Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences
The School of Arts and Sciences, which students are now required to call the Kenneth P. Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences in all communications, is one of the 17 schools and colleges of University of Pittsburgh located in Pittsburgh, PA. A direct descendent of the Pittsburgh Academy chartered in 1787, the oldest part of the university, the school serves as the liberal arts core of the university and provides instruction in natural sciences and social sciences for all students studying at the Oakland campus, including more than 10,000 students registered as Arts and Sciences undergraduates. In addition, the School of Arts and Sciences educates 15% of the University’s graduate and graduate professional students, making it the largest graduate program in the Pittsburgh area. Founded by Hugh Henry Brackenridge as the Pittsburgh Academy and chartered in 1787, the School of Arts and Sciences may have grown out of a school, active before the charter was granted as early as 1770, thus the SAS began its life as a preparatory school in a log cabin, in what is now downtown Pittsburgh, on the frontier of the United States.
The school was established on the principles of teaching the rudiments of the "sacred six" of the Scottish universities, as Brackenridge was himself Scottish. Within a short period, more advanced education in the area was needed, so in 1819 the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania amended the school's 1787 charter to confer university status; the school took the name the Western University of Pennsylvania. By the 1830s, the school faced severe financial pressure to abandon its traditional liberal education in favor of the state legislature's desire for it to provide more vocational training; the decision to remain committed to liberal education nearly ended the university, but it persevered despite its abandonment by the city and state. Similar pressure to abandon the liberal arts focus of the school occurred again between 1902 and 1908 when industrial development in the region was attracting more students to technical trades. Financial pressure mounted to abandon the traditional liberal arts curriculum and focus on more vocational training, but petitions from students, alumni and some trustees kept the original mission intact.
Out of the school, which by was referred to as "the College", came the genesis for some of the university's other schools, such as the School of Engineering and School of Law. Both continued to require the traditional classical studies for a bachelor's degree, but they began to formally separate around the time when the university moved to its new location in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, when it changed its name to the University of Pittsburgh in 1908. With the formal separation from the school of engineering, the school became known as the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. Several of the school's departments, like mathematics and chemistry, have an unbroken line of professors from the Pittsburgh Academy. Courses such as astronomy, English, modern languages, classics, are descended from the academy and resemble the course listings of the day. In the summer of 2006, the School of Arts and Sciences began to oversee the administration of the University’s College of General Studies, expanding the community of Arts and Sciences learners to include nontraditional students.
On September 22, 2011, it was announced that an alumnus of the school's Department of Political Science, William S. Dietrich II, had donated $125 million to the university, the largest donation to the university up until that time, that the university would rename the School of Arts and Sciences to honor his father, Kenneth; the school's current dean is Norman John Cooper. The School of Arts and Sciences graduate programs offer MA, MS, MFA, PhD programs in 34 concentrations, as well as a wide range of interdisciplinary programs. *also available as a minor Certificate programs allow students to complete a concentrated area of study in addition to their major. Certificates require 18-24 credits, are noted the student's transcript upon graduation. Certificates can be obtained from the University Center for International Studies. Many of the programs offered within the School of Arts and Sciences are considered among the best in the nation. For instance, the Department of Philosophy, is considered one of the top five in the United States, the Department of History and Philosophy of Science ranked at the top of the field.
Other rankings, including those by the National Research Council and US News & World Report, include the following programs among the best in the nation: *National Research Council^ US News & World Report America's Best Graduate Programs Official website
University of Pittsburgh College of General Studies
The College of General Studies is one of the 17 schools within the University of Pittsburgh located in Pittsburgh, PA. The College of General Studies offers programs of special interest to adults and non-traditional students, including baccalaureate degrees and post-baccalaureate certificates; the fourth largest undergraduate unit at the University of Pittsburgh, the administration of the College of General Studies is overseen by the School of Arts and Sciences. The College of General Studies evolved from the 1908 Downtown Division of the Pittsburgh Academy, it became the Department of Afternoon and Evening Studies in 1911 when it moved from Downtown to Oakland and began offering a limited number of off-campus courses. By 1920, Pitt had expanded its off-campus offerings to 19 locations in western Pennsylvania and Ohio, including Erie and Youngstown. In 1932, Pitt established the University Extension Division, which became known informally as the evening program, with its director reporting directly to the chancellor.
