."Archaeogenetics studies of the 2010s have been able to resolve the "migrationist vs. diffusionist" question to some extent.
The study by Olalde et al. found only "limited genetic affinity" between individuals associated with the Beaker complex in Iberia and in Central Europe, suggesting that migration played a limited role in its early spread. However, the same study found that the further dissemination of the mature Beaker complex was strongly linked to migration; this is true for Britain, where the spread of the Beaker culture introduced high levels of steppe-related ancestry, resulting in a near-complete transformation of the local gene pool within a few centuries, to the point of replacement of about 90% of the local Mesolithic-derived lineages. The origin of the "Bell Beaker" artefact itself has been traced to the early 3rd millennium, early examples of the "maritime" Bell Beaker design have been found at the Tagus estuary in Portugal, radiocarbon dated to c. the 28th century BC. The inspiration for the Maritime Bell Beaker is argued to have been the small and earlier Copoz beakers that have impressed decoration and which are found around the Tagus estuary in Portugal.
Turek sees late Neolithic precursors in northern Africa, arguing the Maritime style emerged as a result of seaborne contacts between Iberia and Morocco in the first half of the third millennium BCE. AOO and AOC Beakers appear to have evolved continually from a pre-Beaker period in the lower Rhine and North Sea regions, at least for Northern and Central Europe. Heyd concluded that the Bell Beaker culture was intrusive to southern Germany which existed contemporarily with the local Corded Ware culture. Conversely, the burial ritual which typified Bell Beaker sites appears to be intrusive to Western Europe, from Central Europe. Individual inhumations under tumuli with the inclusion of weapons contrast markedly to the preceding Neolithic traditions of collective, weaponless burials in Atlantic/Western Europe; such an arrangement is rather derivative of Corded Ware traditions. The initial moves from the Tagus estuary were maritime. A southern move led to the Mediterranean where'enclaves' were established in south-western Spain and southe
Peer-to-peer computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers. Peers are privileged, equipotent participants in the application, they are said to form a peer-to-peer network of nodes. Peers make a portion of their resources, such as processing power, disk storage or network bandwidth, directly available to other network participants, without the need for central coordination by servers or stable hosts. Peers are both suppliers and consumers of resources, in contrast to the traditional client-server model in which the consumption and supply of resources is divided. Emerging collaborative P2P systems are going beyond the era of peers doing similar things while sharing resources, are looking for diverse peers that can bring in unique resources and capabilities to a virtual community thereby empowering it to engage in greater tasks beyond those that can be accomplished by individual peers, yet that are beneficial to all the peers.
While P2P systems had been used in many application domains, the architecture was popularized by the file sharing system Napster released in 1999. The concept has inspired new philosophies in many areas of human interaction. In such social contexts, peer-to-peer as a meme refers to the egalitarian social networking that has emerged throughout society, enabled by Internet technologies in general. While P2P systems had been used in many application domains, the concept was popularized by file sharing systems such as the music-sharing application Napster; the peer-to-peer movement allowed millions of Internet users to connect "directly, forming groups and collaborating to become user-created search engines, virtual supercomputers, filesystems." The basic concept of peer-to-peer computing was envisioned in earlier software systems and networking discussions, reaching back to principles stated in the first Request for Comments, RFC 1. Tim Berners-Lee's vision for the World Wide Web was close to a P2P network in that it assumed each user of the web would be an active editor and contributor and linking content to form an interlinked "web" of links.
The early Internet was more open than present day, where two machines connected to the Internet could send packets to each other without firewalls and other security measures. This contrasts to the broadcasting-like structure of the web; as a precursor to the Internet, ARPANET was a successful client-server network where "every participating node could request and serve content." However, ARPANET was not self-organized, it lacked the ability to "provide any means for context or content-based routing beyond'simple' address-based routing."Therefore, USENET, a distributed messaging system, described as an early peer-to-peer architecture, was established. It was developed in 1979 as a system; the basic model is a client-server model from the user or client perspective that offers a self-organizing approach to newsgroup servers. However, news servers communicate with one another as peers to propagate Usenet news articles over the entire group of network servers; the same consideration applies to SMTP email in the sense that the core email-relaying network of mail transfer agents has a peer-to-peer character, while the periphery of e-mail clients and their direct connections is a client-server relationship.
In May 1999, with millions more people on the Internet, Shawn Fanning introduced the music and file-sharing application called Napster. Napster was the beginning of peer-to-peer networks, as we know them today, where "participating users establish a virtual network independent from the physical network, without having to obey any administrative authorities or restrictions." A peer-to-peer network is designed around the notion of equal peer nodes functioning as both "clients" and "servers" to the other nodes on the network. This model of network arrangement differs from the client–server model where communication is to and from a central server. A typical example of a file transfer that uses the client-server model is the File Transfer Protocol service in which the client and server programs are distinct: the clients initiate the transfer, the servers satisfy these requests. Peer-to-peer networks implement some form of virtual overlay network on top of the physical network topology, where the nodes in the overlay form a subset of the nodes in the physical network.
Data is still exchanged directly over the underlying TCP/IP network, but at the application layer peers are able to communicate with each other directly, via the logical overlay links. Overlays are used for indexing and peer discovery, make the P2P system independent from the physical network topology. Based on how the nodes are linked to each other within the overlay network, how resources are indexed and located, we can classify networks as unstructured or structured. Unstructured peer-to-peer networks do not impose a particular structure on the overlay network by design, but rather are formed by nodes that randomly form connections to each other.. Because there is no structure globally imposed upon them, unstructured networks are easy to build and allow for localized optimizations to different regions of the overlay; because the role of all peers in the network is the same, unstructured networks are robust in the face of high rates of "churn"—that is, when large numbers of peers are joining and leaving the network.