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Beam-powered propulsion

Beam-powered propulsion known as directed energy propulsion, is a class of aircraft or spacecraft propulsion that uses energy beamed to the spacecraft from a remote power plant to provide energy. The beam is either a microwave or a laser beam and it is either pulsed or continuous. A continuous beam lends itself to thermal rockets, photonic thrusters and light sails, whereas a pulsed beam lends itself to ablative thrusters and pulse detonation engines; the rule of thumb, quoted is that it takes a megawatt of power beamed to a vehicle per kg of payload while it is being accelerated to permit it to reach low earth orbit. Other than launching to orbit, applications for moving around the world have been proposed. Rockets are momentum machines. Momentum is the product of mass and velocity, so rockets attempt to put as much velocity into their working mass as possible, thereby minimizing the amount of working mass, needed. In order to accelerate the working mass, energy is required. In a conventional rocket, the fuel is chemically combined to provide the energy, the resulting fuel products, the ash or exhaust, are used as the working mass.

There is no particular reason why the same fuel has to be used for both momentum. In the jet engine, for instance, the fuel is used only to produce energy, the working mass is provided from the air that the jet aircraft flies through. In modern jet engines, the amount of air propelled is much greater than the amount of air used for energy; this is not a solution for the rocket, however, as they climb to altitudes where the air is too thin to be useful as a source of working mass. Rockets can, carry their working mass and use some other source of energy; the problem is finding an energy source with a power-to-weight ratio that competes with chemical fuels. Small nuclear reactors can compete in this regard, considerable work on nuclear thermal propulsion was carried out in the 1960s, but environmental concerns and rising costs led to the ending of most of these programs. A further improvement can be made by removing the energy creation from the spacecraft. If the nuclear reactor is left on the ground and its energy transmitted to the spacecraft, the weight of the reactor is removed as well.

The issue is to get the energy into the spacecraft. This is the idea behind beamed power. With beamed propulsion one can leave the power-source stationary on the ground, directly heat propellant on the spacecraft with a maser or a laser beam from a fixed installation; this permits the spacecraft to leave its power-source at home, saving significant amounts of mass improving performance. Since a laser can heat propellant to high temperatures, this greatly improves the efficiency of a rocket, as exhaust velocity is proportional to the square root of the temperature. Normal chemical rockets have an exhaust speed limited by the fixed amount of energy in the propellants, but beamed propulsion systems have no particular theoretical limit. In microwave thermal propulsion, an external microwave beam is used to heat a refractory heat exchanger to >1,500 K, in turn heating a propellant such as hydrogen, methane or ammonia. This improves the specific impulse and thrust/weight ratio of the propulsion system relative to conventional rocket propulsion.

For example, hydrogen can provide a specific impulse of 700–900 seconds and a thrust/weight ratio of 50-150. A variation, developed by brothers James Benford and Gregory Benford, is to use thermal desorption of propellant trapped in the material of a large microwave sail; this produces a high acceleration compared to microwave pushed sails alone. Some proposed spacecraft propulsion mechanisms use Electrically powered spacecraft propulsion, in which electrical energy is used by an electrically powered rocket engine, such as an ion thruster or plasma propulsion engine; these schemes assume either solar panels, or an on-board reactor. However, both power sources are heavy. Beamed propulsion in the form of laser can be used to send power to a photovoltaic panel, for Laser electric propulsion. In this system, if high intensity is incident on the solar array, careful design of the panels is necessary to avoid a fall-off of the conversion efficiency due to heating effects. John Brophy has analyzed transmission of laser power to a photovoltaic array powering a high-efficiency electric propulsion system as a means of accomplishing high delta-V missions such as an interstellar precursor mission in a NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts project.

A microwave beam could be used to send power for microwave electric propulsion. Microwave broadcast power has been demonstrated several times, rectennas are lightweight and can handle high power at high conversion efficiency. However, rectennas tend to need to be large for a significant amount of power to be captured. A beam could be used to provide impulse by directly "pushing" on the sail. One example of this would be using a solar sail to reflect a laser beam; this concept, called a laser-pushed lightsail, was proposed by Marx but first analyzed in detail, elaborated on, by physicist Robert L. Forward in 1989 as a method of Interstellar travel that would avoid high mass ratios by not carrying fuel. Further analysis of the concept was done by Landis and Matloff, Andrews Lubin, others. In a paper, Forward proposed pushing a sail with a microwave beam; this has the advantage. Forward tagged his proposal for an ultralight sail "Starwis

Geronimo B. de los Reyes Jr.