On March 11, 1958, the Pitt Board of Trustees, following a recommendation by Chancellor Edward Litchfield, approved the establishment of the School of General Studies as an alternative for adults wishing to continuing education. Enrollment in the School of General Studies peaked at 18,930 during the 1974-75 academic year, the vast majority of which were part-time students. In 1981, the School of General Studies was renamed the College of General Studies to reflect that its degree was comparable to an Arts and Sciences degree. In the early 1990s, the College of General Studies offered as many as 30 degree majors, downgraded to ten in 1998-99 in order to eliminate duplication with majors offered in other Pitt units. In 2002 the McCarl Center for Nontraditional Student Success open followed by a major restructuring of the College of General Studies in 2003; the Osher Lifelong Learning Institute, for those 50 years old and older, CGSOnline was established in 2005. 1958-1971 Viers WIlson Adams 1971-1983 J. Steele Gow Jr. 1983-1994 John Bolvin 1994-1996 Robert Comfort 1996-1997 Robert Carter 1997-1999 Jack Daniel 1999-2006 Susan R. Kinsey 2006–present N. John Cooper Originally located on the fourth floor of the Cathedral of Learning, the 2,500-square-foot $537,000 McCarl Center was opened in 2002 and occupies space that once housed two levels of the main stacks of the University's library.
Made possible by a gift from F. James and Foster J. J. McCarl, it hosts seminars and events; the space was designed by Alan J. Cueri and his architectural firm Strada, LLC, includes wood finishes, double-height spaces with high ceilings and windows, a main corridor conceived as an interior street, many elements that refer to the Cathedral of Learning's Gothic architecture including decorative painted metal columns with contemporary buttress-style arches; the center included a resource library, meeting rooms, a student lounge, is staffed with academic advisors and has contains a reception area for the College of General Studies. Three unsigned and undated 7 feet by 3 feet glass-encased murals that depict Renaissance painting styles and which have long belonged to the University but are of unknown origin hang in a hallway outside the Center; the College of General Studies, including the McCarl Center, the Office of Veterans Services, the Osher Lifelong Learning Institute, relocated from the Cathedral of Learning to the first floor of Posvar Hall in May, 2014.
Majors offered through the College of General Studies Administration of Justice Dental Hygiene Health Services Health Services Humanities Legal Studies Liberal Studies Media and Professional Communications Natural Sciences Public Service Social Sciences The College of General Studies offers a self designed major, either a BA or BS, for students who want to design a major more suited for their intended career. In addition to these bachelor's degree programs, the College of General Studies offers post-baccalaureate certificates with a number of other units including the College of Business Administration, the University Center for Social and Urban Research, the Center for National Preparedness; the College of General Studies offers about 65 courses across its disciplines through PittOnline web based instruction and has satellite campuses in Butler County, Mt. Lebanon, Monroeville. College of General Studies homepage Historical Renovations: McCarl Center for Nontradional Student Success
Allegheny Cemetery is one of the largest and oldest burial grounds in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. It is a nonsectarian, wooded hillside park located at 4734 Butler Street in the Lawrenceville neighborhood and bounded by the Bloomfield and Stanton Heights areas, it is sited on the north-facing slope of hills above the Allegheny River. In 1973 the cemetery's Butler Street Gatehouse was listed on the National Register of Historic Places and in 1980 the entire cemetery was listed on the National Register. Incorporated in 1844, the Allegheny Cemetery is the sixth oldest rural cemetery in America and has expanded over the years to now encompass 300 acres. Allegheny Cemetery memorializes more than 124,000 people; some of the oldest graves are of soldiers who fought in the French and Indian War, which were moved here from their original burial site at Pittsburgh's Trinity Cathedral downtown. Many notables from the city of Pittsburgh are buried here; the cemetery was amongst those profiled in the PBS documentary A Cemetery Special.
In 1834 three members of the Third Presbyterian Church of Pittsburgh, Dr. J. Ramsey Speer, Stephen Colwell and John Chislett, Sr. tried to establish a rural cemetery near Pittsburgh. Dr. Speer visited several famous rural cemeteries, Mount Auburn Cemetery on Boston, Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia, Green-Wood Cemetery in New York. In 1842 the 100 acre farm of Colonel Bayard was selected for the site. An Act of Incorporation passed the Pennsylvania Legislature and was signed by Gov. David R. Porter on April 24, 1844."Mt. Barney" was selected as the site of a memorial to naval heroes in 1848 and Commodore Joshua Barney and Lt. James L. Parker were reinterred there. Another memorial was erected on Memorial Day, 1937 to the memory of over 7,000 servicemen buried in the cemetery. Marcus E. Baldwin, Major League Baseball Player Joseph Baker, mayor of Pittsburgh Joshua Barney, Commodore in the United States Navy and American Revolutionary War veteran Richard Biddle, US Congressman Lem Billings and campaigner for John F. Kennedy James Blackmore, Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1872-1875 and 1868-1869.