Geronimo Berenguer de los Reyes Jr. is a Filipino entrepreneur and art collector. He is the chairman of Gateway Business Park in Cavite. Established in 1990, the park houses Philippine-based industrial companies, he was educated at Colegio de San Juan de Letran. Geronimo B. de los Reyes Jr. is the son of a well-known entrepreneur. His father is known to have owned the old Geronimo de los Reyes Building in Manila, designed by Julio Nakpil. However, in the advent of World War II, the family fortune was wiped out and at the young age of ten, de los Reyes, along with his brothers, had to fend for themselves. At 19, de los Reyes was first employed by an international airline, he worked irregular hours, carried baggage and cargo, slept on a cardboard mat on the floor of the office for years, at the old airport in Paranaque. His life would change on June 1, 1958, when he was able to demonstrate his professional abilities at a time of crisis; the Pan Am Clipper, Golden Gate Flight 439, N1023V crashed on landing in Manila during a rain storm.

Mr. de los Reyes was the first ramp person to enter the plane and assist with the evacuation of the passengers. He took care of their needs while they waited for emergency services that were delayed by the rain, he was invited to New York to meet with Juan Trippe. This recognition of his hard work and persistence, led to the company granting him favorable hours, allowing him to take evening classes to finish college. After graduating magna cum laude in Management and Finance, de los Reyes headed the Sales and Architectural/Building Division of Reynolds Aluminum, he was sent to US by the company for further studies. De los Reyes has acquired 12 corporations involved in the trading and supply of building products and accessories, he has ventured into land development, construction of condominium apartments and the Gateway Business Park, an industrial estate in Cavite. GBP is Cavite’s premier industrial park, on 180 hectares in General Trias. De los Reyes’ real estate and construction achievements include the Pacific Plaza high-rise building in Ayala Avenue in Makati, dozens of edifices, as well as the Gateway Business and Industrial Park.

A main beneficiary of his philanthropy has been the Geronimo B. de los Reyes Foundation, Inc. which promotes education by providing scholarships for poor children. The foundation supports faculty development and research studies on the graduate school level; the foundation assists in preserving the environment through a centralized waste water plant at GBP, conducts seminars on environmental care. De los Reyes was an Outstanding Manilan awardee in 2012. Former Manila Mayor Alfredo Lim awarded him as the Guardian of Historical Records and Philanthropy. In September 1996, de los Reyes opened a museum with photographs of the Philippine Revolution, the Filipino-American War, the Philippines at the turn of the century; the Geronimo Berenguer de los Reyes Jr. Museum, located at the Gateway Business Park in General Trias, showcases the Philippine heritage; the museum houses the archives of history with presentation of Philippine antiquarium, 19th and 20th century photographs, including the most dramatic image taken during the execution of Dr. Jose P. Rizal in Bagumbayan in Manila.

The GBR Museum book collection and 1,809 woodcut prints include a 15th-century illustration of Jerusalem. It houses an antique map collection housed in a pavilion, which includes maps drawn by historic cartographers such as Ortelius, Hondius and Dudley; the first map of the Philippines, made by Petrus Kaerius in 1598, is displayed alongside the most famous Philippine map, that of Pedro Murillo Velardo, with its illustrated border panels depicting native life, customs and fauna. In December 2007, the Parish of Our Lady of Guadalupe opened in Cavite; the parish, made possible by de los Reyes, was patterned after the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe at the hills of Guadalupe in Mexico. It can sit 800 people. In the same year after its completion, de los Reyes donated the parish to the diocese. Geronimo B. de los Reyes GBR Museum

Britz (TV serial)