Francis B. Brewer, US Congressman Don Brockett, motion picture and television actor, "Chef Brockett" on the PBS series Mister Rogers' Neighborhood James W. Brown, US Congressman Eben Byers, wealthy American industrialist and socialite noted for his gruesome death caused by consumption of the radioactive patent medicine Radithor. John Caldwell, Jr. George Westinghouse partner and member of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club Louis Semple Clarke, automotive pioneer, founder of the Autocar Company and member of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club James Wallace Conant, manager of the Schenley Park Casino and Duquesne Gardens and founder of the Western Pennsylvania Hockey League. Beano Cook, college football commentator John Dalzell, US Congressman Cornelius Darragh, US Congressman Ebenezer Denny, first mayor of Pittsburgh, American Revolutionary War veteran Harmar Denny, U. S. Congressman Harmar D. Denny, Jr. US Congressman William J. Diehl, Pittsburgh Mayor Harry Allison Estep, US Congressman John Baptiste Ford, founder of PPG Industries and Ford City, Pennsylvania Walter Forward, United States Secretary of the Treasury Stephen Foster, songwriter Josh Gibson, baseball great of the Negro Leagues Gus Greenlee, Major League Baseball Team Owner Moses Hampton, US Congressman General Alexander Hays William B.
Hays, Pittsburgh mayor Joseph Horne, founder of Pittsburgh department store Horne's the chain of stores closed in 1994 Thomas Marshall Howe, US Congressman Alfred E. Hunt, co-founder of the company that became Alcoa Thomas Irwin, US Congressman William Wallace Irwin, US Congressman, Pittsburgh Mayor William Freame Johnston, Governor of Pennsylvania Samuel Kier, pioneer oil refiner Andrew W. Loomis, US Congressman F. T. F. Lovejoy, associate of Andrew Carnegie William McClelland, US Congressman Charles McClure, US Congressman James McCord, millionaire owner of the oldest hattery west of the Allegheny Mountains and member of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club Henry Sellers McKee, millionaire glass manufacturer, founder of Jeannette and member of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club Robert McKnight, US Congressman William McNair, Pittsburgh mayor Thomas Mellon, founder of Mellon Bank Alexander Pollock Moore, publisher of the Pittsburgh Leader and ambassador, married to actress Lillian Russell James Kennedy Moorhead, US Congressman Philip H. Morgan, jurist, diplomat General James S. Negley, Civil War general and U.
S. Congressman John Neville, American Revolutionary War veteran and tax collector during the Whiskey Rebellion George Tener Oliver, publisher of the Pittsburgh Gazette Times and Chronicle Telegraph, US Senator Alfred L. Pearson, United States Army officer Henry Kirke Porter, US Congressman James Hay Reed, founding partner, Knox & Reed, member of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club John Buchanan Robinson, US Congressman William Robinson, Jr. politician and militia general Calbraith Perry Rodgers, aviation pioneer James Ross, US Sen
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
WPXI, virtual channel 11, is an NBC-affiliated television station licensed to Pittsburgh, United States. The station is owned by the Cox Media Group subsidiary of Atlanta-based Cox Enterprises. WPXI's offices and studios are located on Evergreen Road in the Summer Hill neighborhood of Pittsburgh, its transmitter is located on Television Hill in the Fineview section of the city, on the site of the station's original studio location. On cable, WPXI is carried on Comcast Xfinity channels 12 and 811, Verizon FiOS channels 11 and 511. On September 1, 1957, Pittsburgh's second commercial VHF station signed on as WIIC; the station's construction permit was issued by the Federal Communications Commission in June 1955 to WIIC Incorporated – a joint venture of the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, which owned WWSW radio, Pittsburgh Radio Supply House, the then-owners of WJAS radio. Both radio stations had competed individually for the permit grant along with other applicants. CBS, looking to gain its own full-time affiliate in the market, signed a contract with the then-unnamed channel 11 shortly thereafter.