Britz is a two-part drama serial written and directed by BAFTA-winning director Peter Kosminsky and first screened by Channel 4 in the United Kingdom in October and November 2007. Britz attempts to understand what would lead a second generation Muslim to turn against the country of their birth; the film makes references to the July 2005 London bombings, the 2006 Forest Gate raid. The story concerns two siblings and Nasima Wahid, who have been brought up in Bradford, West Yorkshire, a city with a large British Pakistani population. Both are now Sohail studying law in London and Nasima studying medicine in Leeds. With new government anti-terrorism legislation being used against Muslims in the UK in the wake of the September 11 attacks in New York and Nasima are drawn in radically different directions. Without telling any of his family or friends, Sohail becomes a member of MI5, while continuing his studies, in the belief that he hopes to help to stop terrorists before the situation deteriorates further.

In doing so, he learns that some of childhood friends are politically militant. Nasima is trying to integrate into British society, attending medical school and dates a black British man; when her family finds out they send her back to Pakistan for a forced arranged marriage. Her boyfriend follows her, where he is beaten and imprisoned by her extended Pakistani family and is only saved by Sohail's intervention, she had planned to meet the head of a terrorist training camp, these events lead her to make her decision. She leaves behind her personal belongings and the terrorist group fake her death using a local female; this means she no longer exists and gives her the perfect opportunity not to change her mind and carry out her intentions of a mass suicide bombing. Part one of the story is told from Sohail's point of view, while part two is from Nasima's point of view; the serial was filmed in London, Bradford and Hyderabad, not Rawalpindi though part of the story is set there in Part II. The DVD was released in the UK on 5 November 2007.

Channel 4 web entry Interview with the director Peter Kosminsky - Telegraph'Britz’ blew its credibility in the final minute - Telegraph Britz on IMDb

David Eldon

David Gordon Eldon is former chairman of The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited. He retired after spending 37 years with HSBC Group, he made a return to banking in 2011 and as of June 2015 holds the positions of non-executive Chairman of HSBC Bank Middle East, HSBC Bank Oman SAOG, is Chairman of HSBC's Global Commercial Bank Risk Committee. He was a Senior Adviser to PricewaterhouseCoopers in Hong Kong and China from September 2005 until 2014, he commenced a career in banking with an Australian banking group in London in 1964, joined The British Bank of the Middle East in 1968. In January that year he took up his first position in Dubai, remaining in the Middle East undertaking a variety of roles in different countries, he was appointed Manager of Sharjah branch in 1973 and Manager of Ras Al Khaimah branch in 1977. He took up his first position in Hong Kong in 1979 as Manager Special Projects in the head office of The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, he became a District Manager, with responsibility for the Bank's branches in Mongkok.

Eldon was appointed Deputy managing director of The Saudi British Bank in 1984 and returned to Hong Kong in 1987, when he took up the position of Senior Manager. At the end of 1988, he was appointed chief executive officer in Malaysia, was promoted to general manager in 1990, he returned to Hong Kong again in 1992 and became general manager in The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation's International department. He became an Executive Director of The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation in 1994 and chief executive officer of the Bank in January 1996. In January 1999, he was appointed Chairman of The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and the Executive Director of HSBC Holdings, he was non-executive Chairman of Hang Seng Bank Limited, a director of HSBC Bank Australia Limited, a director of the MTR Corporation, a director of Swire Pacific Limited, Deputy Chairman of The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Chairman of the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce and Chairman of the Dubai International Financial Centre Authority.

He was a member of the Presidential Committee for National Competitiveness of President of South Korea Lee Myung-bak. Now, he is Senior independent director of the Noble Group, a Director of the DIFC Higher Board in Dubai, member of a number of other Boards, Advisory Boards and Hong Kong Government entities. In 2005, Eldon retired, but returned to HSBC in 2011, as non-executive director and chairman of HSBC Bank in the Middle East. In 2013, he became the Chairman of HSBC Bank Oman. Eldon maintains a blog. In 2014, Eldon attracted attention after posting comments about Hong Kong’s Chief Executive Leung Chun-ying, saying that pro-democracy protesters should "move on from the current impasse" during the 2014 Hong Kong protests; this had led to HSBC feeling the need to comment that the views expressed were his own, not a company view on the matters. Born in Inverness, Eldon was educated at the Duke of York's Royal Military School. Eldon has three children. One of his two sons is working in Hong Kong, Australia.