Before the "freeze" on television station licenses, the two stations were competing for the channel 10 license assigned to Pittsburgh before the FCC reallocated the channels in 1952, with channel 10 going to Altoona. Channel 11, did not sign on for well over two years after its permit was granted; the primary reason for the delay was on the part of WENS-TV, whose application for the permit had been denied and contested the FCC's original decision. In the interim, CBS continued to have most of its programs cleared by Westinghouse-owned KDKA-TV, at the time Pittsburgh's only commercial VHF station; when CBS decided to make KDKA-TV its full-time Pittsburgh affiliate, NBC reached a deal to affiliate with WIIC. As a condition of the license grant, WJAS radio had to be sold; the WJAS interests divested their 50 percent share of WIIC to another local broadcaster. Bill Cardille signed the station on the air. In addition to Cardille, five other announcers that were with the station when it launched in 1957 include Mal Alberts, Bob Cochran, Ed Conway, Len Johnson and Mark Schaefer.
Some of the first original programming to air on WIIC included Studio Wrestling and Chiller Theatre, both hosted by Cardille. Shortly after its sign-on, WIIC was affiliated with the NTA Film Network, sharing the affiliation with KDKA-TV, WTAE-TV, public television station WQED. In 1964, WIIC was sold to current owner Cox Enterprises; the station has been the longest running NBC affiliate under Cox's ownership after its sister stations in Charlotte and Atlanta switched their affiliations to ABC in 1978 and 1980, respectively. In 1970, WIIC made Pittsburgh broadcasting history when Eleanor Schano became the first woman to anchor a newscast solo. Schano hosted a weekly 30-minute public affairs program called Face to Face. Around 1975, Channel 11 branded itself as "e11even". Around 1977, WIIC used the "11 Alive" moniker. WIIC carried the Operation Prime Time package in 1979. On April 20, 1981, the station's call sign was changed to WPXI. Although the station has never had the -TV suffix since adopting the WPXI call sign, the station has on occasion been marketed as WPXI-TV.
The WIIC calls in Pittsburgh were used by a low-powered independent station that ran a music video format. WPXI joined the ad hoc TV network, MGM/UA Premiere Network, with the November 10, 1984 showing of Clash of the Titans. WPXI televised the Jerry Lewis MDA Telethon as the "Love Network" affiliate of the annual fundraiser for the Pittsburgh market, until the Muscular Dystrophy Association decided to move the event from syndication to ABC as the MDA Show of Strength in 2013; the local portion of the telethon continued to be hosted by Bill Cardille until 2012. In 2000, Cox Enterprises purchased WTOV in Steubenville, Ohio and WJAC-TV in Johnstown, Pennsylvania from Sunrise Television; those stations—which are NBC affiliates—often appear in channel lineups for the same viewers that watch WPXI, either by over-the-air signal or via cable provider, due to the proximity of the three stations to each other, were marketed together as a result. Cox changed the stations' on-air appearances to match WPXI's look, despite WPXI changing its own look in 2004.
WTOV still used WPXI's former look until October 2010, WJAC-TV adopted WPXI's current design in October 2011. Over the Labor Day weekend of 2007, WPXI began relocating from its longtime studios at Television Hill in Pittsburgh's Fineview neighborhood after 50 years, to a new studio facility in the city's Summer Hill neighborhood near the Parkway North; the station's transmitter tower continues to be located in the Fineview neighborhood. WPXI began broad
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of
Ivan Maisel is a senior writer for ESPN, covering college football. He had occasional appearances on the network before then. Maisel was born to a Jewish family in Mobile, the son of Freida Gutlow Maisel and real estate developer Herman Maisel, he has one brother, Elliot Maisel, one sister, Kathy Bronstein. An alumnus of Stanford University, Maisel was a college football columnist for the Dallas Morning News from 1987 to 1994 moved to Newsday from 1994 to 1997, he joined Sports Illustrated from 1997 to 2002. He has been on the national college football beat for 23 years—the longest unbroken run of any writer in the country. Ivan Maisel has joked about his odd background, being a Jewish Alabamian, he hosts a regular podcast. His regular guests include a series of conference-specific bloggers. Maisel regularly podcasted with ESPN analyst Beano Cook until Cook's death in October 2012. Maisel's son, went missing and was last seen on Sunday, February 22, 2015 leaving his apartment complex in Rochester, NY.
On Friday, April 18, 2015 a body matching Max Maisel's description was found in Lake Ontario. On April 21, 2015 Max's body was positively identified. Max was a junior professional photographic illustration student at RIT. Maisel would say "circumstantial evidence" pointed to suicide as the cause of Max's death. In September 2018, Maisel authored a story about the death of Tyler Hilinski, a Washington State quarterback who died by suicide, Maisel's bond with the Hilinski family. Biography at ESPN