His daughter is living and working in Hong Kong. Eldon continues to live in Hong Kong, where he has spent about a third of his life, he intends to remain in Hong Kong. Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Bankers Fellow of the Hong Kong Institute of Bankers Justice of the Peace Honorary Doctor of Business Administration of the City University of Hong Kong DHL/SCMP Hong Kong Business Person of the Year for 2003 Gold Bauhinia Star Commander of the Order of the British Empire Asian Banker Lifetime Achievement Award Honorary Citizenship of Seoul Honorary Doctor of the Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts Source: Eldon-Online Blog

Jay Peak (Vermont)

Jay Peak is a mountain located about 5 mi. south of the Canada–US border, in Jay and Westfield, Orleans County, Vermont, of which it is the highest point. Most of the mountain is in Jay State Forest; the mountain is named for the town of Jay in which much of the mountain except the peak area is located. The town of Jay, in turn, is named for the First Chief Justice of the United States and local landholder, John Jay, it is part of the northern Green Mountains. The mountain is flanked to the southwest by Big Jay, to the north by North Jay Peak; the mountain is in the watershed of the Missisquoi River, which drains into Lake Champlain, thence into Canada's Richelieu River, the Saint Lawrence River, into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The south side of the mountain drains into Jay Brook, thence west into the Trout River and the Missisquoi River; the northwest side of the mountain drains into Black Falls Brook, thence into the Trout River. The north and northeast sides of the mountain drain east into the Jay Branch of the Missisquoi River.

Jay Peak is the northernmost major mountain crossed by the Long Trail, a 272-mile hiking trail running the length of Vermont. The Jay Peak Resort is on the northeast side of Jay Peak. On November 10, 1943, a Royal Canadian Air Force training plane crashed into the west side of the mountain near the top during a blinding snowfall killing one crew member. In the mid 1950s brothers Ernest W. Gilpin and Wallace H. Gilpin, both state legislators and newspaper men and achieved their campaign to construct a highway over Jay Peak, to connect Troy to Montgomery,_Vermont; the Starr family of Troy donated portions of land for the right-of-way for the Vermont Route 242 construction. The peaks across the highway to the south are named for the brothers Gilpin, "Gilpin Mountain," a stone monument was dedicated to them and sits at the main entrance to the Jay Peak Resort at the highway. List of mountains in Vermont New England Fifty Finest New England Hundred Highest Jay Peak Resort "Jay Peak". Geographic Names Information System.

United States Geological Survey

Celebrated Summer

"Celebrated Summer" is a song by Hüsker Dü from their album New Day Rising. It was written by guitarist Bob Mould; the song was released as a promotional single given to radio stations in December 1984, along with the album's title track, "New Day Rising". The song is known for its opening guitar riff, as well as its twelve-string acoustic guitar breaks towards the middle and at the end of the song; this was something, different for a band labeled as hardcore punk, although the song "Never Talking To You Again" from their previous album, Zen Arcade, had been recorded with an acoustic guitar. The lyrics of the song recall summers past with lines like "Getting drunk out on the beach or playing in a band / Getting out of school meant getting out of hand" as well as its chorus of "Is this your celebrated summer? / Was that your celebrated summer?". The song was called "a prime example of Hüsker Dü's unique ability to combine wistful tender moments with the hardest elements of rock & roll" in a review on AllMusic.

The reviewer added that "Celebrated Summer" is "a step toward the mainstream — unflinchingly melodic and well-produced — but it never compromises the passionate spirit of the band nor the ferocious energy that fuels them."In subsequent live performances of the song after Hüsker Dü's breakup, Mould changed the wording of the chorus from "celebrated summer" to "celebrated summertime". In 1996, the song was covered by the thrash metal band Anthrax; the song was covered by singer songwriter Mark Kozelek as part of The Finally LP released in 2008. In 2005, a punk/hardcore record store opened in MD naming itself after the song. A side Celebrated Summer B side New Day Rising Hüsker Dü annotated discography "Celebrated Summer" at Allmusic